Hormonal Receptors in Endometrial and Ovarian Neoplasia

  • George S. Richardson
  • David T. Maclaughlin
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 10)


Estrogen stimulates proliferation of the ductal tissue in the breast, of the glands and stroma of the endometrium, and of the granulosa cells in the ovary. Habit has settled oncologists with the idea that estrogen is directly mitogenic; after all, it has been defined from the beginning by bioassays (vaginal exfoliation and uterotropic response) that depend on mitotic activity. Moreover, its action on normal human endometrium is assessed by finding glandular and stromal mitoses [1]. The mitogenic action of estrogen has never been satisfactorily demonstrated in vitro, however, and the possibility exists that its mitogenic action may be indirect [2, 3, 4].


Estrogen Receptor Progesterone Receptor Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Carcinoma Sucrose Density Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Noyes AT, Hertig AT, Rock J: Dating the endometrial biopsy. Fertil Steril 1:3, 1950.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sonnenschein C, Soto AM: The mechanism of estrogen action: the old and a new paradigm. In: Estrogens in the Environment. McLachlan JA (ed), Elsevier-North Holland, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sonnenschein C, Soto AM: But… are estrogens per se growth-promoting hormones? J Natl Cancer Inst 64:211–215, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sirbasku DA, Leland SE, Benson RH: Properties of a growth factor activity present in crude extracts of rat uterus. J Cell Physiol 107:345–358, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baxter JD, Funder JW: Hormone receptor. N Engl J Med 301:1149–1161, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Markaverich BM, Upchurch S, McCormack SA, Glasser SR, Clark JH: Differential stimulation of uterine cells by nafoxidine and clomiphene: relationship between nuclear estrogen receptors and Type II estrogen binding sites and cellular growth. Biol Reprod 24:171–181, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Markaverich BM, Williams M, Upchurch S, Clark JH: Heterogeneity of nuclear estrogen-binding sites in rat uterus: a simple method for the quantitation of Type I and Type II sites by 3H-estradiol exchange. Endocrinol 109:62–29, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zava DT, McGuire WL: Estrogen receptor. Unoccupied sites in nuclei of breast tumor cell line. J Biol Chem 252:3703–3708, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jungblut PW, Kallweit E, Sierralta W, Truitt AJ, Wagner RK: The occurrence of steroid-free, ‘activated’ estrogen receptor in target cell nuclei. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 359:1259–1268, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carlson RA, Gorski J: Characterization of a unique population of unfilled estrogen-binding sites associated with the nuclear fraction of immature rat uterus. Endocrinol 106:1776–1785, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levy C, Mortel R, Eychenne B, Robel P, Baulieu EE. Unoccupied nuclear oestradiol-receptor sites in normal human endometrium. Biochem J 185:733–738, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fleming H, Gurpide E: Available estradiol receptors in nuclei from endometrium. J Steroid Biochem 13:3–11, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geier A, Beery R, Levran D, Menczer J, Lunenfeld B: Unoccupied nuclear receptors for estrogen in human endometrial tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50:541–545, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Consensus Meeting on Steroid Receptors in Breast Cancer, Bethesda, MD, June 27–29, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hsueh AJW, Peck EJ Jr, Clark JH: Control of uterine estrogen receptor levels by progesterone Endocrinol 98:428–444, 1976.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    MacLaughlin DT, Richardson GS: Progesterone binding by normal and abnormal human endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:667–678, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tseng L, Gurpide E: Induction of human endometrial estradiol dehydrogenase by proges-tins. Endocrinol 97:824–833, 1974.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pollow K, Schmidt-Gollwitzer M, Pollow B: Progesterone- and estradiol-binding proteins from normal human endometrium and endometrial carcinoma: a comparative study. In: Steroid Receptors and Hormone Dependent Neoplasia. Wittliff JL, Dapunt O (eds), Innsbruck, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levy C, Robel P, Gautray JP, Debrux J, Verma U, Descomps B, Baulieu EE: Estradiol and progesterone receptors in human endometrium: normal and abnormal menstrual cycles and early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:646–651, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Richardson GS, MacLaughlin DT (eds): Hormonal Biology of Endometrial Carcinoma, Geneva, UICC Technical Report Vol 42, 1978, p 152.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    MacLaughlin DT, Richardson GS: Specificity of medroprogesterone binding in human endometrium: interaction with testosterone and progesterone binding sites. J Steroid Biochem 10:371–377, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richards JS: Hormonal control of ovarian follicular development: a 1978 perspective. Rec Prog Hormone Res 35:343–373, 1979.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Richards JS, Midgley AR Jr: Protein hormone action: a key to understanding ovarian and follicular luteal cell development. Biol Reprod 14:82–94, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hillier SG, Reichert LE Jr, Van Hall EV: Control of preovulatory follicular estrogen biosynthesis in the human ovary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:847–856, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hillier SG, Knazek RA, Ross GT: Androgenic stimulation of progesterone production by granulosa cells from preantral follicles: further in vitro studies using replicate cell cultures. Endocrinol 100:1539–1549, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jacobs BR, Smith RG: Evidence for a receptor-like protein for progesterone in bovine ovarian cytosol. Endocrinol 106:1276–1282, 1980.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilcox DL, Thorburn GD: Progesterone binding protein in the bovine corpus lutem. J Steroid Biochem 14:841–850, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scott RS, Rennie PIC: An estrogen receptor in the corpus luteum of the pseudopregnant rabbit. Endocrinol 89:297–301, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Richards JS: Content of nuclear estradiol complex in rat corpora lutea during pregnancy-relationship to estrogen concentration and cytosol receptor availability. Endocrinol 96: 227–230, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Punnonen R, Kouvonen I, Lovgren T, Rauramo L: Uterine and ovarian estrogen receptor levels in climacteric women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 58:389–391, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jacobs BR, Suchocki S, Smith RG: Evidence for a human ovarian progesterone receptor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:332–336, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Milwidsky A, Younes MA, Besch NF, Besch PK, Kaufman RH: Receptor-like binding proteins for testosterone and progesterone in the human ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:93–98, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chamness GC, McGuire WL: Steroid receptor assays in human breast cancer. In: Steroid Receptors and the Management of Cancer, Thompson EB, Lippman ME (eds), CRC Press, 1979, p 3.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anderson KM, Phelan J, Marogil M, Hendrickson C, Economou S: Sodium molybdate increases the amount of progesterone and estrogen detected in certain human breast cancer cytosols. Steroids 35:273–280, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Siiteri PK: Steroid hormones and endometrial cancer. Cancer Res 38:4360–5366, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mainwaring WIP: Androgen receptors in the future management of carcinoma of the prostate. In: Steroid Receptors and the Management of Cancer, Thompson EB, Lippman ME (eds), CRC Press, 1979, p 99.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Garola RE, McGuire WL: A hydroxylapatite micromethod for measuring estrogen receptor in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 38:2216–2220, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Friberg LG, Kullander S, Persijn JP, Korsten CB: On receptors for estrogens (E2) and androgens (DHT) in human endometrial carcinoma and ovarian tumours. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 57:265–271, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peck EJ, Clark JH: Effect of ionic strength on charcoal adsorption assays of receptor-estradiol complexes. Endocrinol 101:1034–1043, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saez S, Martin PM, Chouvet CG: Estradiol and progesterone receptor levels in human breast adenocarcinoma in relation to plasma estrogen and progesterone levels. Cancer Res 38:3468–3473, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Edery M, Goussard J, Dehennin L, Scholler R, Reiffsteck J, Drosdowsky MA: Endogenous oestradiol-17(3 concentration in breast tumours determine by mass fragmentography and by radioimmunoassay: relationship to receptor content. Eur J Cancer 17:115–120, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sarrif AM, Durant JR: Evidence that estrogen-receptor-negative, progesterone-receptor-positive breast and ovarian carcinomas contain estrogen receptor. Cancer 48:1215–1220, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garcia M, Rochefort H: Evidence and characterization of the binding of two 3H-labeled androgens to the estrogen receptor. Endocrinol 104:1797–1804, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Soutter WP, Hamilton K, Leake RE: High affinity binding of oestradiol-170 in the nuclei of human endometrial cells. J Steroid Biochem 10:529–534, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Feil P, MannW Jr, Mortel R, Bardin CW: Nuclear progestin receptors in normal and malignant human endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:327–334, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Janne O, Kontula K, Vihko R: Progestin receptors in human tissues: concentration and binding kinetics. J Steroid Biochem 7:1061–1068, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith RG, Clarke SG, Zalta E, Taylor RN: Two estrogen receptors in reproductive tissue. J Steroid Biochem 10:31–35, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Martin PM, Rolland PH, Gammerre M, Serment H, Toga M: Estradiol and progesterone receptors, histopathological examinations and clinical responses under progestin therapy. Int J Cancer 23:321–329, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McCarty KS Jr, Barton TK, Fetter BF, Creasman WT, McCarty KS: Correlation of estrogen and progesterone receptors with histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 96:171–184, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rodriquez J, Sen KK, Seski JC, Meno M, Johnson TR, Menon KMJ: Progesterone binding by human endometrial tissue during the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and by hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 660–665, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gibbons W, Buttram V Jr, Besch P, Smith R: Estrogen-binding proteins in human postme-nopausal uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:799–803, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Horwitz RI, Feinstein AR, Vidone RA, Sommers SC, Robboy SJ: Histopathologic distinctions in the relationship of estrogens and endometrial cancer. JAMA 246:1425–1427, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tsibris JCM, Cazenave CR, Cantor B, Notelovitz M, Kalra PS, Spellacy WN: Distribution of cytoplasmic estrogen and progesterone receptors in human endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132:449–454, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tsibris JCM, Fort FL, Cazenave CR, Cantor B, Bardawil WA, Notelovitz M, Spellacy WN: The uneven distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human endometrium. J Steroid Biochem 14:997–1003, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Robboy SJ, Bradley R: Changing trends and prognostic features in endometrial cancer associated with exogenous estrogen therapy. Obstet Gynecol 54:269–277, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ehrlich CE, Young PCM, Cleary RE: Cytoplasmic progesterone and estradiol receptors in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometria: therapeutic implications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141:539–546, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hunter RE, Longcope C, Jordan VC: Steroid hormone receptors in adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol 10:152–161, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Janne O, Kauppila A, Kontula K, Syrjala P, Vihko R: Female sex steroid receptors in normal hyperplastic and carcinomatous endometrium. The relationship to serum steroid hormones and gonadotropins and changes during medroxyprogesterone acetate administration. Int J Cancer 24:545–554, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Benraad ThJ, Friberg LG, Koenders AJM, Kullander S: Do estrogen and progesterone receptors (E2R and PR) in metastasizing endometrial cancers predict the response to gestogen therapy? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 59:155–159, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kauppila A, Janne O, Kujansuu E, Vihko R: Treatment of advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma with a combined cytotoxic therapy. Cancer 46:2162–2167, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Creasman WT, McCarty KS, Barton TK, McCarty KS: Clinical correlates of estrogen- and progesterone-binding proteins in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 55:363–370, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kiang DT, Kennedy BJ: Estrogen receptor assay in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. JAMA 238:32–34, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Holt JA, Caputo TA, Kelly KM, Greenwald P, Chorost S: Estrogen and progestin binding in cytosols of ovarian adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 53:50–58, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Janne O, Kauppila A, Syrjala P, Vihko R: Comparison of cytosol estrogen and progestin receptor status in malignant and benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of human ovary. Int J Cancer 25:175–179, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Holt JA, Lyttle CR, Lorincz MA, Stem SD, Press MA, Herbst AL: Estrogen receptor and peroxidase activity in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 67:307–318, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lyttle CR, DeSombre ER: Uterine peroxidase as a marker for estrogen action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:3162–3166, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Galli MC, DeGiovanni C, Nicoletti G, Grilli G, Nanni P, Prodi G, Gola G, Rocchetta R, Orlandi C: The occurrence of multiple steroid hormone receptors in disease-free and neoplastic human ovary. Cancer 47:1297–1302, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hamilton TC, Daview P, Griffiths K: Androgen and oestrogen binding in cytosols of human ovarian tumours. J Endocrinol 90:421–431, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bergqvist A, Kullander S, Thorell J: A study of estrogen and progesterone cytosol receptor concentration in benign and malignant ovarian tumors and a review of malignant ovarian tumors treated with maeroxyprogesterone acetate. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Supp 101:75–81, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hahnel R, Kelsall GRH, Martin JD, Masters AM, McCartney AJ, Twaddle E: Estrogen and progesterone receptors in tumors of the human ovary. Gynecol Oncol 13:145–151, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Prodi G, DeGiovanni C, Galli MC, Gola G, Grilli S, Rocchetta R, Orlandi C: 170-Estradiol, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, progesterone and cortisol receptors in normal and neoplastic human endometrium. Tumori 65:241–253, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Spona J, Ulm R, Bieglniayer C, Husslein P: Hormone serum levels and hormone receptor contents of endometria in women with normal menstrual cycles and patients bearing endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Invest 10:71–80, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Grilli S, Ferreri A, Gola G, Rocchetta R, Orlandi C, Prodi G: Cytoplasmic receptors for 17(3-estradiol, 5a-dihydrotestosterone and progesterone in normal and abnormal human uterine tissues. Cancer Letters 2:247–258, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Young PCM, Ehrlich CE: Progesterone receptors in human endometrial cancer. In: Steroid Receptors and the Management of Cancer, Vol I, Thompson EB, Lippman ME (eds), Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press, 1979, p 135–160.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Siiteri PK: Steroid hormone and endometrial cancer. Cancer Res 38:4360–4366, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hoffman PG, Siiteri PK: Sex steroid receptors in gynecologic cancer. Obstet Gynecol 55:648–652, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gurpide E: Hormone receptors in endometrial cancer. Cancer 48:638–641, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Janne OA, Kontula KK: Hormone receptors and target cell responsiveness. Ann Clin Res 12:174–191, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kelley RM, Baker WH: Progestational agents in the treatment of carcinoma of the endo-metrium. N Engl J Med 264:216–222, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Malkasian G, Decker D, Mussey E, Johnson C: Progestagen treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110:15–23, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Reifenstein EC: The treatment of advanced endometrial cancer with hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Gynecol Oncol 3:377, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rozier J, Underwood P: Use of progestational agents in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 44:60–64, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Holinka CF, Deligdisch L, Deppe G, Fleming H, Namit C, de la Pena MM, Gurpide, E: Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro responses of endometrial adenocarcinoma to progestins. In: Hormones and Cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol 138. WW Leavitt (ed), Plenum Press, 1982, p 365.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Satyaswaroop PG, Mortel R: Failure of progestins to induce estradiol dehydrogenase activity in endometrial carcinoma, in vitro. Cancer Res 42:1322–1325, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    MacLaughlin DT, Richardson GS: The specificity of the endometrial response to estrogens and progestins. In: Steroid Receptors and the Management of Cancer. Thompson EB, Lippman ME (eds), CRC Press, 1979, p 161.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lippman ME, Allegra JC, Thompson EB, Simon R, Barlock A, Green L, Hoff KK, Do HMT, Aitken SC, Warren R: The relation between estrogen receptors and response rate to cytotoxic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 298:1223–1228, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kiang DT, Frenning DH, Goldman AI, Ascensao VF, Kennedy BJ: Estrogen receptors and responses to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 299:1330–1334, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Webster DJT, Bronn DG, Minton JP: Estrogen receptors and response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 299:604, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Samal B, Singhakowinta A, Brooks SC, Vaitkevicius VK: Estrogen receptors and response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 299:604, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Greenspan EM: Estrogen receptors and response of breast cancer to chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 299:604, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Paone JF, Abeloff MD, Ettinger DS, Arnold EA, Baker RR: The correlation of estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with response to chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet 152:70–74, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Robel P, Levy C, Wolff JP, Nicolas JP, Baulieu EE: Reponse a un anti-oestrogene comme critere d’hormono-sensibilite du cancer de l’endometre. CR Acad Sci Paris 287:1353–1356, 1978.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bonte J, Ide P, Billiet G, Synants P: Tamoxifen as a possible chemotherapeutic agent in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 11:140–161, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Swenerton KD, Shaw D, White GW, Boyes DA: Treatment of advanced endometrial carcinoma with tamoxifen. N Engl J Med 301:105, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tobias JS, Griffiths CT: Management of ovarian carcinoma. Current concepts and future prospects. N Engl J Med 294:877–882, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Guthrie D: The treatment of advanced cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary with gestronol and continuous oral cyclophosphamide. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 86:497–500, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Myers AM, Moore GE, Major FJ: Advanced ovarian carcinoma: response to antiestrogen therapy. Cancer 48:2368–2370, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Alford TC, Do HMT, Geelhoed GW, Tsangaris NT, Lippman ME: Steroid hormone receptors in human colon cancers. Cancer 43:980–984, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • George S. Richardson
  • David T. Maclaughlin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations