Immunopharmacologic effects of radiation therapy in head and neck cancers

  • J. B. Dubois
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 22)


Accompanying the therapeutic benefits of radiotherapy, neighboring healthy tissue is subjected to adverse effects. Moreover, ionizing radiation is a known immune-suppressor and thus can lead to dissemination of residual malignant cells after treatment. Do the benefits of radiotherapy on tumor evolution outweigh the suppressive action on host immune defense? Although the interaction between ionizing radiation and the immune system appears to be complex, the outcome is not always counterproductive and the mechanisms involved therefore merit thorough investigation. Numerous studies have shown that the changes in tumor immunity in the cancer patient are non specific whether they occur before (spontaneous), during or after treatment (more or less removed from the time of chemo- or radiotherapy). A more specifically oriented (and therefore more promising) approach would be to study cell mediated immunity based not only on T-lymphocytes but also macrophages and killer cell populations (natural and antibody dependent killer lymphocytes). Since the radiosensitivities of these populations differ, it would logically follow that their respective roles in post radiotherapeutic immunosuppression would depend on several variables. For many years, the only identified lymphocyte event following certain local irradiation was lymphopenia. Present day studies are much more refined and investigate various lymphocyte subpopulations thereby more realistically evaluating the repercussions of radiotherapy on immune response.


Neck Cancer Patient Natural Killer Activity Lymphocyte Subpopulation Thymidine Uptake Mixed Lymphocyte Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson RE, Warner NL: Ionizing radiation and the immune response. Advances Immunol 24: 215–335, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schlossman SE, Hudson L: Specific purification of lymphocyte populations on a digestible immunoabsorbant. J Immunol 110: 313, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghossein NA, Bosworth JL, Bases RE: The effect of radical radiotherapy on delayed hypersensitivity and the inflammatory response. Cancer 35: 1616–1620, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Catalona WJ, Chretien PB: Abnormalities of quantitative dinitrochlorobenzene sensitization in cancer patients. Correlation with tumor stage and histology. Cancer 31: 353–356, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jenkins VK, Griffiths CM, Ray P, Perry RR, Olson MH: Radiotherapy and head and neck cancer. Role of lymphocyte response and clinical stage. Arch Otolaryngol 106: 414, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vetto RM, Burger DR, Vandenbark AA, Finke PE: Changes in tumor immunity during therapy, determined by leucocyte adherence inhibition and dermal testing. Cancer 41: 1034–1039. 1973.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eilber FR, Morton DL, Ketcham AS: Immunologic abnormalities in head and neck cancer. Amer J Surg 128: 534, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gross L, Manfredi OO, Protos A: Effect of Cobalt-60 irradiation upon cell-mediated immunity. Radiology 106: 653–655, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stefani S, Kerman R, Abbate J: Serial studies of immunocompetence in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Amer J Roentgenol 126: 880–886, 1976.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clement J A, Kramer S: Immunocompetence in patients with solid tumors undergoing cobalt 60 irradiation. Cancer 34: 193–196, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bosworth JL, Ghossein NA, Brooks TL: Delayed hypersensitivity in patients treated by curative radiotherapy. Its relation to tumor response and short-term survival. Cancer 35: 353–358, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eilber FR, Morton DL: Impaired immunological reactivity and recurrence following cancer surgery. Cancer 25: 362–367, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hersh EM, Whitecar JP, Maccredie KB, Bodey GP, Freireich EJ: Chemotherapy, immunocompetence, immunosuppression and prognosis in acute leukemia. New Engl J Med 285: 1211–1216, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Golub SH, O’Connell TX, Morton DL: Correlation of in vivoand in vitroassays of immunocompetence in cancer patients. Cancer Res 34: 1833–1837, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Idestrom K, Petrini B, Blomgren H, Wasserman J, Wallgren A, Baral E: Changes of the peripheral lymphocyte population following radiation therapy to extended and limited fields. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5: 1761–1766, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baral E, Blomgren H, Petrini B, Wasserman J: Blood lymphocytes in breast cancer patients following radiotherapy and surgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 289–295, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stjernsward J, Jondal M, Vanky S, Wigzell H, Sealy R: Lymphopenia and change in distribution of human B and T lymphocytes in peripheral blood induced by irradiation for mammary carcinoma. Lancet 1: 1352–1356, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papatesta AE, Kark A: Peripheral lymphocyte counts in breast carcinoma. An index of immune competence. Cancer 34: 2014–2017, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reisco A: Five year cancer cure: Relation to total amount of peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils. Cancer 25: 135–140, 1970.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hilal EY, Wanebo HJ, Pinsky CM, Oettgen HF: Immunologic evaluation and prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer. Am J Surg 134: 469–473, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doria G: Immunological effects of irradiation: Waiting for a model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5: 1111–1116, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herberman RB, Kjeu JY, Kay HD, Ortaldo JR, Riccardi C, Bonnard GD, Holden HT, Fagnani R, Santoni A, Puccetti P: Natural Killer cells: Characteristics and regulation of activity. Immunol Rev 44: 43, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wasserman J, Baral E, Biberfeld G, Blomgren H, Petrini B, Von Stedingk LV, Strender LE: Effect of in vitroirradiation on lymphocyte subpopulations and cytotoxicity. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 123–135.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pross HF, Baines MG: Spontaneous Lymphocyte mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. VI. A brief review. Cancer Immunol Immunother 3: 75–85, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dean DM, Pross HF, Kennedy JC: Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. III. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 4: 633–641, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moretta L, Webb SR, Grossi CE, Lydyard PM, Cooper MD: Functionnal analysis of two human T cell subpopulations: Help and suppression of B cell response by T cells bearing receptors for IgM (Tm) or IgG (Tg). J Exp Med 146: 184–200, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thorn RM, Henney CS: Studies on the mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. VI. A reappraisal of the requirement of protein synthesis during T cell-mediated lysis. J Immunol 116: 146–155, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reinherz EL, Moretta L, Roper M, Breard JM, Mingari MD, Cooper MD, Schlosman SF: Human T lymphocyte sub-populations defined by Fc receptors and monoclonal antibodies. J Exp Med 151: 969–974, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gupta S, Winchester RJ, Good RA: General orientation of human lymphocyte sub-populations. In: Bach F, Good R (eds) Clinical Immunology. New York, Academic Press, 1980, pp 2–31.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cordier G, Samarut C, Revillard JP: Contribution of lymphocytes bearing Fey receptors to PHA induced cytotoxicity. Immunology 35: 49–56, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pichler WJ, Gendelman FW, Nelson DL: Fc receptors on human T lymphocytes. II. Cytotoxic capabilities of human Ty, Tju, B and L cells. Cell Immunol 42: 410–417, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ghossein NA, Kadish AS, Rubinstein A: Effects of radiotherapy on the immune system of patients with localized cancer. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immuno Pharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 207–217.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wanebo HJ, Jun My, Strong EW, Oettgen H: T cell deficiency in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Am J Surg 130: 445–451, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wanebo HJ: Observations on the effects of adjuvant Radiation on immune tests of patients with colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 241–252.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rafla S, Yang SJ, Meleka F: Changes in cell-mediated immunity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Cancer 41: 1076–1086, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nordman E, Toivanen A: Effects of irradiation on the immune function in patients with mammary, pulmonary or head and neck carcinoma. Acta Radiol Oncol Biol Phys 17: 3–9, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mason JM, Kitchens GG, Eastham RJ, Jennings BR: T lymphocytes and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol 103: 223–227, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dellon A, Potvin C, Chretien P: Thymus dependent lymphocyte levels during radiation therapy for bronchogenic and esophageal carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol 123: 500–511, 1975.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maclaren JR, Olkowski ZL, Skeen MJ, MacConnell FMS, Benigno B, Mansour K, Nixon DW, EElls R, Shah NK: Response of immune parameters to irradiation of patients with head and neck, bronchogenic, and uterine cervical cancers and to subsequent immunotherapy. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 253–274.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Blomgren H, Baral E, Jarstrand C, Petrini B, Strender LE, Wallgren A, Wasserman J: Effect of external radiation therapy on the peripheral lymphocyte population. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 299–319.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wara WM, Phillips TL, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Smith V: Immunosuppression after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Am J Roentgenol 123: 482–485, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deegan MJ, Coulthard SW, Qualman SJ, Schork MA: A correlative analysis of in vitroparameters of cellular immunity in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Res 37: 4475–4481, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Order SE: The effects of therapeutic irradiations on lymphocytes and immunity. Cancer 39: 737–743, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Merz T, Hazra T, Ross M, Ciborowski L: Transformation delay of lymphocytes in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Amer J Roentgenol 127: 337–339, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Slater JM, Ngo E, Lau BHS: Effects of therapeutic irradiation on the immune response. Amer J Roentgenol 126: 313–320, 1976.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Davies AJS, Wallis VJ, Peckham MJ: Suppression of the immune response by ionizing radiation. In: Dubois JB et al. (eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 1–6.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Diomigi R, Zonta A, Albertario F, Galeazzi R, Bellinzona G: Cyclic variation in the response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin in healthy individuals. Transplantation 16: 500–559, 1973.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Han T, Takita H: Immunologic impairment in bronchogenic carcinoma: a study of lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin. Cancer 30: 616–621, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Song CW, Rhee JG, Kim T, Kersey JH, Levitt SH: Effect of X-Irradiation on immune-competency of T-lymphocytes. In: Dubois JB et al. (eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 75–91.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cantor H, Boyse EA: Functional subclasses of T lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. I. The generation of functionally distinct T cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. J Exp Med 141: 1376–1389, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cantor H, Boyse EA: Functional subclasses of T lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. II. Cooperation between subclasses of Ly+ cells in the generation of Killer activity. J Exp Med 141: 1390–1399, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Huber B, Cantor H, Shen FW, Boyse EA: Independent differentiative pathways of Ly 1 and Ly 23 subclasses of T cells experimental production of mice deprived of selected T cell subclasses. J Exp Med 144: 1128–1133, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Baskies AM, Chretien PB, Weiss JF, Makuch RW, Kenady DE, Spiegel HE: Improvements in circulating levels of immune reactive proteins simultaneous with depression of thymus-dependent lymphocytes during radiation therapy for solid malignancies. In: Dubois JB et al. (eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 347–363.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cerottini JC, Brunner KT: Cell-mediated cytotoxicity, allograft rejection and tumor immunity. Adv Immunol 18: 67–132, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sharp JG, Watkins EB: Cellular and Immunological consequences of thymic irradiation. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 137–179.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stratton JA, Byfield PE, Byfield JE, Small RC, Benfield J, Pilch Y: A comparison of the acute effects of radiation therapy including or excluding the thymus on the lymphocyte sub-populations of cancer patients. J Clin Invest 56: 88–97, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Einhorn N: Effect of local radiotherapy on the level of EBV associated membrane-reactive antibodies in the sera of patients with certain malignant tumor. Cancer 29: 714–723, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moroson H, Abithol A, Madden R: Reversal by serum of the immusuppressive effect of total body irradiation in rats. In: Dubois JB et al. (eds) Immunopharmacologic effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 181–193.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Twomey PL, Catalona WJ, Chretien PB: Cellular immunity in cured cancer patients. Cancer, 33: 435–440, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Grant RM, Harris C, Mathieson W, Norman JN: The influence of serum and cellular factors in the depression of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) induced transformation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal carcinoma. Brit J Surg 60: 322–327, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Currie GA, Basham C: Serum mediated inhibition of the immunological reactions of the patient to his own tumor: a possible role for circulating antigen. Brit J Cancer 26: 427–431, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chee CA, Illbery PLT, Rickenson AB: Depression of Lymphocyte replicating ability in radiotherapy patients. Brit J Radiol 47: 37–43, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Silverman NA, Alexander JC, Hollinshead AC, Chretien PB: Correlation of tumor burden with in vitrolymphocyte reactivity and antibodies to Herpes virus tumor associated antigens in head and neck squamous carcinoma. Cancer 37: 135–140, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hollinshead AC, Chretien PB, Lee O, Tarpley JL, Kerney SE, Silverman NA, Alexander JC: in vivoand in vitromeasurement of the relationship of human squamous carcinomas to Herpes Simplex virus tumor associated antigens. Cancer Res 36: 3274–3278, 1976.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lum LG, Muchmore AV, Decker JM, Blaese RM: MICC Cytotoxic effector function of human T. Lymphocyte sub-populations bearing Fc receptors for IgG and IgM. Clin Exp Immunol 37: 558–561, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pierce CW: Macrophages: modulators of immunity. Amer J Pathol 98: 10–28, 1980.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wasserman J, Blomgren H, Petrini B, Baral E, Strender LE, Jarstrand C, Von Stedingk LV: Effect of Radiation Therapy and in vitroX-Ray exposure on Lymphocyte sub-populations and their functions. Amer J Clin Oncol 5: 195–208, 1982.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moroson H, Nowakowski J, Schechter M: Enhanced lymphocyte-mediated Killing of tumor cells after tumor irradiation? vivo. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33: 473–482, 1978.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jerrells TR, Dean JH, Richardson GL, Mac Coy JL, Herberman RB: Role of suppressor cells in depression of in vitrolymphoproliferative responses of lung cancer and breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1001–1009, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blomgren H, Wasserman J, Baral E, Petrini B: Evidence for the appearance of non-specific suppressor cells in the blood after local radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 4: 249–253, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blomgren H, Wasserman J, Wallgren A, Idestrom K, Baral E, Petrini B: Changes in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) functions of peripheral lymphoid cells after radiation therapy for breast carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5: 49–53, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fujimoto S, Greene MI, Sehon AH: Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. I. Immunosuppressor cells in tumor bearing hosts. J Immunol 116: 791–799, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Unanue ER: The regulation of lymphocyte functions by the macophage. Immunol Rev 40: 227–255, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jandinski T, Cantor H, Tadakuma T, Peavy DL, Pierce CW: Separation of helper T-cells from suppressor T-cell expressing different Ly component. I. Polyclonal activation: suppressor and helper activities are inherent properties of distinct T-cell subclasses. J Exp Med 143: 1382–1390, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ryoyama K, Ehrke MJ, Mihich E: Cell-cell interactions in the generation of ‘non-specific’ suppressor cells in culture and its modification by Adriamycin. In: Dubois JB et al. (eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 23–37.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gershon RK: The importance of suppressor cells in immunoregulation. In: Singhal SK, Sinclair NR (eds) Suppressor Cells in Immunity. London, Ontario, University of Western Ontario Press, 1975, pp 1–11.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Waldmann TA, Broder S: Suppressor cells in the regulation of the immune response. Prog Clin Immunol 3: 155–199, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Greene MI, Fujimoto S, Sehon AH: Regulation of the immune response of the tumor antigens. II. Characterization of thymic suppressor factors produced by tumor-bearing hosts. J Immunol 119: 757–764, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Agarossi G, Pozzi L, Mancini C, Doria G: Radiosensitivity of the helper cell function. J Immunol 121: 2118–2121, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lajtha LG: Stem cell concepts. Differentiation 14: 23–34, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Alexander P: The bogey of the immunosuppressive action of local radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1: 369–371, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson RE, Olson GB, Autry JR, Howarth JL, Troup GM, Bartels PH: Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. IV. Effects of whole body irradiation upon various lympoid tissues and number of recirculating lymphocytes. J Immunol 118: 1191–1200, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Birkeland SA: Influence of irradiation on the capacity of human T and B lymphocytes to form E and HEAC Rosettes. Transplantation 29: 23–24, 1980.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fudenberg HH, Wybran J, Robbins D: T-Rosette forming cells, cellular immunity and cancer. New Engl J Med 292: 475, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Raben M, Heise er, Kucera LS, Hale A, Witcofski R, Plunkett S: Effects of irradiation on lymphocyte subpopulation. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 321–328.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Blomgren H, Glas U, Melen B, Wasserman J: Blood lymphocytes after radiation therapy of mammary carcinoma. Acta Radiol Ther Biol Phys 13: 185–200, 1974.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wasserman J, Baral E, Blomgren H, Petrini B: The effect of in vitroirradiation on lym¬phocyte subpopulations and cytotoxicity. J Clin Lab Immunol 1: 147–150, 1978.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Smith DM, Gross RL, Baron P, Thomas RG: The effect of low level, whole body X- irradiation on splenic immunologic function. Radiat Res 74: 469–470, 1978.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dubois JB, Serrou B: Effects of ionizing radiation on cell-mediated immunity in cancer patients. In Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 275–298.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gerber M, Dubois JB, Pioch Y, Serrou B: Effects of localized radiotherapy upon the cellular immune response. Radiat Res 85: 390–398, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hoppe RT, Fuks ZY, Strober S, Kaplan HS: Immunosuppressive effects of ionizing radiation. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 195–206.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wara WM, Ammann AJ, Wara DW: Effects of thymosin and irradiation on immune modulation in head and neck and esophageal cancer patients. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 1775–1778, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Thomas JE, Coy P, Lewis HS, Yven A: Effect of therapeutic irradiation on lymphocyte transformation in lung cancer. Cancer 27: 1046–1050, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stjernsward J: Radiotherapy, host immunity and cancer spread. In: Stoll BA (ed) Secondary Spread in Breast Cancer. Chicago Heinemann Medical and Year Book Medical, 1977, pp 139–167.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tarpley JL, Potvin C, Chretien PB: Prolonged depression of cellular immunity in cured laryngopharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Cancer 35: 638–644, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fuks ZY, Strober S, Bobrove A, Sasazuki T, Mac Michael A, Kaplan HS: Long term effects of radiation on T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Invest 58: 803–814, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sharp JG, Thomas DB: Origins of the radioresistant precursor cells responsible for the initial phase of thymic regeneration after X-irradiation. J Reticuloendothel Soc 22: 169–176, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Song CW, Guertin DP: Combined effect of X-irradiation and cell-mediated immune reaction. Radiat Res 75: 586–592, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Suit HD, Batten GW Jr: Theoretical considerations of the effect of an immunological rejection response on the growth of tumor. In: Chicago, Year Book Medical (eds) Neoplasia in Childhood. 1979, pp 51–59.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wara WM, Wara DW, Ammann AJ: Immunosuppression and reconstitution after Radiation Therapy. In: Dubois JB et al(eds) Immunopharmacologic Effects of Radiation Therapy. New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 219–229.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jenkins VK: Immunocompetence in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. In: Prasad N (ed) Radiotherapy and Cancer Immunology. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press Inc, 1981, pp 51–64.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Olkowski SL, Wilkins SA: T-lymphocyte levels in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer of the head and neck. Amer J Surg 130: 440–444, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Dubois

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations