• Warwick L. Morison
  • Irene E. Kochevar


Photoallergy is a state of specifically altered reactivity towards an exogenous chemical in which photons play some role. The usual manifestation is an eczematous rash that occurs after the skin is exposed to both an offending chemical and electromagnetic radiation. In many conditions classified as photoallergic, the evidence for an immune mechanism is suggestive, not conclusive. Immunologic reactivity in photoallergy is thought to be directed toward an antigen that arises as the result of a reaction(s) initiated by the absorption of radiation by (1) the chemical or a complex containing the chemical, (2) a biotransformation product of the chemical, or (3) a host molecule altered by the chemical.


Contact Dermatitis Action Spectrum Contact Allergy Minimal Erythemal Dose Photo Sensitizer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Epstein S: Photoallergy and primary photosensitivity to sulfanilamide. J Invest Dermatol 2:43–51, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaidbey KH, Kligman AM: Identification of systemic phototoxic drugs by human intradermal assay. J Invest Dermatol 70:272–274, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blum HF: Studies of photosensitivity due to sulfanilamide. J Invest Dermatol 4:159–173, 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Emmett EA: Diphenhydramine photoallergy. Arch Dermatol 110:249–252, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osmundsen TE: Photopatch testing. Trans St John’s Hosp Derm Soc 55:160–173, 1969.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Epstein S: Masked photopatch tests. J Invest Dermatol 41:369–370, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wahlberg JE, Wennersten G: Light sensitivity and chromium dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 97:411–416, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wilkinson DS: Patch test reactions to certain halogenated salicylanilides. Br J Dermatol 74:302–306, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Quinn SE, Kennedy CB, Lsbell KH: Contact photodermatitis due to bithionol and related compounds. JAMA 199:125–128, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Epstein H: Photoallergy: A review. Arch Dermatol 106:741–748, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morison WL, White HAD, Gonzales E, et al: Oral methoxsalen photochemotherapy of uncommon photodermatoses. Acta Dermatol (Stockholm) 59:366–367, 1979.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Epstein JH, Wuepper KD, Maiback HI: Photocontact dermatitis to halogenated salicylanilides and related compounds. Arch Dermatol 97:236–244, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giovinazzo VJ, Harber LC, Bickers DR, et al: Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Arch Dermatol 117:344–348, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jillson OF, Baughman RD: Contact photodermatitis from bithionol. Arch Dermatol 88:409–418, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramsay CA: Skin responses to ultraviolet radiation in contact photodermatitis due to fentichlor. J Invest Dermatol 72:99–102, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Willis I, Kligman AM: The mechanism of the persistent light reactor. J Invest Dermatol 51:385–391, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Horio T, Ofuji S: The fate of tetrachlorosalicylanilide in photosensitized guinea pigs. Acta Dermatol (Stockholm) 56:367–371, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cripps DJ, Enta T: Absorption and action spectra studies on bithionol and halogenated salicylanilide photosensitivity. Br J Dermatol 82:230–242, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kochevar IE, Harber LC: Photoreactions of 3, 3.’, 4.’, 5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide with proteins. J Invest Dermatol 68:151–156, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Willis I, Kligman AM: The mechanism of photoallergy contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 51:378–384, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaidbey KH, Kligman AM: Photosensitization by coumarin derivatives. Arch Dermatol 117:258–263, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schwarz K, Speck M: Experimental Untersuchungen zur Frage der Photoallergie der Sulfonamide. Dermatologica 114:232–240, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vinson LJ, Borselli VF: A guinea pig assay of the photosensitizing potential of tropical germicides. J Soc Cosmetic Chemists 17:123–130, 1966.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Horio T: The induction of photocontact sensitivity in guinea pigs without UVB radiation. J Invest Dermatol 67:591–593, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kochevar IE, Zalar GL, Einbinder J, et al: Assay of contact photosensitivity to musk ambrette in guinea pigs. J Invest Dermatol 73:144–146, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ichikawa H, Armstrong RB, Harber LC: Photoallergie contact dermatitis in guinea pigs: Improved induction technique using Freund’s complete adjuvant. J Invest Dermatol 76:498–501, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harber LC: Current status of mammalian and human models for predicting drug photosensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 77:65–70, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maguire HL, Kaidbey KH: An experimental study of photo-allergic contact dermatitis. Poster exhibit, American Academy of Dermatology Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 1981.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Granstein RD, Morison WL: Effects of UVB on the induction of photoallergie contact dermatitis in a murine model. J Invest Dermatol, in press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Freeman RG, Knox JM: The action spectrum of photocontact dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 97:130–136, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Giovinazzo VJ, Ichikawa H, Kochevar IE, et al: Photoallergie contact dermatitis to musk ambrette: Action spectra in guinea pigs and man. Photochem Photobiol 33:773–777, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morison WL, McAuliffe DJ, Parrish JA, et al: In vitro assay for phototoxic chemicals. J Invest Dermatol 78:460–463.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morikawa F, Nakayama Y, Fukuda M, et al: Techniques for evaluation of phototoxicity and photoallergy in laboratory animals and man, in Pathak MA, Harber LC, Seiji M, et al (eds): Sunlight and Man, Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1972, p. 529.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harber LC, Targovnik SE, Baer RL: Studies on contact photosensitivity to hexachlor-phene and trichlorocarbanilide in guinea pigs and man. J Invest Dermatol 51:373–377, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Coxon JA, Jenkins FP, Welti D: The effect of light on halogenated salicylanilide ions. Photochem Photobiol 4:713–718, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davies AK, Hilal, NS, McKellar JF, et al: Photochemistry of tetrachlorosalicylanilide and its relevance to the persistent light reactor. Br J Dermatol 92:143–147, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huant CL, Sands FL: Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on chlorpromazine II. J Pharm Sci 56:259–265, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grant FW, Greene J: Phototoxicity and photonucleophilic aromatic substitution in chlorpromazine. Tox Appl Pharmacol 23:71–74, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davies AK, Navaratnam S, Phillips GO: Photochemistry of chlorpromazine (2-chloro-N-(3-demethylaminopropyl)phenothiazine) in propan-2-ol solution. J Chem Soc, Perkin Trans 11:25–29, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pawlaczyk JW, Turowska W: Fotochemia zwiazkdw o dzialaniu fotodynamicznm. Acta Pol Pharm 33:505–509, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dopp D, Arfsten-Romberg U, Bolz W, et al: Photo-yellowing of musk ambrette (4-tert-butyl-3-methoxy-2, 6-dinitrotoluene) in methanolic sodium hydroxide solution. Chem Ber 112:3946–3949, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Emmett EA: The nature of tribromosalicylanilide photoallergy. J Invest Dermatol 63: 227–230, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chignell CF, Kalyanaraman B, Mason RP et al: Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents-I. Spin trapping of photolysis products from sulfanilamide, 4-aminobenzoic acid and related compounds. Photochem Photobiol 32:563–571, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Herman PS, Sams WM: Requirement for carrier protein in salicylanilide sensitivity: The migration-inhibition test in contact photoallergy. J Lab Clin Med 77:572–579, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosenthal I, Ben-Hur E, Prager A, et al: Photochemical reactions of chlorpromazine: Chemical and biochemical implications. Photochem Photobiol 28:591–594, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jung EG, Dummler N, Immich H: Photoallergie durch 4-chlor-2-hydroxy-benzesäure-N-Butylamid. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 232:403–412, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kochevar IE,: Photoallergie responses to chemicals. Photochem Photobiol 30:437–442, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harber LC, Targovnik SE, Baer RL: Contact photosensitivity patterns to hallogenated salicylanilides. Arch Dermatol 96:646–656, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Herman PS, Sams WM: Photosensitivity to halogenated salicylanilides, in Herman PS, Sams WM (eds), Soap Photodermatitis. Springfield, Illinois, CC Thomas, 1972, p. 80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warwick L. Morison
    • 1
  • Irene E. Kochevar
    • 2
  1. 1.Basic Research Program-LBIFrederick Cancer Research FacilityFrederickUSA
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical SchoolMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations