Mutagenic and Oncogenic Effects of Chloromethanes, Chloroethanes and Halogenated Analogues of Vinyl Chloride

  • Peter F. Infante
  • Theodora A. Tsongas
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 25)

Abstract

In the early 1970’s, information bearing on the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity if vinyl chloride (VC) in experimental test systems and in humans came to the attention of the public health community. As a result, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of a number of halogenated hydrocarbons structurally related to VC. This response was of particular concern as many of these substances are in high volume production and have a large number of individuals exposed in the occupational setting. As a result of pollution from industrial effluents, many of these substances have been identified in community water supplies. Some of these substances also have been or still are contained in consumer products.

Keywords

Fermentation Foam Chloroform Hydrocarbon Sarcoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. W. Andrews, E. S. Zawistowski,, C. R. Valentine, A comparison of the mutagenic properties of vinyl chloride and methyl chloride, Mutat. Res. 40: 273–276 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. F. Simmon, Structural correlations of carcinogenic and mutagenic alkyl halides, in: “Structural Correlates of Carcino-genesis and Mutagenesis—A Guide to Testing Priorities”, Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., DHEW Publ. No. FDA 78–1046, 163–171 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. F. Simmon, K. Kauhanen,, R. G. Tardiff, Mutagenic activity of chemicals identified in drinking water, in: “Progress in Genetic Toxicology”, D. Scott, B. A. Bridges,, F. H. Sobels, eds., Elsevier/North Holland Inc., New York, N.Y., 249–258 (1977).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dupont, Chloromethane mutagenicity test, Haskell Laboratory 1977, TSCA Sect. 8(d) Submission 8 DHQ-1078–0204, Office of Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. H. Smith,, T.A. Lofty, Comparative effects of certain chemicals on Tradescantia chromosomes as observed at pollen tube mitosis, Amer. J. Bot. 41: 589–593 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. M. F. Jongen, G. M. Alink,, J. H. Koeman, Mutagenic effect of dichloromethane on Salmonella typhimurium, Mutat. Res. 56: 245–248 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Kanada,, M. Uyeta, Mutagenicity screening of organic solvents in microbial systems, Mutat. Res. 54: 215 (1978).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. F. Callen, R. C. Wolf, and R. M. Philpot, Cytochrome p-450 mediated genetic activity and cytotoxicity of seven halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mutat. Res. 77: 55–63 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. M. Filippova, O. A. Panjshin,, R. G. Kostianovsky, Chemical mutagens. IV. Genetic activity of geminal systems, Genetika 8: 134–148 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Uehleke, H. Greim, M. Krämer,, T. Werner, Covalent binding of haloalkanes to liver constituents, but absence of mutagenicity on bacteria in a metabolizing test system, Mutat. Res. 38: 114 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Braun,, J. Schöneich, The influence of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride on the mutagenic effectivity of cyclophosphamide in the host-mediated assay with Salmonella typhimurium, Mutat. Res. 31: 191–194 (1975).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. E. Gibson, CIIT’s comments before the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, proposed test rule for chloromethane, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. October 28 (1980).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. J. Roberts, Dow Chemical Company report to Chemical Information Division, Office of Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA, November 14 (1980) (EPA Document Control No.: FYI-0TS-1180–0097.).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. K. Weisburger, Carcinogenicity studies on halogenated hydrocarbons. Envir. Health Perspect. 21: 7–16 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Chlorinated Ethanes, EPA 440/5–80–029, Washington, D.C. October (1980).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Fishbein, Potential halogenated industrial carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals. II. Halogenated saturated hydrocarbons, Sci. Total Environ. 11: 163–195 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Brem, A. B. Stein,, H. S. Rosenkranz, The mutagenicity and DNA-modifying effect of haloalkanes. Cancer Res. 34: 2576–2579 (1974).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. S. Rosenkranz, Mutagenicity of halogenated alkanes and their derivatives, Environ. Health Perspect. 21: 79–84 (1977).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. McCann, V. Simmon, D. Streitwieser,, B. N. Ames, Mutagenicity of chloroacetaldehyde, a possible metabolic product of 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride), chloroethanol (ethylene chlorohydrin), vinyl chloride, and cyclophosphamide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 3190–3193 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. O. Nylander, H. Olofsson, B. Rasmuson,, H. Svahlin, Mutagenic effects of petrol in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Effects of benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane, Mutat. Res. 57: 163–167 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    U. Rannug, A. Sundvall,, C. Ramel, The mutagenic effect of 1,2-dichloroethane on Salmonella typhimurium. I. Activation through conjugation with glutathione in vitro. Chem. Biol. Interact. 20: 1–16 (1978).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. H. Weeks, R. A. Angerhofer, R. Bishop, J. Thomasino,, R. Pope, The toxicity of hexachloroethane in laboratory animals, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 40: 187–199 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of 1,2-di-chloroethane, Technical Report series no. 55, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 78–1361, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, Technical report series no. 27, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 78–827, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of hexachloroethane, Technical report series no. 68, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 78–1318, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Maltoni, Recent findings on the carcinogenicity of chlorinated olefins, Envir. Health Perspec. 21: 1–5 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Maltoni, G. Cotti, L. Morisi,, P. Chieco, Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinylidene chloride, Med. Lav. 68: 241–262 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. C. Lee, J. C. Bhandari, J. M. Winston, W. B. House, R. L. Dixon,, J. S. Woods, Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride, J. Toxic. Envir. Health 4: 15–30 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of trichloro-ethylene, Technical report series no. 2, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 76–802, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1976).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Final report of audit findings, administered trichloroethylene (TCE) chronic inhalation study at Industrial Bio-Test Laboratory, Inc., Decatur, I11. (1978).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of tetra-chloroethylene, Technical report series no. 13, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 77–813, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1977).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. D. Fabricant,, J. H. Chalmers, Evidence of the mutagenicity of ethylene dichloride and structurally related com-pounds, in: “Ethylene Dichloride: A Potential Health Risk?”, B. Ames, P. Infante,, R. Reitz, eds., Banbury Report 5, Cold Spring Harbor laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 309–329 (1980).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis bioassay of 1,2-dibromo-ethane. Technical report series no. 86, DHEW publication no. (NIH) 78–1336, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. B. Plotnick, W. W. Wiegel, D. E. Richards, K. L. Cheever,, C. Kommineni, Dietary disulfiram enhancement of the toxicity of ethylene dibromide, in: “Ethylene Dichloride: A Potential Health Risk?”, B. Ames, P. Infante,, R. Reitz, eds., Banbury Report 5, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 279–286 (1980).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    W. M. Busey, Oncogenic potential of vinyl bromide during chronic inhalation exposure - rats, Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc., Herndon, V.A., unpublished report (1979).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Maltoni, Vinyl chloride carcinogenicity: An experimental model for carcinogenicity studies, in: “Origins of Human Cancer”, H. H. Hiattt, J. D. Watson,, J. A. Winsten, eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 119–146 (1977).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. Axelson, K. Anderson, C. Hogstedt, B. Holmberg, G. Molina,, A. de Verdier, A cohort study on trichloroethylene exposure and cancer mortality, J. Occup. Med. 20: 194–196 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. G. Ott, W. A Fishbeck, J. C. Townsend, E. J. Schneider, A health study of employees exposed to vinylidene chloride, J. Occup. Med. 18: 735–738 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. G. Ott, H. C. Scharnweber,, R. R. Langner, Mortality experience of 161 employees exposed to ethylene dibromide in two production units, Br. J. Ind. Med. 37: 163–168 (1980).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Blair, P. Decoufle,, D. Grauman, Causes of death among laundry and dry cleaning workers, Am. J. Publ. Health 69: 508–511 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Blair, Mortality among workers in the metal polishing and plating industry, 1951–1969, J. Occup. Med. 22: 158–162 (1980)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. M. Katz,, D. Jowett, Female laundry and dry cleaning workers in Wisconsin: A mortality analysis, Am. J. Public Health 71: 305–307 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter F. Infante
    • 1
    • 2
  • Theodora A. Tsongas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Office of Carcinogen Identification and ClassificationHealth Standards ProgramN. W.USA
  2. 2.Department of LaborOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationUSA

Personalised recommendations