There are a number of important references on the general topic of play as well as the specific field of children’s play that researchers interested in this subject should consult. The surplus-energy theory advanced by Schiller (1875) and H. Spencer (1873) in the 19th century, as well as Groos’s (1898,1901) survey of “animal” and “man” play studies written at the turn of the century, are all worthy of consideration by students interested in understanding the historical context out of which most 20th-century theories of play developed. Aries (1962) and Stone (1971) enlarged this perspective in their discussions of the emergence of children and children’s play in Western societies. The interpretive works of Huizinga (1938) and Caillois (1961), although not specifically concerned with children’s play, are also important reading for play researchers.
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