Advertisement

Experimental Chemotherapy of Melanoma

  • Vicram Gupta
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 21)

Abstract

Effective treatment of malignant melanoma represents a challenge for the experimental chemotherapist as well as the clinician. The response rates of disseminated or metastatic human melanoma to chemotherapy (either singly or in combination) are poor and average survival of patients is 6 months or less. 5-(3,3, dimethyl-1-triazeno) imadazole-4-carboxamide (DTIC) is the only consistently active agent against melanoma [1]. Melanomas represent one of the most extensively studied experimental cancers during the past 15 years because of a number of animal model systems and the ease with which this tumor can be adapted as tissue culture cell lines. Although much has been learned about the biology of melanoma, effective translation of basic information into meaningful clinical advances in treatment has been difficult to achieve.

Keywords

Melanoma Cell Melanoma Cell Line Drug Sensitivity Human Melanoma Cell Tyrosinase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Costanzi JJ: The chemotherapy of human malignant melanoma. In: Malignant melanoma I, Costanzi JJ (ed). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1983, pp 259–274.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cobb JP, McGrath A: S91 mouse melanoma sublines following total in vitro versus alternate in-vivo passages. J Natl Cancer Inst 48 (4): 885–891, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berkelhammer J, Caines SM, Dexter DL, Adelstein EH, Oxenhandler RW, Hook RR Jr: Adaptation of Sinclair swine melanoma cells to long-term growth in vitro. Cancer Res: 4960–4964, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kovacs SH, Agris PF: Long-term in vitro cell culture of Sinclair swine melanoma. In Vitro 15(5): 329–341, 1979.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liao SK, Dent PB, McCulloch PB: Characterization of human malignant melanoma cell lines: I. Morphology and growth characteristics in culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 54(5): 1037– 1044, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giovanella BC, Stehlin JS, Santamaria C, Yim SO, Morgan AC, Williams LJ Jr, Leibovitz A, Fialkow PJ, Mumford DM: Human neoplastic and normal cells in tissue culture: I. Cell lines derived from malignant melanomas and normal melanocytes. J Natl Cancer Inst 5 (6): 1131–1142, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Creasey AA, Smith HS, Hackett AJ, Fukuyama K, Epstein WL, Madin SH: Biological properties of human melanoma cells in culture. In Vitro 15 (5): 342–350, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maul GG, Romsdahl MM: Ultrastructural comparison of two human malignant melanoma cell lines. Cancer Res 30 (11): 2782–90, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gerner RE, Kitamura H, Moore GE: Studies of tumor cell lines derived from patients with malignant melanoma. Oncology 31 (1): 31–43, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Qizilbash AH, Liao SK, Dent PB: Characterization of human malignant melanoma cell lines: IV. Cytologic and histochemical characteristics. Acta Cytol (Baltimore) 21(1): 147– 150, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nishihira T, Kuriya Y, Hayashi Y, Ishii H, Kimura M, Tan M, Sasaki T, Kasai M, Katoh T, Matsuya Y, Yamane I: On a new continuous cell line (TM-1) derived from malignant melanoma. Tohoku J Exp Med 128 (3): 217–232, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pope JH, Morrison L, Moss DJ, Parsons PG, Regius Mary Sister: Human malignant melanoma cell lines. Pathology 11 (2): 191–195, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Semple TU, Moore GE, Morgan RT, Woods LK, Quinn LA: Multiple cell lines from patients with malignant melanoma: Morphology, karyology, and biochemical analysis. JNCI 68 (3): 365–380, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tveit KM, Fodstad O, Johannessen JV, Olsnes S: A human melanoma cell line established from xenograft in athymic mice. Br J Cancer 41 (5): 724–733, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bottenstein J, Hayashi I, Hutchings S, Masui H, Mather J, McClure DB, Ohasa S, Rizzino A, Sato G, Serrero G, Wolfe R, Wu R: The growth of cells in serum-free hormone- supplemented media. Method Enzymol 58: 94–109, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCulloch PB, Dent PB, Hayes PR, Liao SK: Common and individually specific chromosomal characteristics of cultured human melanoma. Cancer Res 36 (2 Pt 1): 398–404, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Muir PD, Gunz FW: A cytogenetic study of eight human melanoma cell lines. Pathology 11 (4): 597–606, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tveit KM, Fodstad O, Pihl A: The usefulness of human tumor cell lines in the study of chemosensitivity: A study of malignant melanomas. Int J Cancer 28 (4): 403–408, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tveit KM, Pihl A: Do cell lines in vitro reflect the properties of the tumours of origin? A study of lines derived from human melanoma xenografts. Br J Cancer 44 (6): 775–786, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gupta V and Krishan A: Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parsons PG, Morrison L: Melphalan-induced chromosome damage in sensitive and resistant human melanoma cell lines. Int J Cancer 21 (4): 438–443, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parsons PG, Smellie SG, Morrison LE, Hayward IP: Properties of human melanoma cells resistant to 5-(3′, 3′-dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide and other methylating agents. Cancer Res 42 (4): 1454–1461, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barranco SC, Ho DH, Drewinko B, Romsdahl MM, Humphrey RM: Differential sensitiv–ities’of human melanoma cells grown in vitro to arabinosylcytosine. Cancer Res 32 (12): 2733–2736, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barranco SC, Drewinko B, Humphrey RM: Differential response by human melanoma cells to 1,3 bis-(2-chlorethyl)-l-nitrosourea and bleomycin. Mutation Res 19: 277–280, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephens TC, Peacock JH: Clonal variation in the sensitivity of B16 melanoma to m-AMSA. Br J Cancer 45 (6): 821–829, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Griswold DP Jr: Consideration of the subcutaneously implanted B16 melanoma as a screening model for potential anticancer agents. Cancer Chemother Rep (Suppl) 3(1):315– 324, 1972.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stewart HI, Shell AC, Dunham LJ, Schlyer SM: Harding-Passey melanoma mouse. In: Transplantable and transmissable tumors of animals. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1959, pp 40–53.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hill HZ, Hill GJ II, Miller CF, Weiss K, Galin M: Effects of 5-(3,3, dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide, l-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea, and L-phenylalanine mustard on B16, Cloudman S91, and Harding-Passey mouse melanomas. Cancer Res 49: 924–939, 1979.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Birkmayer GD, Balda BR, Miller F: The inhibitory effect of proflavine and ethidium bromide on the cell-free transmission and the growth of the hamster melanoma A Mel 3. Eur Jr Cancer 9: 859–864, 1973.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Millikan LE, Boylon JL, Hook RR, Manning PJ: Melanoma in Sinclair Swine: A new animal model. J Invest Dermatol 62 (1): 20–30, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Millikan LE, Hook RR, Manning PJ: Immunobiology of melanoma. Gross and ultrastructural studies in a new melanoma model: The Sinclair swine. Yale J Biol Med 46(5):631–645, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oxenhandler RW, Adelstein EH, Heigh JP, Hook RR Jr, Clark WH Jr: Malignant melanoma in the Sinclair miniature swine: An autopsy study of 60 cases. Am J Pathol 96 (3): 707–720, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Delgalvis R, Verbin RS, Chaudhry AP: Experimental induction of melanotic tumors in hamsters’ skin. J Dent Res 47 (2): 339, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vesselinovitch SD, Mihailovich N, Richter WR: The induction of malignant melanomas in Syrian white hamster by neonatal exposure to urethan. Cancer Res 30 (10): 2543–7, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clark WH Jr, Min BH, Kligman LH: The developmental biology of induced malignant melanoma in guinea pigs and a comparison with other neoplastic systems. Cancer Res 36 (11 Ptl): 4079–4091, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Berkelhammer J, Oxenhandler RW, Hook RR Jr, Hennessy JM: Development of a new melanoma model in C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Res 42 (8): 3157–3163; 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shadduck JA, Albert DM, Niederkorn JY: Feline uveal melanomas induced with feline sarcoma virus: Potential model of the human counterpart. JNCI 67 (3): 619–627, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Giovanella BC, Yim SO, Morgan AC, Stehlin JS, Williams LJ Jr: Brief communication: Metastases of human melanomas transplanted in ‘nude’ mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 50 (4): 1051–1053, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Giovanella BC, Stehlin JS, Williams LJ Jr: Heterotransplantation of human malignant tumors in ‘nude’ thymusless mice: II. Malignant tumors induced by injection of cell cultures derived from human solid tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 52 (3): 921–930, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Aubert C, Roug’e F, Galindo JR: Tumorigenicity of human malignant malanocytes in nude mice in relation to their differentiation in vitro. JNCI 64 (5): 1029–1040, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sakakibara K, Oota K: Heterotransplantation of cell lines derived from human malignant neoplasms into golden hamsters treated with antithymocyte serum. Jpn J Exp Med 45 (6): 501–514, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richmond RE, Morton DL: Growth and metastasis of human melanoma xenografts in the hamster host. JNCI 62 (4): 761–763, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steel GG, Courtenay VD, Peckham MJ: The immune-suppressed mouse as an alternative host for transplantation. In: The nude mouse in experimental and clinical research, Vol 2, Fogh, J and Giovanella BC (eds). New York: Academic Press, 1983, pp 207–222.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kanzaki T, Hashimoto K, Bath DW: Heterotransplantation of human malignant cell lines in athymic nude mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 62: 1151–1158, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rofstad EK, Fodstad O, Lindmo T: Growth characteristics of human melanoma xenografts. Cell Tissue Kinet 15: 545–554, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shorthouse AJ, Smyth JF, Steel GG, Ellison M, Mills J, Peckham MJ: The human tumor xenograft-a valid model in experimental chemotherapy. Br J Surg 67: 715–722, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bellet RE, Danna V, Mastrangelo MJ, Berd D: Evaluation of a ‘nude’ mouse–human tumor panel as a predictive secondary screen for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 63: 1185–1188, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Povlsen CO, Jacobson GK: Chemotherapy of a human malignant melanoma transplanted in the nude mouse. Cancer Res 34: 2790–2796, 1975.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fodstad O, Aass N, Pihl A: Response to chemotherapy of human, malignant melanoma xenografts in athymic, nude mice. Int J Cancer 25: 453–458, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dufor FD, Okada GT, Mah SG, Morton DL: Chemotherapy against human melanoma in hamster check pouch. J Surgical One 15: 355–361, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tveit KM, Fodstad O, Olsnes S, Pihl A: In vitro sensitivity of human melanoma xenografts to cytotoxic drugs: Correlation with in-vivo chemosensitivity. Int J Cancer 26: 717–722, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fodstad O, Aass N, Pihl A: Assessment of tumour growth and of response to chemotherapy of human melanomas in athymic, nude mice. Br J Cancer 41 (Suppl 4): 146–149, 1980.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fodstad O, Aass N, Pihl A: An inverse relationship between the growth rate of human melanoma xenografts and their response to some cytostatic drugs. Br J Cancer 41(5): 829– 831, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bateman AE, Selby PJ, Steel GG, Towse GD: In vitro chemosensitivity tests on xenografted human melanomas. Br J Cancer 41 (2): 189–198, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Selby PJ, Courtenay VD, McElwain TJ, Peckham MJ, Steel GG: Colony growth and clonogenic cell survival in human melanoma xenografts treated with chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 42 (3): 438–447, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Clutterbuck RD, Millar JL, McElwain TJ: Misonidazole enhancement of the action of BCNU and melphalan against human malanoma xenografts. Am J Clin Oncol 5 (1): 73–78, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gupta V, Krishan A: Effect of oxygen concentration on the growth and drug sensitivity of human melanoma cells in soft-agar clonogenic assay. Cancer Res 42 (3): 1005–1007, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gupta V, Krishan A, Zubrod CG: Correlation of in vitro clonogenic assay data with in vivo grow delays and cell cycle changes of a human melanoma xenograft. Cancer Res 43: 2560–2564, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vendetti JM: Relevance of transplantable animal-tumor systems to the selection of new agents for clinical trial. In: Advances in antimicrobial and antineoplastic chemotherapy, Semonsky M, Hejzlar M, Masak S (eds). Baltimore: University Park Press, Vol II 1972, pp 245–270.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stephens TC, Peacock JH: Cell yield and cell survival following chemotherapy of the B16 melanoma. Br J Cancer 38 (5): 591–598, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hill HZ, Hill GJ, Szramowski J: Dacarbazine and melphalan: Enhancement by dosage scheduling of the effect in combination treatment on the Harding-Passay melanoma in C3D2F1 mice. Arch Surg 114 (2): 135–138, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hill HZ, Hill GJ II: Effect of scheduling of combinations of 5-(3,3-dimethyl-l-triazeno)-imidazole-4-carboxamide and l-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(4-methyl cyclohexyl)-l-nitrosourea on the Harding-Passey and Cloudman S91 mouse melanomas. Cancer Res 42: 838–842, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Griswold DP, Dykes J, Kelly CA, Roberts BJ, Dominick CA: Approaches to combination chemotherapy in rat, monkey, and hamster tumors. Cancer Chem Rep Part 2: 99–108, 1974.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stephens TC, Peacock JH: Tumour volume response, initial cell kill and cellular repopulation in B16 melanoma treated with cyclophosphamide and l-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohex-yl-1-nitrosourea. Br J Cancer 36 (3): 313–321, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mabel J A, Merker PC, Sturgeon ML, Wodinsky I, Geran RI: Combination chemotherapy against B16 melanoma: Bleomycin/vinblastine, bleomycin/cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, 5-fluorouracil/BCNU and 5-fluorouracil/methyl-CCNU. Cancer 42 (4): 1711–1719, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stephens TC, Peacock JH, Steel GG: Cell survival in B16 melanoma after treatment with combinations of cytotoxic agents; lack of potentiation. Br J Cancer 36 (1): 84–93, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wick MM: An experimental approach to the chemotherapy of melanoma. J Invest Dermatol 74 (2): 63–65, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wong G, Pawelek J: Control of phenotypic expression of cultured melanoma cells by melanotic stimulating hormones. Nature (New Biol) 241: 213–215, 1973.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pawelek J, Wong G, Sansone M, Horwitz J: Molecular controls in mammalian pigmentation. Yale J Biol Med 46: 430–443, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wong G, Pawelek J, Sansone M, Horwitz J: Response of mouse melanoma cells to melanocyte stimulating hormone. Nature 248 (446): 351–354, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cobb JP, McGrath A, Willetts N: Response of Claudman S91 melanoma cells to melanocyte stimulating hormone: Enhancement by cytochalasin B. J Natl Cancer Inst 56 (5): 1079–1081, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cobb JP, McGrath A: In vitro effects of melanocyte–stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, 17 beta-estradiol, or testosterone propionate on Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 52 (2): 567–570, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pawelek J, Sansone M, Koch N, Christie G, Halaban R, Hendee J, Lerner AB, Varga JM: Melanoma cells resistant to inhibition of growth by melanocyte stimulating hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72 (3): 951–955, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wick MM: Inhibition of clonogenic gorwth of melanoma cells by combination of melanocyte stimulating hormone and theophylline. J Invest Dermatol 77 (3): 253–255, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fuller BB, Meysken FL Jr: Endocrine responsiveness in human melanocytes and melanoma cells in culture. JNCI 66 (5): 700–802, 1981.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Prasad KN, Sakamoto A: Effect of sodium butyrate in combination with prostaglandin El and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase on human amelanotic melanoma cells in culture. Experientia 34 (12): 1575–1576, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nishihira T, Kasai M, Hayashi Y, Kimura M, Matsumura Y, Akaishi T, Ishiguro S, Kataoka S, Watanabe H, Miura UY, Sato H: Experimental studies on differentiation of cells originated from human neural crest tumors in vitro and in vivo. Cell Mol Biol 27 (2-3): 181–196, 1981.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kreider JW, Wade DR, Rosenthal M, Densley T: Maturation and differentiation of B16 melanoma cells induced by theophylline treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 54 (6): 1457–1467, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kimura M, Nishihira T, Kasai M, Sato H: Differentiative and proliferative effects of (But)2cAMP, n-butyric acid and prednisolone on the malignant melanoma cell line (TM-1) in vitro and in vivo. Tohoku J Exp Med 131 (1): 29–35, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Magee BA, Potezny N, Rofe AM, Conyers RA: The inhibition of malignant cell growth by ketone bodies. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 57 (5): 529–539, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prasad KN, Edwards–Prasad J: Effects of tocopherol (vitamin E) acid succinate on morphological alterations and growth inhibition in melanoma cells in culture. Cancer Res 42 (2): 550–555, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oikawa A, Nakayasu M: Stimulation of melanogenesis in cultured melanoma cells by calciferols. FEBS Lett 42 (1): 32–35, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Huberman E, Heckman C, Langenbach R: Stimulation of differentiated functions in human melanoma cells by tumor-promoting agents and dimethyl sulfoxide. Cancer Res 39 (7 Pt 1): 2618–2624, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Abraham J, Rovera G: The effect of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters on terminal differentiation of cells in culture. Mol Cell Biochem 31 (3): 165–175, 1980.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Raz A: B16 melanoma cell variats: Irreversible inhibition of growth and induction of morphologic differentiation by anthracycline antibiotics. JNCI 68 (4): 629–638, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kreider JW, Schmoyer ME: Spontaneous maturation and differentiation of B16 melanoma cells in culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 55 (3): 641–647, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Santoro MG, Philpott GW, Jaffe BM: Inhibition of tumour growth in vivo and in vitro by prostaglandin E. Nature 263 (5580): 777–779, 1976.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bregman MD, Sander D, Meyskens FL Jr: Prostaglandin Al and El inhibit the plating efficiency and proliferation of murine melanoma cells (Cloudman S-91) in soft agar. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 104 (3): 1080–1086, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hofer D, Dubitsky A, Marti J, Santoro MG, Reilly P, Jaffe BM: Prostaglandin E augments the effect of chemotherapy on B16 melanoma in vivo. J Surg Res 32 (6): 555–562, 1982.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hofer D, Dubitsky AM, Reilly P, Santoro MG, Jaffe BM: The interactions between indomethacin and cytotoxic drugs in mice bearing B16 melanomas. Prostaglandins 20 (6): 1033–1038, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wick MM, Beyers L, Frei E 3d: L-dopa: Selective toxicity for melanoma cells in vitro. Science 1971 (4302): 468–469, 1977.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shohat B, Kott E, Bornstein B: The effect of L-dopa, noradrenalin and adrenalin on P388 mouse leukemia, B16 mouse melanoma and E0771 mammary carcinoma. Experientia 3191: 110–111, 1975.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wick MM: 1-Dopa methyl ester as a new antitumour agent. Nature 269(5628):512–513, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Von Hoff DD, Forseth B, Metelmann HR, Harris G, Rowan S, Coltman CA Jr: Direct cloning of human malignant melanoma. Cancer 50 (4): 696–701, 1982.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wick MM, Byers L, Ratliff J: Selective toxicity of 6–hydroxydopa for melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol 72 (2): 67–69, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wick MM: 3,4-Dihydroxybenzylamine: A dopamine analog with enhanced antitumor activity against B16 melanoma. JNCI 63(6): 1465–1467, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pawelek JM, Lerner AB: 5,6-Dihydroxyindole is a melanin precursor showing potent cytotoxicity. Nature 276: 627–628, 1978.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fujita K, Ito S, Inone S, Yamamato Y, Takonchi J, Shamato M, Nagatsu T: Selective toxicity of 5-S-cysteinyldopa, a melanin precursor, to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 40: 2543–2546, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chavin W, Jelonek EJ Jr, Reed AH, Binder LR: Survival of mice receiving melanoma transplants is promoted by hydroquinone. Science 208 (4442): 408–410, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wick MM: Levodopa and dopamine analogs as DNA polymerase inhibitors and antitumor agents in human melanoma. Cancer Res 40 (5): 1418–1418, 1980.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wick MM: Levadopa and dopamine analogs: Melanin precursor as anti–tumor agents in experimental human and murine leukemia. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 991–997, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bram S, Froussard P, Guichard M, Jasmin C, Augery Y, Sinoussi-Barre F, Wray W: Vitamin C preferential toxicity for malignant melanoma cells. Nature 284 (5757): 629–631, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Parson PG, Morrison LE: DNA damage and selective toxicity of dopa and ascorbate: Copper in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res 42: 3783–3788, 1982.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Meadows GG, Pierson HF, Abdallah RM, Desai PR: Dietary influence of tyrosine and phenylalanine on the response of B16 melanoma to carbidopa-levodopa methyl ester chemotherapy. Cancer Res 42 (8): 3056–3063, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pierson HF, Meadows GG: Sodium ascorbate enhancement of carbidopa-levodopa methylester antitumor activity against pigmented B16 melanoma. Cancer Res 43: 2047–2051, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Demopoulos HB: Effects of reducing the phenylalanine-tryosine intake of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer 19 (5): 657–664, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Elmer GW, Minor L, Meadows GG, Spackman DH, Riley V: Increased tyrosine phenollyase activity in mice following pyridoxal phosphate administration. Cancer Res 38: 3663–3667, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hourain BT, Demopoulos HB: Inhibition of S91 mouse melanoma metastases and growth by D-pencillamine. Lab Invest 21: 434–438, 1969.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fairchild RG, Packer S, Greenberg D, Som P, Brill AB, Fand I, McNally WP: Thiouracil distribution in mice carryring transplantable melanoma. Cancer Res 42: 5126–5132, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Larrson B, Olander K, Denker L, Holmqvist: Accumulation of 125I-labelled thiouracil and propylthiouracil in murine melanotic melanomas. Br J Cancer 46: 538–549, 1982.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Greer M, Anton AH, Williams CM: Failure of enzyme inhibition therapy for maignant melanoma. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 94: 273–275, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wick MM: Therapeutic effects of dopamine infusion on human malignant melanoma. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 1657–1659, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Van Woert MH, Palmer SH: Inhibition of growth of mouse melanoma by chlorpromazine. Cancer Res 69: 1952–1955, 1969.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Costanzi JJ: DTIC (NSC-45388) studies in the Southwest Oncology Group. Cancer Treat Rep 60: 189–192, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nazzaro-Porro M, Passi S, Zina G, Bernengo, Breathnack A, Gallagher S, Morpurgo G: Effect of azelaic acid on human malignant melanoma. Lancet 24: 1109–1111, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicram Gupta

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations