Pathophysiology of the Muscle Phase

  • George L. Stewart


Since Paget (1866) discovered Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae during a human autopsy, numerous studies have focused on myopathophysiology in trichinosis. From these studies, it soon became apparent that some of the more outstanding clinical manifestations and the primary causes of mortality in this disease were related to parasitism of striated skeletal muscle and invasion of the myocardium (see Chapter 11). Evidence was also provided establishing the intracellular existence of the muscle larva and revealing that the parasite induced many dramatic alterations in the chemical and physical nature of the host cell. Many of the myopath- ophysiological changes in trichinosis result from the process by which the parasite establishes with the host striated myofiber one of the most intimate and complex host-helminth relationships in nature. This chapter addresses pathophysiology of the muscle phase with emphasis on the roles played by these lesions in the evolution of the aforementioned relationship.


Muscle Glycogen Glycogen Content Skeletal Muscle Fiber Nurse Cell Myocardial Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Backwinkle, K.D., and Themann, H., 1972, Elektronmikroscopische Untersuchungen über die Pathomorphologie der Trichinellose, Beitr. Pathol. 146: 259–271.Google Scholar
  2. Beckett, E.B., 1961, Some histochemical changes in the protein of mouse skeletal muscle fibers infected by Trichinella spiralis, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 55: 419–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckett, E.B., and Boothroyd, B., 1961, Some observations on the mature larva of the nematode Trichinella spiralis, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 55: 116–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckett, E.B., and Boothroyd, B., 1962, The histochemistry and electron microscopy of glycogen in the larva of Trichinella spiralis and its environment, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 56: 264–273.Google Scholar
  5. Bischoff, T.L.W., 1840, Ein Fall von Trichina spiralis, Heidelh. Med. Ann. 6: 232–238.Google Scholar
  6. Boczon, K., 1967, Some data on bioenergetics of the larvae of Trichinella spiralis, Bull. Soc. Amis Sci. Lett. Poznan Ser. D 8: 165–170.Google Scholar
  7. Boczon, K., Michejda, J.W., and Hryniewiecka, L., 1967, Changes in bioenergetics of mitochondria and on lactate-N AD-oxidoreductase activity in rat skeletal muscle during experimental trichinosis, Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies, Oslo, Sweden, pp. 128.Google Scholar
  8. Borgers, M., DeNollen, S., and Thone, F., 1975, The development of alkaline phosphatase in trichinous muscle, Histochemistry 43: 257–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourne, G.H., 1973, The Structure and Function of Muscle, Vols. I–IV, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Bruce, R.G., 1970a, The structure and development of the capsule of Trichinella spiralis, J. Parasitol. 56: 38–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruce, R.G., 1970b, The structure and composition of the capsule of Trichinella spiralis in host muscle, Parasitology 60: 223–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bullock, W. L., 1953, Phosphatases in experimental Trichinella spiralis infections in the rat, Exp. Parasitol. 12: 150–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullock, W.L., and Gangi, D.P., 1950, The distribution of alkaline glycerophosphatase in the muscle of rats infected with Trichinella spiralis, J. Parasitol. 36:Suppl. 30.Google Scholar
  14. Casey, M.A., and Harley, J.P., 1978, Trichinella spiralis: Skeletal muscle membrane potentials in infected and uninfected mice, Exp. Parasitol. 44: 66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohnheim, J., 1865, Todtliche Trichinose mit parenchymatoser Degeneration von Leber, Herz und Nieren, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 33: 447–451.Google Scholar
  16. Despommier, D.D., 1975, Adaptive changes in muscle fibers infected with Trichinella spiralis, Am. J. Pathol. 78: 477–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Despommier, D.D., 1976, Musculature, in: Ecological Aspects of Parasitology (C.R. Kennedy, ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 269–285.Google Scholar
  18. Despommier, D.D., Aron, L., and Turgeon, L., 1975, Trichinella spiralis: Growth of the intracellular (muscle) larva, Exp. Parasitol. 37: 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drachman, D.A., and Tunchay, T.O., 1965, The remote myopathy of trichinosis, Neurology 15: 1127–1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunlap, G.L., and Weiler, C.V., 1933, Pathogenesis of trichinous myocarditis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 30: 1261–1262.Google Scholar
  21. Durante, G., 1902, Anatomie pathologique des muscles, in: Manuel d’Histologie Pathologique (F. Cornil and G. Ranvier, eds.), Masson, Paris, pp. 18–44.Google Scholar
  22. Edwards, J.L., and Hood, C.I., 1962, Studies on the pathogenesis of cardiac and cerebral lesions of experimental trichinosis in rabbits, Am. J. Pathol. 40: 711–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ehrhardt, P., 1896, Zur Kenntniss der Muskelveränderungen bei der Trichinose des Menschen, Beitr. Pathol. Anat. 20: 1–42.Google Scholar
  24. Farris, K., and Harley, J.P., 1977, Trichinella spiralis: Alteration of gastrocnemius muscle kinetics in the mouse, Exp. Parasitol. 41: 17–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fasske, E., and Themann, H., 1961, Elektronmicroskopische Befunde an der Muskelfaser nach Trichinbefall, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 334: 459–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fielder, A., 1864, Uber die Kernwucherung in der Muskeln bei der Trichinenkrankenheit, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 30: 461–468.Google Scholar
  27. Flury, F., 1913, Beitrage zur Chemie und Toxokologie der Trichinin, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 53: 164–213.Google Scholar
  28. Frothingham, C., Jr., 1906, A contribution to the knowledge of the lesions caused by Trichina spiralis, J. Med. Res. 15: 483–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gabryel, P., and Gustowska, L., 1967, Veränderungen der quergestreiften Muskelfasern im frühen Stadium einer Trichinal spiralis Infektion, Gegenbauers Morph. Jahrb. 111: 174–180.Google Scholar
  30. Garbulinski, T., Kozar, Z., Bubien, Z., Debowy, J., and Biblinski, E., 1965, 32P-Incorpo-ration into energetic phosphates of the heart and skeletal muscles in rats infected with Trichinella spiralis, Acta Parasitol. Pol. 13: 275–281.Google Scholar
  31. Gould, S.E., 1945, Pathology, in: Trichinosis (S.E. Gould, ed.). Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 73–132.Google Scholar
  32. Gould, S.E., 1970, Anatomic pathology, in: Trichinosis in Man and Animals (S.E. Gould, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 147–189.Google Scholar
  33. Graham, J.Y., 1897, Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Trichina spiralis, Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 50: 219–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hankes, L.V., and Stoner, R.D., 1958, Incorporation of DL-tyrosine-2-C-14 and DL-tryptophan-2-C-14 by encysted Trichinella spiralis larvae, Exp. Parasitol. 7: 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hemmert-Halswick, A., and Bugge, G., 1934, Trichinen und Trichinose, Ergebn. Allg. Pathol. 28: 313–319.Google Scholar
  36. Horlick, S.S., and Bicknell, R.E., 1929, Trichiniasis with wide-spread infestation of many tissues, N. Engl. J. Med. 201: 816–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howard, W.T., Jr., 1899, Report of a fatal case of trichinosis without eosinophilia but with large numbers of eosinophilic cells in the muscle lesions; with remarks on the origin of eosinophilic cells in trichinosis, Philadelphia Med. J. 4: 1085–1087.Google Scholar
  38. Hryniewiecka, L., Boczon, K., and Michejda, J.W., 1970, Trichinella spiralis: Enzymes reducing and oxidizing cytochrome c in rat muscle, Exp. Parasitol. 28: 544–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hughes, W.L., and Harley, J.P., 1977, Trichinella spiralis: Taxes of first stage migratory larvae. Exp. Parasitol. 42: 363–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karpiak, S.E., Kozar, Z., and Krzyanowski, M., 1963, Changes in the metabolism of the skeletal muscles of guinea pigs caused by the invasion of Trichinella spiralis. I. Influence of the invasion on the carbohydrate metabolism of muscles, Wiad. Parazytol. 9: 435–446.Google Scholar
  41. Knorr, H., 1912, Bietrag zur Kenntnis der Trichinellen Krankheit des Menschen, Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med. 108: 137–159.Google Scholar
  42. Kozar, Z., Karpiak, S.E., and Krzyzanowski, M., 1965, Changes in the metabolism of the skeletal muscles of guinea pigs caused by the invasion of Trichinella spiralis. II. Effect of invasion on the metabolism of organic acids, Acta Parasitol. Pol. 13: 271–274.Google Scholar
  43. Kozar, Z., Zarzycki, J., Seniuta, R., and Martynowicz, T., 1967, Histochemical study of drug effects on mice infected with Trichinella spiralis, Exp. Parasitol. 21: 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Langerhans, R., 1892, Ueber regressive Veränderungen der Trichinen und ihre Kapseln, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 130: 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leuckart, R., 1860, Untersuchungen über Trichina spiralis, Leipzig, Winter, pp. 57.Google Scholar
  46. Lewis, J.H., 1928a, Studien über den Mechanismus der Trichinelleninfektion. II. Der Einfluss des Glykogens auf die Muskelinvasion, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 107: 114–126.Google Scholar
  47. Lewis, J.H., 1928b, Influence of glycogen on the infection of muscle with trichinae, Trans. Chicago Pathol. Soc. 13: 12–15.Google Scholar
  48. Loeschke, H., 1927, Vorstellungen über das Wesen von Hyalin und Amyloid auf Grund von serologischen Versuchen, Beitr. Pathol. Anat. 77: 231–239.Google Scholar
  49. Maier, D.M., and Zaiman, H., 1966, The development of lysosomes in rat skeletal muscle in trichinous myositis, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14: 396–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maier, D.M., Zaiman, H., and Howard, R., 1962, Histochemical changes in muscle degeneration, Lab. Invest. 11: 667 (abstract).Google Scholar
  51. McCoy, O.R., Downing, V.F., and van Voorhis, S.N., 1941, The penetration of radioactive phosphorus into encysted Trichinella larvae, J. Parasitol. 27: 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Michejda, J.W., and Boczon, K., 1972, Changes in bioenergetics of skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimental trichinosis in rats, Exp. Parasitol. 3: 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nevinny, H., 1927, Uber die Veränderungen der Skelettmuskulatur bei Trichinose, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anal. 266: 185–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nicolesco, S., Onicesco, D., Gavat, V., and Simionesco, V., 1962, A propos de la signification de certaines lesions nerveuses déterminées par les parasites animaux a localisation musculaire, Acta Morphol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 11: 257–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ochoa, J., and Pallis, C., 1980, Trichinella thrives in both oxidative and glycolytic human muscle fibers, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 43: 281–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ogielski, L., 1949, Reaction of the vascular vessels against invasion of the larvae of Trichinella spiralis, Zool. Pol. 5: 35–42.Google Scholar
  57. Paget, J., 1866, On the discovery of trichina, Lancet 1: 269–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Purkerson, J., and Despommier, D., 1974, Fine structure of the muscle phase of Trichinella spiralis in the mouse, in: Trichinellosis (C. Kim, ed.), Intext, New York, pp. 7–23.Google Scholar
  59. Read, C.P., 1970, Chemical pathology, in: Trichinosis in Man and Animals (S.E. Gould, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 91–101.Google Scholar
  60. Ribas-Mujal, D., 1971, Trichinosis, in: Pathology of Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 677–710.Google Scholar
  61. Ribas-Mujal, D., and Rivera-Pomar, J.M., 1968, Biological significance of the early structural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers infected by Trichinella spiralis, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 345: 154–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ritterson, A.L., 1966, Nature of the cyst of Trichinella spiralis, J. Parasitol. 52: 157–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rogers, W.P., 1942, The metabolism of trichinosed rats during the early phase of the disease, J. Helminthol. 20: 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schanzel, H., and Holman, J., 1966, Lokalisation der alkalischen Phosphatase in der Trichinella befallenden Muskulatur, Angew. Parasitol. 7: 252–259.Google Scholar
  65. Seniuta, R., 1971, Histochemical investigations of the activity of some phosphates in skeletal muscles of mice under the influence of infection with Trichinella spiralis, Fol. Histochem. Cytochem. 9: 95–116.Google Scholar
  66. Staubli, C., 1905a, Klinische und experimentelle Untersuchengen über Trichinosis, Verhandl. Kongr. Inn. Med. 22: 353–362.Google Scholar
  67. Staubli, C., 1905b, Klinische und experimetelle Untersuchungen über Trichinose und über die Eosinophilie in Allgemeinen, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. 85: 286–341.Google Scholar
  68. Staubli, C., 1909, Trichinosis, J.Y. Bergmann, Wiesbaden, 295 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Stewart, G.L., 1973, Studies on chemical pathology in trichinosis, Doctoral thesis, Rice University, Houston, Texas, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Stewart, G.L., 1976, Studies on biochemical pathology in trichinosis. II. Changes in liver and muscle glycogen and some blood chemical parameters in mice, Rice Univ. Stud. 62: 211–223.Google Scholar
  71. Stewart, G.L., and Charniga, L.M., 1980, Distribution of Trichinella spiralis in muscles of the mouse, J. Parasitol. 66: 688–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stewart, G.L., and Giannini, S., 1982, Intracellular parasites of striated muscle: A review, Exp. Parasitol. 53: 406–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stewart, G.L., and Read, C.P., 1972a, Ribonucleic acid metabolism in mouse trichinosis, J. Parasitol. 58: 252–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart, G.L., and Read, C.P., 1972b, Some aspects of cyst synthesis in mouse trichinosis, J. Parasitol. 58: 1061–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stewart, G.L., and Read, C.P., 1973a, Deoxyribonucleic acid metabolism in mouse trichinosis, J. Parasital. 59: 264–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stewart, G.L., and Read, C.P., 1973b, Changes in RNA in mouse trichinosis, J. Parasitol. 59: 997–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stewart, G.L., and Read, C.P., 1974. Studies on biochemical pathology in trichinosis. I. Changes in myoglobin, free creatine, phosphocreatine and two protein fractions of mouse diaphragm muscle, J. Parasitol. 60: 996–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stewart, G.L., Fisher, F.M., Jr., Ribelles, E., Chiapetta, V., and LaBrum, R., 1978, Trichinella spiralis: Alterations of blood chemistry in the mouse, Exp. Parasitol. 45: 287–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stoner, R.D., and Hankes, L.V., 1955, Incorporation of C14 labeled amino acids by Trichinella spiralis, Exp. Parasitol. 4: 435–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stoyanov, D.P., and Nenov, St. D. 1965, Some histochemical changes in tissues of guinea pigs infected with Trichinella spiralis, Med. Parazytol. 34: 392–396.Google Scholar
  81. Teppema, J.S., Robinson, J.E., and Ruitenberg, E.J., 1973, Ultrastructural aspects of capsule formation in Trichinella spiralis infection in the rat, Parasitology 66: 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Terry, L.L., and Work, J.L., 1940, Trichinosis of the myocardium: Report of a case with autopsy findings, Am. Heart J. 19: 478–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Virchow, R., 1860a, Uber Trichina spiralis, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 18: 330–346.Google Scholar
  84. Virchow, R., 1860b, Vorläufige Nachricht über neue trichinen Fütterungen, Virchows Arch. Pathol Anat. 18: 535–536.Google Scholar
  85. Wehrmann, O., 1927, Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Trichinose des Menschen, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 263: 584–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weller, C.V., and Shaw, M., 1932, Myocardial failure due to trichinosis, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 47: 31–46.Google Scholar
  87. Zarzycki, J., 1956, Histologic investigations on the glycogen content in striated muscle infected with trichinellae, Med. Weter. 12: 328–332.Google Scholar
  88. Zarzycki, J., 1962, Histochemical investigations on distribution of nucleic acids and inorganic salts in muscle tissue at the infection with Trichinella spiralis in: Trichinellosis, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Trichinellosis (Z. Kozar, ed.), Polish Scientific Publications, Warsaw, pp. 302–305.Google Scholar
  89. Zarzycki, J., 1963, Studies on distribution and activity of succinic dehydrogenase in muscle tissue during infection with Trichinellae, Wiad. Parazytol. 9: 459–464.Google Scholar
  90. Zoller, H., 1927, Uber Herzmuskelentzündung im Verlauf der Trichinose, Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 265: 430–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • George L. Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of BiologyThe University of TexasArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations