Internal and External Determinants of Behavior in Psychodynamic Theories

  • Paul L. Wachtel


The distinction between inner and outer determinants of behavior, or some variant of that distinction, has been common in discourses on human behavior from the time of the Greek philosophers to the most recent A.P.A. journal. Although not identical to the inner-outer question, questions of freedom versus determinism, of responsibility and punishment versus rehabilitation, of environmentalism versus instinctualism or environmentalism versus mentalism, of organismic versus conditioning models, and many other recurrent themes and debates are clearly recognizable as, so to speak, loading on the same factor.


Psychoanalytic Theorize Personality Research Unconscious Process Life Pattern Academic Psychologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bowers, K.S. Situationism in psychology: An analysis and a critique. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 307–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Breuer, J., and Freud, S. (1895) Studies on hysteria. Standard Edition (Vol. 2). London: Hogarth, 1955.Google Scholar
  3. Dollard, J., and Miller, N.E. Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  4. Erikson, E.H. Childhood and society, 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. Klein, C.S. Psychoanalytic theory: An exploration of essentials. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Schafer, R. Aspects of internalization. New York: International Universities Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  7. Schafer, R. Internalization: Process or fantasy? Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1972, Vol. 27.Google Scholar
  8. Stone, L. The psychoanalytic situation. New York: International Universities Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  9. Wachtel, P.L. Cognitive style and style of adaptation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1972, 35, 779–785.Google Scholar
  10. Wachtel, P.L. Psychodynamics, behavior therapy, and the implacable experimenter: An inquiry into the consistency of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 82, 324–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Wachtel, P.L. Psychoanalysis and behavior therapy: Toward an integration. New York: Basic Books, 1977a.Google Scholar
  12. Wachtel, P.L. Interaction cycles, unconscious processes, and the person-situation issue. In D., Magnusson and N., Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Issues in interactional psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977b.Google Scholar
  13. Wolf, E. Learning theory and psychoanalysis. British Journal of A1edical Psychology, 1966, 39, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul L. Wachtel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCity College of the City University of New York

Personalised recommendations