The Temporal Lobes: An Approach to the Study of Organic Behavioral Changes

  • David M. Bear
Part of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology book series (HBNE, volume 2)

Abstract

From a clinical perspective, alterations in the emotions or behavior of an individual primarily present a problem in differential diagnosis. For this reason, a simple rule or generalization has long been sought to distinguish behavioral syndromes of organic causation from functional—idiopathic or learned—psychiatric disorders.

Keywords

Depression Dementia Schizophrenia Explosive Amphetamine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, R. D., and Victor, M. Delirium and other confusional states. In M. W. Wintrobe, T. Thorn, R. A. Adams, E. Braunwald, K. Isselbacher, and R. G. Petersdorf (eds.), Principles of Internal Medicine, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Babinski, J. Contribution a l’étude des troubles mentaux dans l’hémiplégie cérébrale (anosagnosia). Revue Neurologie, 1914, 27, 845–487.Google Scholar
  3. Bear, D. Temporal lobe epilepsy: A syndrome of sensory-limbic hyperconnection. Cortex, 1976a, in press.Google Scholar
  4. Bear, D., and Fedio, P. Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology 19766, 34, 454–467.Google Scholar
  5. Bear, D. Personality change associated with organic processes. In A. Lazare (éd.), Textbook of Outpatient Psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1976c:, in progress.Google Scholar
  6. Benson, D. F., and Geschwind, N. Aphasia and related cortical disturbances. In A. B. Baker and L. M. Baker (eds.). Clinical Neurology. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. Blumer, D. Changes in sexual behavior related to temporal lobe disorder in man. Journal of Sexual Research, 1970a, 6, 173–180.Google Scholar
  8. Blumer, D. Hypersexual episodes in temporal lobe epilepsy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970b, 126, 1099–1106.Google Scholar
  9. Blumer, D. Temporal lobe epilepsy and its psychiatric significance. In D. F. Benson and D. Blumer (eds.). Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Blumer, D., and Benson, D. F. Personality changes with frontal and temporal lobe lesions. In D. F. Benson and D. Blumer (eds.), Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. Blumer, D., and Walker, A. F. Sexual behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 1967, 16, 37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruens, J. H. Psychoses in epilepsy. In P. J. Vincken and A. W. Gruyn (eds.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 15, New York: Wiley, 1969, pp. 593–610.Google Scholar
  13. Connell, P. H. Amphetamine Psychosis. London: Chapel Hill, 1958.Google Scholar
  14. Davidson, G. A. Psychomotor epilepsy. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1947, 36, 410–414.Google Scholar
  15. Davies, B. M., and Morgenstern, F. S. A case of cysticercosis, temporal lobe epilepsy and transvestism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1960, 25, 247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davison, K., and Bagley, C. Schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: Review, of literature. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 4, 113–184.Google Scholar
  17. Dewhurst, K., and Beard, A. W. Sudden religious conversions in temporal lobe epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 117, 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dewhurst, K., Oliver, J., Trick, K. L. K., and McKnight, A. L. Neuropsychiatrie aspects of Huntington’s chorea. Confinia Neurologia, 1969, 31, 258–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.; American Psychiatric Association, 1968.Google Scholar
  20. Dominian, J., Serafetinides, E, A., and Dewhurst, M. A follow-up study of late onset epilepsy. II. Psychiatric and social. British Medical Journal, 1963, 1, 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donnelly, E. F., Dent, J. K., Murphy, D. L., and Mignone, R.J. Comparison of temporal lobe epileptics and affective disorders on the Halstead-Reitan test hdlicry. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1972, 28, 61–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Downer, J. L. Interhemispheric integration in the visual system. In V. Mountcastel (ed.), Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  23. Ellinwood, E. R. Amphetamine psychosis: Description of the individuals and process. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1967, 144, 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ellinwood, E. R., Sudilovsky, A., and Nelson, L. M. Evolving behavior in the clinical and experimental amphetamine (model) psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1973, 130, 1088–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ervin, F. R. Brain disorders associated with convulsions (epilepsy). In A. M. Freedman and H. I. Kaplan (eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1967, pp. 795–816.Google Scholar
  26. Everitt, B. S., Gourlay, A. J., and Kendall, R. E. An attempt at validation of traditional psychiatric syndromes by cluster analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 119, 399–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Falconer, M. A. Reversibility by temporal lobe resection of the behavioral abnormalities of temporal lobe epilepsy. New England Journal of Medicine, 1973, 289, 451–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Falconer, M. A., Serafetinides, E. A., and Corsellis, J. A. Etiology and pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 1964, 10, 233–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feighner, J. D., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., and Monore, R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferguson, S. M., Schwartz, M. L., and Rayport, M. Perception of humor in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: A cartoon test as an indicator of neuropsychologic deficit. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969, 21, 363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flor-Henry, P. Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy: A controlled investigation. Epilepsia, 1969a, 10, 363–395.Google Scholar
  32. Flor-Henry, P. Schizophrenic-like reactions and affective psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy: Etiological factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969b, 126, 400–403.Google Scholar
  33. Flor-Henry, P. Ictal and interictal psychiatric manifestations in epilepsy: Specific or nonspecific? Epilepsia, 1972, 13, 775–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gainotti, G. Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of the lesion. Cortex, 1972, 8, 41–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Galin, D. Implications for psychiatry of left and right cerebral specialization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 31, 572–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gastaut, H., and Collomb, K. Etude du comportement sexuel chez les épileptiques psychomoteurs. Annuales Médico-Psychologiques, 1954, 772, 657–696.Google Scholar
  37. Gazzaniga, M, S. The Bisected Brain. New York: Appleton-Century, 1970.Google Scholar
  38. Geschwind, N. Disconnexion syndromes in animais and man. Part I, Brain, 1965a, 88, 237–294.Google Scholar
  39. Geschwind, N. Disconnexion syndromes in animais and man. Part II. Brain, 1965b, 88, 585–644.Google Scholar
  40. Geschwind, N. The borderland of neurology and psychiatry. In D. F. Benson and D. Blumer (eds.). Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  41. Geschwind, N., and Levitsky, W. Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech area. Science, 1968, 161, 186–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gibbs, F. A., and Gibbs, E. L. Atlas of Electroencephalography. Cambridge Mass: Addisoon-Wesley, 1964.Google Scholar
  43. Glaser, G. H. The probelm of psychosis in psychomotor temporal lobe epileptics. Epilepsia, 1964, 5, 271–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goddard, G. V., and Douglas, R. M. Does the engram of kindling model the engram of normal long- term memory? Le Journal Canadian des Sciences Nenrologiques, 1975, 385–394.Google Scholar
  45. Goddard, G. V., Mclntyre, D. C., and Leech, C. K. A permanent change in brain function resulting from daily electrical stimulation. Experimental Neurology, 1969, 25, 295–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldstein, K. The Organism:A Holistic Approach to Biology. New York: American Book, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guerrant,J., Anderson, W. W., Fischer, A., Weinstein, M. R., Jaros, R. M., and Deskins, A. Personality in Epilepsy. Springfield, III.: Thomas, 1962.Google Scholar
  48. Harris, R. J. A Primer of Multivariate Statistics. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  49. Hécaen, H., and Albert, M. Disorders of mental functioning related to frontal lobe pathology. In D. F. Benson and D. Blumer (eds.). Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1975.Google Scholar
  50. Hécaen, H., and Angelergues, R. La Cecite Psychique. Paris: Masson, 1963.Google Scholar
  51. Herrington, R. N. The personality in temporal lobe epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, Special Publication 4, 1969, 70–76.Google Scholar
  52. Hierons, R. Impotence in temporal lobe lesions. Journal of Neurovisceral Relations, Supplement X, 1971, 477–481.Google Scholar
  53. Hill, D. Psychiatric disorders of epilepsy. Medical Press, 1953a, s, 473–475.Google Scholar
  54. Hill, D. Clinical study and selection of patients in discussion on the surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1953b, 46, 965–976.Google Scholar
  55. Hooshmand, H., and Brawley, B. W. Temporal lobe seizures and exhibitionism. Neurology, 1970, 19, 1119–1124.Google Scholar
  56. Hunter, M., Maccabe, J. J., and Ettlinger, F. Transfer of training between the hands in a split-brain monkey with chronic parietal discharges. Cortex, 1976, 12, 27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, B., and Mishkin, M. Limbic lesions and the problem of stimulus-reinforcement associations. Experimetal Neurology, 1972, 36, 362–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kennedy, C., Des Rosiers, M., Jehle, J., Reivich, M., Sharpe, F., and Sokolov, L. Mapping of functional neural pathways by autoradiographic survey of local metabolic rate with 14C deoxyglucose. Science, 1975, 187, 850–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kluver, H., and Buey, P. C. Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in man. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1939, 42, 979–1000.Google Scholar
  60. Lachenbruch, P. Discriminant Analysis. New York: Haffner Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  61. Laitenan, L. V. Stereotactic lesions in the knee of the corpus callosum in the treatment of emotional disorders. Lancet, 1972, 7748, 472–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lemay, M., and Culebras, A. Human brain-morphologic differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by carotid arteriography. New England Journal of Medicine, 1972, 287, 168–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Luria, A. R. Frontal lobe syndromes. In P. J. Vinchen and G. W. Bruyn (eds.). Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1969.Google Scholar
  64. Mark, V. H., and Ervin, F. R. Violence and the Brain. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.Google Scholar
  65. Mark, V. H., Ervin, F. R., Geschwind, N., Solomon, P., and Sweet, W. H. The neurology of behavior: Its applications to human violence. Medical Opinion Review, 1968, 4, 26–31.Google Scholar
  66. Marlowe, W. V., Mancall, E. L., and Thomas, J.J. Complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome in man. Cortex, 1975, 11, 53–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Marshall, N. B., Barnett, R. J., and Mayer, J. Hypothalamic lesions in gold-thioglucose injected mice. Proceedings of the Society of Biology and Medicine of New York, 1955, 90, 240–244.Google Scholar
  68. McHugh, P. R., and Folstein, M. Psychiatric syndromes of Huntington’s chorea. In D. F. Benson and D. Blumer (eds.). Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologie Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton. 1975.Google Scholar
  69. McKeon, J. J. Hierarchial Cluster Analysis—Computer Program. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University Biometrie Laboratory, 1967.Google Scholar
  70. Meier, M. J., and French, L. A. Changes in MMPI scale scores and an index of psychopathology following unilateral temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Epilepsia, 1965, 6, 263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mignone, R. J., Donnelly, E. F., and Sadowsky, D. Psychological and neurological comparisons of psychomotor and nonpsychomotor epileptic patients. Epilepsia, 1970, 11, 345–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Milner, B. Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 1971a, 27, 272–277.Google Scholar
  73. Milner, B. Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In K. H. Pribram and D. F. Broadbent (eds.). Biology of Memory. New York: Academic Press, 1971b, pp. 29–50.Google Scholar
  74. Milner, B. Hemispheric specialization: Scope and limits. In F. O. Schmitt F. G. Warden (eds.), The Neurosciences—Third Study Program. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 1974, pp. 75–89.Google Scholar
  75. Mitchell, W., Falconer, M. A., and Hill, D. Epilepsy with fetishism relieved by temporal lobectomy. Lancet, 1954, 2, 626–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nauta, W. J. H. The problem of the frontal lobe—A reinterpretation. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1971, 9, 167–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Olds, J. Physiological mechanisms of reward. In M. Jones (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln. University of Nebraska Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  78. Pond, D. A. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Journal of the Indian Medical Profession, 1957, 3, 1441–1451.Google Scholar
  79. Pond, D. A. The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy—Discussion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1962, 55, 316.Google Scholar
  80. Pond, D. A. Epilepsy and personality disorders. In P. J. Vincken and A. W. Gruyn (eds.). Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 15. New York: Wiley, 1969, pp. 576–592.Google Scholar
  81. Reeves, A. G., and Plum, F. Hyperphagia, rage, and dementia accompanying a ventromedial hypothalamic neoplasm. Archives of Neurology, 1969, 20, 616–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rossi, G. F., and Rosadini, G. Experimental analysis of cerebral dominance in man. In G. H. Milikan and F. L. Darley (eds.), Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1967, pp. 167–184.Google Scholar
  83. Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., and Maer, F. Right hemisphere lateralization for emotion in the human brain: Interactions with cognition. Science, 1975, 190, 286–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schwartzbaum, J. S. Changes in reinforcing properties of stimuli following ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiobgical Psychology, 1960, 55, 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Serafetinides, E. A. Aggressiveness in temporal lobe epileptics and its relation to cerebral dysfunction and environmental factors. Epilepsia, 1965, 6, 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Slater, E. The schizophrenia-like illnesses of epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 4, 77–81.Google Scholar
  87. Slater, E., and Beard, A. W. Schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy: Relations between ages of onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1963, 109, 95–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Slater, E., and Moran, P. A. P. The schizophrenia-like psychoses of epilepsy: Relation between ages of onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 115, 599–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sperry, R. W. Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious experience. American Psychologist, 1968, 23, 723–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sperry, R. W. Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Warden (eds.). The Neurosciences—Third Study Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 5–20.Google Scholar
  91. Stamm, J. S., and Pribram, K. H. Effects of epileptogenic lesions of inferotemporal cortex on learning and retention in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1961, 54, 614–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stamm, J. S., and Rosen, S. C. Learning of a somesthetic discrimination and reversal tasks by monkeys with epileptogenic implants in anteromedical temporal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stevens, J. R. Psychiatric implications of psychomotor epilepsy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1966, 14, 461–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sweet, W. H., Ervin, F., and Mark, V. H. The relationship of violent behavior to focal cerebral disease. In S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg (eds.). Agressive Behavior. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1969, pp. 336–352.Google Scholar
  95. Sunshine, J., and Mishkin, M. A visual-limbic pathway serving visual associative functions in rhesus monkeys. Federation Proceedings, 1975, 34, 440.Google Scholar
  96. Taylor, D. C. Aggression and epilepsy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1969, 13, 229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Terzian, H. Behavioral and EEG effects of intracarotid sodium amytal injections. Acta Neurochirurgica, 1964, 12, 230–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tizard, B. The personality of epileptics: A discussion of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 1962, 59, 196–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Treffert, D. A. The psychiatric patient with an EEG temporal lobe focus. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1964, 120, 765–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Buren, J. M., Ajmone-Marsan, C., Matsuga, N., and Sadowsky, D. Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy. In D. P. Purpura, J. K. Penry, and R. D. Walter (eds.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 8. New York: Raven Press, 1975, pp. 155–196.Google Scholar
  101. Waxman, S. F., and Geschwind, N. Hypergraphia in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology, 1974, 24, 629–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Waxman, S. F., and Geschwind, N. The interictal behavior syndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 52, 1580–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Weinstein, E. A., and Kahn, R. C. Denial of Illness: Symbolic and Physiologic Aspects. Springfield, III.: Thomas, 1955.Google Scholar
  104. Weinstein, E. A., Mitchell, M., and Lyerly, O. G. Anosagnosia and aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 1964, 10, 376–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Weir, W. Psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Unpublished retrospective study at University of Illinois Epilepsy Clinic, 1976.Google Scholar
  106. Weiskrantz, L. Behavioral changes associated with ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 1956, 49, 381–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Williams, D. The structure of emotions reflected in epileptic experiences. Brain, 1956, 79, 28–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yde, A., Edel, L., and Feurbye, A. On the relation between schizophrenia, epilepsy, and induced convulsions. Acta Psychiatrica, 1941, 16, 325–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Bear
    • 1
  1. 1.Research FellowMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations