Implications of Recent Developments in Dynamic Spatial Orientation and Visual Resolution for Vehicle Guidance

  • H. W. Leibowitz
  • R. B. Post
  • Th. Brandt
  • J. Dichgans
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 20)

Abstract

The objective of the present chapter is to examine a number of problems of vehicle guidance within the context of recent developments in psychophysics, neurophysiology, anatomy and neurology. The theme of this presentation is that these, like other applied problems, exist primarily when the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. With an increased understanding of fundamentals we can not only better appreciate the nature of applied problems but can also frequently identify methods towards their solution. In turn, applied problems serve a valuable function by directing attention to gaps in our basic understanding which leads to suggestions for fruitful areas for research. At the same time as we learn more about fundamentals, new application possibilities manifest themselves.

Keywords

Transportation Retina Posit Peri Sine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, M.J., Vision and Highway Safety. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, W.R. and Stover, W.B., Observation of laser standing wave patterns to determine refractive status. American Journal of Optometry, 1968, 45, 143–150.Google Scholar
  3. Baumgarten, von, R.J. and Thümler, R.A., A model of vestibular function in altered gravitational states. In: R. Holmquist, (Ed.): (Cospar) Life Sciences and Space Research. Oxford, England, Pergamon Press, 1970, 161–170.Google Scholar
  4. Benson, A.J. Possible mechanisms of motion and space sickness. Proceedings of the European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space, European Space Agency, 1977 Sp-130, 101–108.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, A.J., In: Aviation Medicine, Physiology and Human Factors, G. Dhenin, G.E. Sharp and J. Ernsting (Eds.). London: Tri-Med Books, I., 1978, Spatial Disorientation, Chapters 20 and 21.Google Scholar
  6. Brandt, Th., Optisch-vestibuläre Bewegungskrankheit, Höhenschwindel und klinische Schwindelformen. Fortschritte der Medizin, 1976, 94, (20–21), 1177–1182.Google Scholar
  7. Brandt, Th. Medikamentöse und physikalische Therapie des Schwindels und der Ataxie. Fortschritte der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 1981, 49 (3), 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brandt, Th., Wist, E.R. and Dichgans, J., Foreground and background in dynamic spatial orientation. Perception and Psychophysics, 1975, 17, 497–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandt, Th., Wenzel, D. and Dichgans, J., Die Entwicklung der visuellen Stabilisation des aufrechten Standes beim Kind: Ein Reifezeichen in der Kinderneurologie, Archiv Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 1976, 223, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandt, Th. and Daroff, R.B., The multisensory physiological and pathological vertigo syndromes. Annals of Neurology, 1980, 7 (3), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Büchele, W., Degner, D. and Brandt, Th., Thresholds for object-motion perception raised by concurrent head movements. Pflügers Archiv, Supplement, 1980, R33, 384.Google Scholar
  12. Chinn, H.I. and Smith, P.K., Motion Sickness. Pharmacological Review, 1955, 7, 33–83.Google Scholar
  13. Chinn, H.I. and Smith, P.K., Motion Sickness. Pharmacological Review, 1955, 7, 33–83.Google Scholar
  14. Dichgans, J. Optokinetic nystagmus as dependent on the retinal periphery via the vestibular nucleus. In: Control of Gaze by Brain Stem Neurons, R. Baker and A. Berthoz (Eds.). North Holland/ Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977, pp. 261–267.Google Scholar
  15. Dichgans, J. and Brandt, Th., Optokinetic motion sickness and pseudo-coriolis effects induced by moving visual stimuli. Acta Otolaryngologica, 1973, 76, 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dichgans, J., Schmidt, C.L. and Graf, W. Visual input improves the speedometer function of the vestibular nuclei in the goldfish. Experimental Brain Research, 1973, 18, 319–322.Google Scholar
  17. Dichgans, J. and Brandt, Th., Visual–vestibular interaction: Effects on self-motion and postural control. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, (Vol. VIII), by R. Held, H.W. Leibowitz and H. L. Teuber (Eds.), Heidelberg: Springer, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. Ginsburg, A.P., Spatial filtering and vision: Implications for normal and abnormal vision. In: Clinical Applications of Visual Psychophysics, L. Proenza, J. Enoch and A. Jampolsky (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. Gonshor, A. and MeIvilie-Jones, G., Short term changes in the human vestibule-ocular reflex. Journal of Physiology, London, 1976, 226, 361–379.Google Scholar
  20. Gramberg-DanieIsen, B. Sehen und Verkehr. Berlin: Springer, 1967.Google Scholar
  21. Held, R., Dissociation of visual functions by deprivation and rearrangement. Psychologisehe Forschung, 1968, 31, 338–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Held, R., Two modes of processing spatially distributed visual stimulation. In: F.O. Schmidt (Ed.), The Neurosciences: Second Study Program. New York, Rockefeller University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  23. Hennessy, R.T. and Leibowitz, H.W., Subjective measurement of accommodation with laser light. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1970, 60, 1700–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holst, E.V. and Mittelstaedt, H., Das Reafferenzprinzip, Wechselwirkungen zwischen Zentralnervensystem und Peripherie. Naturwissenschaften, 1950, 37, 464–476.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Janet, P. The major symptoms of hysteria. London, Macmillan, 1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson, C.A., Effects of luminance and stimulus distance on accommodation and visual resolution. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1976, 66, 138–142.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jolly, F., Ueber Hysterie bei Kindern. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, 1892, 29, 841–845.Google Scholar
  28. Kaufman, L., Sight and mind. New York, Oxford, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Knoll, H.A., Measuring ametropia with a gas laser: A preliminary report. American Journal of Optometry, 1966, 43, 415–418.Google Scholar
  30. Leibowitz, H.W., Detection of peripheral stimuli under psychological and physiological stress. In: Visual Search. Washington, D.C., Committee on Vision, National Research Council-National Academy of Sciences, 1973.Google Scholar
  31. Leibowitz, H.W., Myers, N.A. and Grant, D.A., Radial localization of a single stimulus as a function of luminance and duration of exposure. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1955, 45 (2), 76–78.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leibowitz, H.W. and Owens, D.A., Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation. Science, 1975, 189, 646–648.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leibowitz, H.W. and Owens, D.A., Nighttime accidents and selective visual degradation. Science, 1977, 197, 4302, 422–423.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leibowitz, H.W. and Owens, D.A., New evidence for the intermediate position of relaxed accommodation. Documenta Ophtha Imologica, 1978, 46 (1), 133–147.Google Scholar
  35. Leibowitz, H.W., Shupert-Rodemer, C. and Dichgans, J., The independence of dynamic spatial orientation from luminance and refractive error. Perception and Psychophysics, 1979, 25 (7), 75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leibowitz, H.W., Post, R.B., Shupert-Rodemer, C., Wadlington, W.L. and Lundy, R.M., Roll vection analysis of suggestion induced visual field narrowing. Perception and Psychophysics, 1980, 28 (2), 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leibowitz, H.W. and Dichgans, J., The ambient visual system and spatial orientation. Proceedings of the AGARD conference on spatial disorientation in flight, Bodø, Norway, May, 1980.Google Scholar
  38. Leibowitz, H.W. and Dichgans, J., The ambient visual system and spatial orientation. Proceedings of the AGARD conference on spatial disorientation in flight, Bodø, Norway, May, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. Levene, J.R., Nevil Maskelyne, F.R.S. and the discovery of night myopia. Roy. Soc. Lond. Notes and Reports, 1965, 20, 100–108.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luria, S.M., Target size and correction for empty field myopia. J. of the Optical Society of America, 1980, 70 (9), 1153–1154.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Malcolm, R., Money, K.E. and Anderson, P., Peripheral vision artificial display. AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 145 on Vibration and Combined Stress in Advanced Systems, 1975, B20-1-B20-3.Google Scholar
  42. Money, K.E., Malcolm, R.E. and Anderson, P.J., The Malcolm horizon, AGARD conference Proceedings No. 201 on visual presentation of cockpit information including special devices use for particular conditions of flying, 1976, A41–A43.Google Scholar
  43. Money, K.E., Motion sickness. Physiological Reviews, 1970, 50, 1–39.Google Scholar
  44. Owens, D.A., The Mandlebaum Effect: An accommodative response bias toward intermediate distance. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1979, 69, 646–652.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Owens, D.A., A comparison of contrast sensitivity and accommodative responsiveness for sinusoidal gratings. Vision Research, 1980, 20, 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Owens, D.A. and Leibowitz, H.W., Night myopia: Cause and a possible basis for amelioration. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 1976, 53, 709–717.Google Scholar
  47. Perenin, M.T. and Jeannerod, M., Residual vision in cortically blind hemifields. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Perenin, M.T. and Jeannerod, M., Visual function within the hemiano– pic field following early cerebral hemidecortfication in man-I. Spatial localization. Neuropsychologia, 1978, 16, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pöppel, E., Held, R. and Frost, D., Residual vision after brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man. Nature, London, 1973, 243, 295–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Post, R.B., Stimulus control of circular vection and optokinetic afternystagmus. Doctoral dissertation. Pennsylvania State University, 1982.Google Scholar
  51. Post, R.B., Owens, R.L., Owens, D.A. and Leibowitz, H.W., Correction of empty field myopia on the basis of the dark-focus of accommodation. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1979, 69 (1), 89–92.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Post, R.B. and Leibowitz, H.W., The independence of radial localization from refractive error. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1980, 70 (11), 1377–1379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Post, R.B. and Leibowitz, H.W., The independence of radial localization from refractive error. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1980, 70 (11), 1377–1379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Post, R.B. and Leibowitz, H.W., The independence of radial localization from refractive error. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1980, 70 (11), 1377–1379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Post, R.B. and Leibowitz, H.W., The independence of radial localization from refractive error. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 1980, 70 (11), 1377–1379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reason, J.R. and Brand, J.J., Motion Sickness. London/New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  57. Robinson, D., The physiology of pursuit eye movements. In: Eye Move ments and Psychological Processes, by R.A. Monty and J.W. Senders (Eds.). Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1976.Google Scholar
  58. Schneider, G.E., Contrasting visuomotor functions of tectum and cortex in the golden hamster. Psychologische Forschung, 1967, 31, 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schober, H.A.W., Ueber die Akkommodationsruhelage. Optik, 1954, 11, 282–290.Google Scholar
  60. Schober, H.A.W., Ueber die Akkommodationsruhelage. Optik, 1954, 11, 282–290.Google Scholar
  61. Shinar, D., Psychology on the Road. New York: Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  62. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B. and Lichtenstein., Accident probabilities and seat belt usage: A psychological perspective. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1978, 10, 2181–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Waespe, W. and Henn, V., Behaviour of secondary vestibular units during optokinetic nystagmus and after-nystagmus in alert monkeys. Pflügers Archiv, Supplement R, 1976, 362, 197.Google Scholar
  64. Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E.K., Sanders M.D. and Marshall, J., Visual capacity in the hemianppic field following a restricted occipital ablation. Brain, 1974, 97, 709–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Whiteside, T.C.D., Accommodation of the human eye in a bright and empty field. Journal of Physiology (London), 1952, 118, 65.Google Scholar
  66. Whiteside, T.C.D.J Graybiel, A. and Niven, J.I., Visual illusions of movement. Brain, 1965, 88, 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Leibowitz
    • 1
  • R. B. Post
    • 2
  • Th. Brandt
    • 3
  • J. Dichgans
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Moore BuildingPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyEssen City HospitalEssenWest Germany
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations