The Education and Employment of Women Scientists and Engineers in the United States
This chapter focuses on a relatively small subset of the intellectual elite: women scientists. These women are products of advanced specialized education and are engaged in responsible and rewarding careers. What can we gain from examining the situation of such a highly distinctive group? The study of these women scientists allows us to delineate the fine structure of sex discrimination with exceptional clarity primarily because their training and work experience are so different from most women’s and because they also share the strictly gender-related problems which are common to all women in the paid work force (i.e., household work, child care, occupational segregation, the marriage tax penalty, and others). Further, the scientific professions are characterized by clear standards of achievement and widely shared values; therefore, it is possible to identify quite accurately the ways in which professional outcomes for women depart from the norm of male expectations and the extent to which they do so.
KeywordsOccupational Segregation Female Scientist Woman Scientist Salary Difference Involuntary Unemployment
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