Reproduction and Representation of Musical Rhythms: The Effects of Musical Skill
One of the ways in which the processes involved in acquiring a cognitive skill have been investigated is by contrasting the performances of experts and novices in particular domains such as chess (Chase and Simon, 1973), physics (Simon and Simon, 1978; Larkin, McDermott, Simon and Simon, 1980), computer programming (McKeithen, Reitman, Rueter and Hirtle, 1981), map learning (Thorndyke and Stasz, 1980), and reading music (Sloboda, 1976, 1978). Experts are generally defined as individuals with special task-related training and many years of practice. Age is another factor to consider when comparing skilled and unskilled performance (Brown, 1982; Brown and DeLoache, 1978). While age is sometimes positively correlated with skill, children can also acquire expertise. Indeed, as Chi (1978) found in her comparison of skilled child chess players and novice adult players, task-related experience can sometimes override the typical developmental finding that adults are superior to children.
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