During the past two decades, women in all NATO-allied and many other countries have begun to enter the labor force in ever-increasing numbers. This widespread movement has raised the question of what effects various economic factors, public and private policies, family considerations, and women’s own self-perceptions have upon their increased labor force participation. The papers presented in this section examine these factors, and comparisons among presentations raise several interesting questions concerning how these factors differ from country to country and to what extent they are influenced by the cultural and socioeconomic situation in each country. For example, in most of the modern and progressive countries, there continues to be evidence of sexual inequality in the workplace similar to that found in developing countries. Some of the variables that are examined in an attempt to explain and understand the existing inequality in the workplace and other aspects of women’s labor force participation include: (1) membership in labor unions and women’s influence within them, (2) educational level and vocational training, (3) legislation affecting the employment of women, (4) the differential between women’s and men’s wages, (5) part-time work, and (6) economic growth. Additionally, the papers delineate a range of personal factors that influence women’s labor force decisions, such as age, marital status, number and age of children, husband’s income, and distance to work.
KeywordsLabor Force Labor Force Participation Trade Union Collective Bargaining Double Burden
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