Advertisement

Electrochemistry in Molten Salts

  • D. Inman
  • D. G. Lovering

Abstract

According to recent developments in the field, the term molten salts can advantageously be widened in scope to encompass many molten media which may not be wholly ionic or derived from simple salts. Thus, many systems studied within this broad classification may change their ionicity and hence conductivity according to temperature, pressure, or composition, e.g., silicates, group IIB chlorides, and chloroaluminates, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of melts that have been studied are substantially dissociated in the liquid state, and all processes conducted in these are ipso facto electrochemical. Many of the processes considered here, therefore, involve charge transfer systems, particularly between solids (mainly metals) and melts, viz., electrode processes.(1)

Keywords

Molten Salt Electrode Process Electrochemical Stability Exchange Current Density Electrochemical Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. D. Graves, G. J. Hills, and D. Inman, in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 4, P. Delahay and C. W. Tobias, eds., Wiley Interscience, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. J. Janz, Molten Salt Handbook, Academic Press, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Braunstein, Inorg. Chim. Acta. Rev. 2, 19 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Encyclopaedia of Electrochemistry, Q. A. Hampel, ed., Reinhold, New York (1964), and Characterization of Solutes in Non-Aqueous Solvents, G. Mamantov, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The Chemistry of Non-Aqueous Solvents, Vol. I, J. J. Lagowski, ed., Academic Press, New York (1966); Non-Aqueous Solvent Systems, T. C. Waddington, ed., Academic Press, New York (1965); Inorganic Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents, A. K. Holliday and A. G. Massey, eds., Commonwealth and International Library, Pergamon, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Lumsden, Thermodynamics of Molten Salt Mixtures, Academic Press, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins, and H. F. McMurdy, American Ceramics Society, Columbus, Ohio (1964), (1965), (1975).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. V. Woodcock and K. Singer, Trans. Farad. Soc. 67, 12 (1971); F. H. Stillinger, Jr., in Molten Salt Chemistry, M. Blander, ed., Wiley Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See, for example, (a) C. A. Angell and C. T. Moynihan, (b) J. Jordan, W. B. McCarthy, and P. G. Zambonin, in Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis, G. Mamantov, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Bloom and J. O’M. Bockris, in Fused Salts, B. Sundheim, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1964); F. D. Richardson, Physical Chemistry of Melts in Metallurgy, Vols. 1 and 2, Academic Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Grantham and S. J. Yosim, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 2506 (1963); J. Chem. Phys. 45, 1192 (1966); B. Cleaver and S. I. Smedley, Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 1115 (1971); B. Cleaver, in Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry, Vol. 4, G. Mamantov and J. Braunstein, Plenum Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. G. Lovering, thesis, City University (1969).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Chariot and B. Tremillon, Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts, transl. P. J. J. Harvey, Pergamon Press, Braunschweig (1969); G. Mamantov and R. A. Osteryoung, in Characterization of Solutes in Non-Aqueous Solvents, G. Mamantov, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. A. Levy and M. D. Danford, in Molten Salt Chemistry, M. Blander, ed., Wiley Interscience, New York (1964); F. G. Edwards, R. A. Howe, J. E. Enderby, and D. I. Page, J. Phys.CZ, 3483 (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. A. Bredig, in Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis, G. Mamantov, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1969), but see also discussion by D. Inman, A. D. Graves, and R. S. Sethi, in Specialist Periodical Reports—Electrochemistry, Vol. I, The Chemical Society, London (1970), p. 187; Y.-T. Hsu, R. B. Escue, and T. H. Tidwell, Jr., J. Electroanal. Chem. 15, 245 (1967).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Michielsen, P. Woerlee, F. v. d. Graff, and J. A. A. Ketelaar, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 71, 1730 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. K. Wilmshurst, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1779 (1963).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Lux, Z. Elektrochem. 45, 303 (1939) et seq., H. Flood and T. F0rland, Acta Chem. Scand. 1, 592 (1947).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Littlewood, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 525 (1962); D. Inman and N. S. Wrench, Brit. Corr. J. 1, 246 (1966).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. A. Plambeck, in Encyclopaedia of Electrochemistry of the Elements, Vol. X, A. J. Bard, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. E. Johnson and P. Fullman, Abstract 358, in Extended Abstracts, Vol. 78-2, Fall Meeting, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1978), p. 966.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. F. Alabyshev, M. F. Lantratov, and A. G. Morachevskii, Reference Electrodes for Fused Salts, transl. A. Pieperl, Sigma Press, Washington D.C. (1965).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. D. Corbett, in Fused Salts, B. R. Sundheim, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1964); M. A. Bredig, in Molten Salt Chemistry, M. Blander, ed., Wiley Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. A. Wolstenholme, in Molten Salt Technology, D. G. Lovering, ed., Plenum, N.Y., (1982); also see Ref. 27 and K. Grojotheim, C. Krohn, and H. Øye, in Trends in Electrochemistry, J. O’M. Bockris, D. A. J. Rand, and B. J. Welch, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. W. Fung and G. Mamantov, in Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry, Vol. 2, J. Braunstein, G. Mamantov, and G. P. Smith, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Inman, New Scientist 25, 220 (1965).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. E. Richards, in Electrochemistry—The Past Thirty and the Next Thirty Years, H. Bloom and F. Gutmann, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Paunovic, J. Electroanal Chem. 14, 447 (1967); R. K. Jain, H. C. Gaur, and B. J. Welch, J. Electroanal. Chem. 79, 211 (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    See, for example, W. K. Behl and H. C. Gaur, J. Electroanal. Chem. 32, 293 (1971).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. J. Hills, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. Thompson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 157 (1973).Google Scholar
  31. 32.
    A. Kisza and U. Twardoch, Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. 20, 1063 (1972).Google Scholar
  32. 33.
    P. H. Davies, E. J. Frazer, M. Skyllas, and B. J. Welch, in Trends in Electrochemistry, J. O’M. Bockris, D. A. J. Rand, and B. J. Welch., eds., Plenum Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  33. 34.
    D. Inman, D. J. Jovanovic, and S. H. White, J. Electroanal. Chem. 43, 37 (1973).Google Scholar
  34. 35.
    D. G. Lovering, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 38, 1719 (1973).Google Scholar
  35. 36.
    J. O’M. Bockris, S. R. Richards, and L. Nanis, J. Phys. Chem. 69, 1627 (1965).Google Scholar
  36. 37.
    S. Forcheri and V. Wagner, Z Naturforsch. 22a, 1171 (1967).Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    D. G. Lovering and R. M. Oblath, J. Electrochem. Soc., 127, 1997 (1980).Google Scholar
  38. 39.
    J. H. Christie and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82, 1841 (1960).Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    H. A. Laitinen and H. C. Gaur, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 730 (1957).Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    R. Narayan, D. G. Lovering, and D. Inman, Chem. Commun. 386 (1966).Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    D. Inman, R. S. Sethi, and R. Spencer, J. Electroanal. Chem. 29, 137 (1971).Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    D. G. Lovering, Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 2659 (1971).Google Scholar
  43. 44.
    E. Temmerman and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 1 (1975).Google Scholar
  44. 45.
    D. Inman and D. G. Lovering, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 778 (1974).Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    D. Inman and R. Spencer, in Advances in Extractive Metallurgy and Refining, I.M.M., London (1974).Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    G. F. Warren, S. H. White, and D. Inman, in International Symposium on Molten Salts, J. P. Pemsler, J. Braunstein, K. Nobe, D. R. Morris, and N. E. Richards, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1976).Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    V. Sh. Palanker, A. M. Skundin, and V. S. Bagotskii, Sov. Electrochem. 2, 592 (1966).Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    E. A. Ukshe, N. G. Bukun, D. I. Leikis, and A. N. Frumkin, Electrochim. Acta 9, 431 (1964).Google Scholar
  49. 50.
    N. G. Bukun and E. A. Ukshe, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 37, 750 (1963); S. Karpachev and A. Stromberg, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 18, 47 (1944); V. A. Kuznetsov, T. D. Dyakova, and V. D. Mal’tseva, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 33, 48 (1959).Google Scholar
  50. 51.
    E. W. Dewing and P. Desclaux, in Molten Salt Electrolysis in Metal Production, I.M.M., London (1977).Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    S. Karpachev and W. Patzug, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 13, 1831 (1939).Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    J. E. B. Randies and W. White, Z. Elektrochem. 59, 666 (1955).Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    G. J. Hills and P. D. Power, Trans. Faraday Soc. 64, 1629 (1968).Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    P. Fellner and K. Matiasovsky, Chem. Zvesti 26, 36 (1972).Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    O. A. Esin, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 30, 3 (1956).Google Scholar
  56. 57.
    R. R. Dogonzdze and Yu. A. Chizmadev, Proc. Acad. Sei. SSSR Phys. Chem. Sect. (Engl.) 157, 778 (1964).Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    A. I. Sotnikov and O. A. Esin, in Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Molten Salts and Slags, Proceedings 3rd All-Soviet Conference, May 1966, Khimiya, Leningrad (1968).Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    N. G. Bukun and E. A. Ukshe, Ibid.Google Scholar
  59. 60.
    A. D. Graves and D. Inman, in E.m.f. Measurements in High Temperature Systems, C. B. Alcock, ed., I.M.M., London (1968).Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    R. Yu. Bek and A. S. Lifshits, Siber. Chem. J. 6, 713 (1967).Google Scholar
  61. 62.
    A. D. Graves and D. Inman, J. Electroanal Chem. 25, 357 (1970).Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    R. H. Heus, T. Tidwell, and J. J. Egan, in Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis, G. Mamantov, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  63. 64.
    P. Fellner and K. Matiasovsky, Electrochim. Acta. 17, 233 (1972).Google Scholar
  64. 65.
    D. Inman, J. E. Bowling, D. G. Lovering, and S. H. White, in Specialist Periodical Reports Electrochemistry, Vol. 4, Chemical Society, London (1974).Google Scholar
  65. 66.
    D. M. Heyes, M. Barber, and J. H. R. Clarke, Abstract No. 365, in Second International Symposium on Molten Salts, Extended Abstracts 78–2, from 154th Meeting, Electrochemical Society, Pittsburgh, October 15–20 (1978), p. 980.Google Scholar
  66. 67.
    E. H. Arnstein and W. D. Davis, Molten Salt Electrolysis in Metal Production, I.M.M., London (1977), p. 62.Google Scholar
  67. 68.
    D. Inman, Chem. Eng. tLondon) 51 (1967).Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    D. Inman, J. C. L. Legey, and R. Spencer, J. Electroanal. Chem. 61, 289 (1975).Google Scholar
  69. 70.
    D. Inman and S. H. White, J. Appl. Electrochem. 8, 375 (1978).Google Scholar
  70. 71.
    F. Lantelme, J. P. Hanselin, and M. Chemla, J. Electroanal. Chem. 97, 49 (1979).Google Scholar
  71. 72.
    H. C. Gaur and R. S. Sethi, J. Electroanal. Chem. 7, 474 (1974).Google Scholar
  72. 73.
    R. M. de Froment et al., in Polarography 1964, G. J. Hills, ed., Macmillan, London (1966).Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    For example, see J. J. Egan and R. Heus, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 824 (1960).Google Scholar
  74. 75.
    D. Inman and J. O’M. Bockris, J. Electroanal. Chem. 3, 126 (1962).Google Scholar
  75. 76.
    E. A. Ukshe and N. G. Bukun, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 35, 1330 (1961).Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    B. A. Parkinson and F. C. Anson, Anal. Chem. 50, 1886 (1978), but see also H. B. Harvey, R. L. McNeey, P. Surana, C. M. Ellion, and R. W. Murray, Anal. Chem. 46, 1258 (1974).Google Scholar
  77. 78.
    D. Inman, J. O’M. Bockris, and E. Blomgren, J. Electroanal. Chem. 2, 506 (1961).Google Scholar
  78. 79.
    L. G. Boxall and K. E. Johnson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 67, 1433 (1971).Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    S. Sterberg and C. Herdlicka, Rev. Roum. Chim. 17, 343 (1972).Google Scholar
  80. 81.
    D. Inman, S. H. White, I. Wilmot, and B. Jones, J. Electroanal. Chem. 33, 225 (1971).Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    G. J. Hills, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. Thompson, Electrochim. Acta 19, 657 (1974).Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    J. C. L. Legey, thesis, London (1973).Google Scholar
  83. 84.
    H. C. Gaur, H. L. Jindal, and R. S. Sethi, Electrochim. Acta. 15, 845 (1970); H. C. Gaur and H. C. Jindal, J. Electraoanal. Chem. 23, 289 (1969).Google Scholar
  84. 85.
    D. Inman, R. S. Sethi, and R. Spencer, J. Electroanal. Chem. 29, 137 (1971).Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    P. G. Dudley, D. Inman, and S. H. White, in Extended Abstracts, 78–2, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1978).Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    G. J. Mills and K. E. Johnson, in Advances in Polarography, Vol. 3, I. Longmuir, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford (1960).Google Scholar
  87. 88.
    F. R. Duke and M. L. Iverson, Anal. Chem. 31, 1233 (1959).Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    For a lucid discussion, see J. Jordan, J. Electroanal. Chem. 29, 127 (1971), but also see A. F. J. Goeting and J. A. A. Ketalaar, Electrochim. Acta 19, 267 (1974) and J. D. Burke and D. H. Kerridge, J. Electrochim. Acta 19, 251 (1974).Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    G. J. Hills and K. E. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 108, 1013 (1961).Google Scholar
  90. 91.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, V. I. Sherpoval, and V. A. Vasilenko, Sov. Electrochem. 7, 1255 (1971).Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    E. Franks and D. Inman, J. Electroanal. Chem. 26, 13 (1970).Google Scholar
  92. 93.
    E. Franks and A. Mukherjee, J. Electroanal. Chem. 49, 456 (1974).Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    D. M. Wrench and D. Inman, Electrochim. Acta 12, 1601 (1967).Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    E. Franks and D. Inman, J. Appl. Electrochem. 1, 73 (1971).Google Scholar
  95. 96.
    D. Inman, in Electroactive Force Measurements in High-Temperature Systems, C. B. Alcock, ed., I.M.M., London (1968).Google Scholar
  96. 97.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 24, Appi. 25 (1970); D. Inman and M. J. Weaver, J. Electroanal. Chem. 51, 45 (1974).Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    See, for example, R. P. Tischer and F. A. Ludwig, in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 10, C. W. Tobias and H. Gerischer, Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  98. 99.
    See, for example, C. R. Dillard and D. E. Goldberg, Chemistry: Reactions, Structure and Properties, 2nd ed., Macmillan, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  99. 100.
    The Encyclopaedia of Electrochemistry, C. A. Hampel, ed., Reinhold, New York (1964), p. 31.Google Scholar
  100. 101.
    F. R. A. Smith, Met. Mater. (March 1974), p. 182.Google Scholar
  101. 102.
    G. A. Wolstenholme, Chem. Ind. 9, 383 (1975); J. G. Peacey and W. G. Davenport, J. Met. (July, 25, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  102. 103.
    See Ref. 102.Google Scholar
  103. 104.
    D. Inman and S. H. White, J. Appi Electrochem. 8, 375 (1978).Google Scholar
  104. 105.
    S. Senderoff, G. W. Mellors, and W. J. Reinhart, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112, 266 (1965).Google Scholar
  105. 106.
    S. Senderoff, G. W. Mellors, and W. J. Reinhart, Electrochem. Soc. 112, 840 (1965).Google Scholar
  106. 107.
    G. W. Mellors, Proceedings of the 1st Australian Conference on Electrochemistry, A. Friend and F. Gutmann, eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford (1964).Google Scholar
  107. 108.
    A. D. Graves and D. Inman, Electroplat. Met. Finish. 19, 314 (1966).Google Scholar
  108. 109.
    S. SenderofT and G. W. Mellors, J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 66 (1966).Google Scholar
  109. 110.
    See Ref. 100, p. 1100.Google Scholar
  110. 111.
    T. A. Henrie and E. Morrice, J. Met. 18, 1207 (1966); 21, 34 (1969).Google Scholar
  111. 112.
    N. C. Cook, Sci. Am. (August, 38, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  112. 113.
    D. A. J. Swinkels, in Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry, Vol. 1, J. Braunstein, G. Mamantov, and G. P. Smith, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  113. 114.
    E. J. Cairns and R. K. Steunenberg, in Progress in High Temperature Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 5, C. A. Rouse, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford (1973).Google Scholar
  114. 115.
    K. V. Kordesch, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 10, J. O’M. Bockris and B. E. Conway, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  115. 116.
    R. Roberts, in Electrotechnology, Vol. 2, R. P. Ouellette, F. Ellerbusch, and P. N. Cheremisinoff, eds., Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1978).Google Scholar
  116. 117.
    D. H. Thow, in Power Sources 3, D. H. Collins, ed., Oriel Press, Newcastle (1971).Google Scholar
  117. 118.
    G. Bowser etal.; U.S. Patent 3, 891, 460.Google Scholar
  118. 119.
    D. A. J. Swinkels and R. N. Seefurth, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 994 (1968).Google Scholar
  119. 120.
    E. H. Hietbrink, J. J. Petraits, and G. M. Craig, in Advances in Energy Conversion Engineering, A.S.M.E., New York (1967).Google Scholar
  120. 121.
    M. W. Breiter, in Trends in Electrochemistry, J. O’M. Bockris, D. A. J. Rand, and B. J. Welch, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  121. 122.
    J. L. Sudworth, A. R. Tilley, and J. M. Bird, in Extended Abstracts 77–2 (1977); J. L. Sudworth and M. D. Hames, in Extended Abstracts, 78–2 ( 1978 ), The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1977).Google Scholar
  122. 123.
    R. Hudson and K. Gentry, in Extended Abstracts 78–2, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1978).Google Scholar
  123. 124.
    P. A. Nelson etal., Development of LithiumJMetal Sulphide Batteries at Argonne National Laboratory: Summary Report 1977, ANL-78–20 (1978).Google Scholar
  124. 125.
    See, for example, S. K. Preto, S. von Winbush, and M. F. Roche, Extended Abstracts, 78–2, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1978).Google Scholar
  125. 126.
    J. C. Nardi, J. K. Erbacher, C. L. Hussey, and L. A. King, J. Power Sources 3, 81 (1978).Google Scholar
  126. 127.
    R. A. Osteryoung, R. J. Gale, J. Robinson, R. Bugle, and B. Gilbert, Extended Abstracts 78-2, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1978).Google Scholar
  127. 128.
    For early background material, see F. Jones, in An Introduction to Fuel Cells, K. R. Williams, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam (1966) and D. P. Gregory, Fuel Cells, Mills and Boon, London (1972). For recent technical detail see lst-5th National Fuel Cell Seminar Proceedings (1976-1980), Extended Abstracts of Electrochemical Society Meetings, especially Vol. 80–2, Hollywood (1980) which includes a Symposium on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology.Google Scholar
  128. 129.
    K. F. Blurton, L. G. Marianowski, and E. H. Camara, in Power Sources 11, J. Thompson, ed., Academic Press, N.Y. (1979).Google Scholar
  129. 130.
    S. J. Yosim, K. M. Barclay, K. J. Miller, and C. A. Trilling, Extended Abstracts, 78–2, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, N.J. (1978).Google Scholar
  130. 131.
    J. M. King, W. E. Houghtby, and R. A. Sederqvist, in National Fuel Cell Seminar, Boston, MA (1977).Google Scholar
  131. 132.
    J. M. King, E.C.A.S. Phase II, Final Report on NAS 3–19586 Contract to NASA, United Technologies Corp., Conn. (1976).Google Scholar
  132. 133.
    A. C. C. Tseung, J. Appi. Electrochem. 1, 279 (1971); 2, 137 (1972).Google Scholar
  133. 134.
    K. Kinoshita, J. W. Sim, and J. P. Ackerman, in National Fuel Cell Seminar, Boston, MA (1977).Google Scholar
  134. 135.
    L. G. Marianowski, K. F. Blurton, E. H. Camara, and H. C. Maru, ibid.Google Scholar
  135. 136.
    Corrosion, Vol. I, 2nd Ed., L. L. Shrier, ed., Newnes-Butterworth, London (1976), Section 2–10.Google Scholar
  136. 137.
    D. Inman and N. S. Wrench, Brit. Corr. J. 1, 246 (1966).Google Scholar
  137. 138.
    B. W. Burrows and G. J. Hills, J. Inst. Fuel 39, 168 (1966).Google Scholar
  138. 139.
    A. J. B. Cutler etal., A.S.M.E. Publicn. 67-WAJCD-4 (1967).Google Scholar
  139. 140.
    R. Littlewood, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 525 (1962).Google Scholar
  140. 141.
    R. Littlewood, Trans. A.I.M.E. 233, 772 (1965).Google Scholar
  141. 142.
    M. D. Ingram and G. J. Janz, Electrochim. Acta 10, 783 (1965).Google Scholar
  142. 143.
    L. Campanella, Brit. Corr. J. 2, 219 (1967).Google Scholar
  143. 144.
    L. Campanella and A. Conte, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 144 (1969).Google Scholar
  144. 145.
    L. Campanella, Plating 56, 813 (1969); 57, 807 (1970); 59, 575 (1972).Google Scholar
  145. 146.
    L. Campanella, Trans. Inst. Met. Finish. 51, 97 (1973).Google Scholar
  146. 147.
    F. H. Cocks, D. R. Cogley, G. H. Hurley, and C. R. Mitchell, Corrosion 32, 135 (1976).Google Scholar
  147. 148.
    R. E. Herfert, Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-76-142, U.S.A.F. (1976).Google Scholar
  148. 149.
    R. K. Nigam and R. S. Chaudhary, Ind. J. Chem. 8, 343 (1970).Google Scholar
  149. 150.
    R. K. Nigam and R. S. Chaudhary, Electrochim. Acta. 17, 1765 (1972).Google Scholar
  150. 151.
    A. Yamashita and H. Hagiwara, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112, 279 (1965).Google Scholar
  151. 152.
    E. L. Krongauz, V. D. Kashcheev, and V. B. Busse-Machukas, Sov. Electrochem. 8, 1219 (1972).Google Scholar
  152. 153.
    A. Conte, A. Borello, and A. Cabrini, J. Appi. Electrochem. 6, 293 (1976).Google Scholar
  153. 154.
    S. Tajima, M. Soda, and T. Mori, Electrochim. Acta 1, 205 (1959).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    S. Tajima, M. Soda, and T. Mori, Electrochim. Acta 1, 205 (1959).Google Scholar
  155. 156.
    A. K. Turner and D. G. Lovering, Final Report to M.O.D. (P.E.) on contract ATJ2160J027 MAT (1978).Google Scholar
  156. 157.
    V. Saifullin and F. F. Faizullin, Sb. Aspir. Rab. Kazan. Gos. Univ. Estecto. Nauki Khim. 25 (1973).Google Scholar
  157. 158.
    R. K. Nigam and I. K. Arora, Electrochim. Acta 17, 2133 (1972).Google Scholar
  158. 159.
    A. K. Turner, thesis, London (1978).Google Scholar
  159. 160.
    S. Tajima, Y. Tanabe, M. Shimura, and T. Mori, Electrochim. Acta 6, 127 (1962).Google Scholar
  160. 161.
    G. L. Holleck, F. H. Cocks, D. R. Cogley, and I. W. FrutkofT, Tech. Rept. AFML-TR-72- 191, USAF (1978).Google Scholar
  161. 162.
    S. Ikonopisov, Electrodep. Surf. Treat. 2, 303 (1973-1974).Google Scholar
  162. 163.
    Molten Salt Techniques, D. G. Lovering and R. J. Gale, Plenum Press, New York, 1983 et seq.Google Scholar
  163. 164.
    D. G. Lovering and R. M. Oblath, in Ionic Liquids, D. Inman and D. G. Lovering, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  164. 165.
    S. H. White, in Ionic Liquids, D. Inman and D. G. Lovering, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  165. 166.
    P. G. Zambonin and J. Jordan, I. Am. Chem. Soc. 91, 2225 (1969).Google Scholar
  166. 167.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 32, App. 1 (1971).Google Scholar
  167. 168.
    A. D. Graves and D. Inman, in Electromotive Force Measurements in High-Temperature Systems, C. B. Alcock, ed., I.M.M., London (1968).Google Scholar
  168. 169.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and B. F. Markov, Electrochemistry of Fused Salts, Sigma Press, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  169. 170.
    J. J. Egan and R. Heus, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 824 (1960).Google Scholar
  170. 171.
    H. Hoff, Electrochim. Acta 16, 1059 (1971).Google Scholar
  171. 172.
    W. H. Bell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 889 (1971).Google Scholar
  172. 173.
    H, Hoff, Electrochim. Acta 16, 1357 (1971).Google Scholar
  173. 174.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and A. A. Kolotii, Zavod. Lab. 22, 75 (1956).Google Scholar
  174. 175.
    R. W. Laity, in Reference Electrodes: Theory and Practice, D. J. G. Ives and G. J. Janz, eds., Academic Press, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  175. 176.
    D. Inman, J. Sci. Instrum. 39, 391 (1962).Google Scholar
  176. 177.
    H. L. Jones, L. G. Boxali, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38, 476 (1972).Google Scholar
  177. 178.
    B. S. Del Ducca, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 405 (1971).Google Scholar
  178. 179.
    J. O’M. Bockris, G. J. Hills, D. Inman, and L. Young, J. Sci. Instrum. 33, 438 (1956).Google Scholar
  179. 180.
    H. R. Bronstein and D. L. Manning, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 125 (1972).Google Scholar
  180. 181.
    G. Schiavon, S. Zecchin, and G. G. Bombi, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38, 473 (1972).Google Scholar
  181. 182.
    G. J. Hills, D. Inman, and L. Young, in Proceedings of 8th Meeting of the C.I.T.C.E., Butterworth Scientific Publications, London (1958), p. 90.Google Scholar
  182. 183.
    D. Inman, D. G. Lovering, and R. Narayan, Trans. Faraday Soc. 63, 3017 (1967).Google Scholar
  183. 184.
    M. D. Baird, A. J. Clark, C. R. Feltham, and L. J. Pearce, in Power Sources 11, J. Thompson, ed., Academic Press, London and New York (1978).Google Scholar
  184. 185.
    R. Roberts, in Electro technology, Vol. 2, Applications in Manufacturing, R. P. Ouellette, F. Ellerbusch, and P. N. Cheremisinoff, eds., Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1978).Google Scholar
  185. 186.
    W. R. Grimes and S. Cantor, in The Chemistry of Fusion Technology, R. M. Gruen, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  186. 187.
    See, for example, lst-5th National Fuel Cell Seminars, Palo Alto, California, 1976; Boston 1977; San Francisco 1978; Bethesda, Maryland 1979; San Diego 1980.Google Scholar
  187. 188.
    G. J. Hills and P. D. Power, J. Pol. Soc. 13, 71 (1967).Google Scholar
  188. 189.
    E. Desimoni, F. Palmisano, and P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 84, 323 (1977).Google Scholar
  189. 190.
    See, for example, P. G. Zambonin, Anal. Chem. 43, 1571 (1971) and other papers by this author.Google Scholar
  190. 191.
    M. Peleg, J. Phys. Chem. 71, 4553 (1967).Google Scholar
  191. 192.
    D. G. Lovering, R. M. Oblath, and A. K. Turner, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 673 (1976).Google Scholar
  192. 193.
    A. Espinola and J. Jordan, in Characterization of Solutes in Nonaqueous Solvents, G. Mamantov, ed., Plenum Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  193. 194.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 33, 243 (1971).Google Scholar
  194. 195.
    R. N. Kust and F. R. Duke, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 3338 (1963); M. Fredericks and R. B. Temple, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38, App. 5 (1972).Google Scholar
  195. 196.
    J. D. Burke and D. H. Kerridge, Electrochim. Acta 19, 151 (1974).Google Scholar
  196. 197.
    K. W. Fung, G. Mamantov, and J. P. Young, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 8, 219 (1972).Google Scholar
  197. 198.
    L. G. Boxali, H. L. Jones, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 223 (1973).Google Scholar
  198. 199.
    H. Schaefer, C. Joeser, and L. Bayer, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 263, 87 (1950).Google Scholar
  199. 200.
    D. Inman, G. J. Hills, L. Young, and J. O’M. Bockris, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 29, 803 (1960); H. A. Laitinen, W. S. Ferguson, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 516 (1957).Google Scholar
  200. 201.
    W. J. Burkhard and J. D. Corbett, I. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 6361 (1957).Google Scholar
  201. 202.
    D. L. Manning, J. Electrochem. Soc. 7, 302 (1964).Google Scholar
  202. 203.
    S. Pizzini and R. Morlotti, Electrochim. Acta 10, 1033 (1965).Google Scholar
  203. 204.
    H. Kojima, S. G. Whiteway, and C. R. Masson, Can. I. Chem. 46, 2905 (1968).Google Scholar
  204. 205.
    D. W. Townsend, in International Symposium on Molten Salts, J. P. Pemsler, J. Braunstein, K. Nobe, D. R. Morris, and N. E. Richards, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey (1976).Google Scholar
  205. 206.
    J. Thonstad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 9, 346 (1968).Google Scholar
  206. 207.
    F. R. Clayton, G. Mamantov, and D. L. Manning, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 111C (1973).Google Scholar
  207. 208.
    S. Vire and D. Inman, unpublished work.Google Scholar
  208. 209.
    J. Thonstad, F. Nordmo, and J. F. Rodreth, Electrochim. Acta 19, 751 (1974).Google Scholar
  209. 210.
    D. G. Lovering, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 37, 3697 (1972).Google Scholar
  210. 211.
    D. G. Hill, B. Porter, and A. S. Gillespie, J. Electrochem. Soc. 105, 408 (1958).Google Scholar
  211. 212.
    B. W. Burrows and G. J. Hills, Electrochim. Acta 15, 445 (1970).Google Scholar
  212. 213.
    J. Goret and B. Tremillon, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 67 (1966).Google Scholar
  213. 214.
    J. Goret and B. Tremillon, Electrochim. Acta 12, 1065 (1967).Google Scholar
  214. 215.
    G. G. Bombi, M. Fiorani, and C. Macca, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 455 (1966).Google Scholar
  215. 216.
    F. J. Hazlewood, E. Rhodes, and A. R. Ubbelohde, Trans. Faraday Soc. 62, 3101 (1966).Google Scholar
  216. 217.
    E. Rhodes and A. R. Ubbelohde, Trans. Faraday Soc. 55, 1705 (1959).Google Scholar
  217. 218.
    K. Hirata, H. Yoneyama, and H. Tamura, Electrochim. Acta 17, 793 (1972).Google Scholar
  218. 219.
    K. Hirata, H. Yoneyama, and H. Tamura, Electrochim. Acta 17, 804 (1972).Google Scholar
  219. 220.
    V. P. Yurinskii, N. V. Vorob’eva, A. G. Morachevskii, and E. Yu. Riskina, Zh. Priklad. Khim. 52 (2), 221 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Inman
    • 1
  • D. G. Lovering
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy & Materials ScienceImperial CollegeLondonUK
  2. 2.Chemistry Branch, R.M.C.S.Shrivenham, SwindonUK

Personalised recommendations