In 1948, Kenneth Maxcy(69) wrote in a chapter on epidemiology, “The simplest of all infectious diseases is measles. ” That was before the virus had been isolated or any serological test had become available. Several complicating situations have been found in the intervening years, but they are rare, and Maxcy’s statement is true now, more than 30 years later, as it was then. This relative simplicity makes measles an ideal model for the study of infectious-disease epidemiology. Babbott and Gordon(5) reviewed our knowledge of measles epidemiology as of 1954. Much has been clarified since.


Multiple Sclerosis Measle Virus Canine Distemper Virus Measle Vaccine Measle Case 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ABU BECR, M., A Discourse on the Smallpox and Measles (trans. R. Mead), J. Brindley, London, 1748.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ADAMS, J. M.,AND IMAGAWA, D. T., Measles antibodies in multiple sclerosis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 111:562–566 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ALBRECHT, P., ENNIS, F. H., SALTZMEN, E. J., AND KRUGMAN, S., Persistence of maternal antibody beyond twelve months: Mechanisms of measles vaccine failure, J. Pediatr 91:766–767 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BABBOTT, F. L., GALBRAITH, N. S., MCDONALD, J. C., SHAW, A., AND ZUCKERMAN, A. J., Deaths from measles in England and Wales in 1961, Mon. Bull. Minist. Health Public Health Lab. Sew. 22:167–175 (1963).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Babbott, F. L., and Gordon, J. E., Modern measles, Am. J. Med. Sci. 228:334–361 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    BAILEY, N. T. J., The Mathematical Theory of Epidemics, Griffin, London, 1957.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    BARTLETT, M. S., Deterministic and stochastic models for recurrent epidemics, Third Berkeley Symp. Math. Stat. Prob. 4:81–109 (1956).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    BARTLETT, M. S., Measles periodicity and community size, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A 120:40–70 (1957).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    BARTLETT, M. S., The critical community size for measles in the United States, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A 123:37–44 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    BECH, V., Studies on the development of complement fixing antibodies in measles patients, J. Immunol 83:267–275 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    BECH, V., Measles epidemics in Greenland, Am.J. Dis. Child. 103:252–253 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    BECH, V., The measles epidemic in Greenland, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 16:53–56 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    BELLANTI, J. A., SANG A, R. L., KLUTINIS, B., BRANDT, B., AND ARTENSTEIN, M. S., Antibody responses in serum and nasal secretion of children immunized with inactivated and attenuated measles virus vaccines, N. Engl. J. Med. 280:628–633 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benjamin, B., and Ward, S. M., Leukocyte response to measles, Am. J. Dis. Child. 44:921–963 (1932).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    BERG, R. B., AND ROSENTHAL, M. S., Propagation of measles virus in suspensions of human and monkey leukocytes, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 106:581–585 (1961).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    BHATT, P. N., BRANDT, C. D., WEISS, R. A., Fox, J. P., AND SHAFFER, M. F., Viral infections of monkeys in their natural habitat in southern India, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 15:561–566 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    BLACK, F. L., Serological epidemiology in measles, Yale J. Biol. Med. 32:44–50 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    BLACK, F. L., Growth and stability of measles virus, Virology 7:184–192 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    BLACK, F. L., A nationwide survey of United States military recruits, 1962. III. Measles and mumps antibodies, Am J. Hyg.80:304–307 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    BLACK, F. L., Measles endemicity in insular populations: Critical community size and its evolutionary implication, Theor. Biol. 11:207–211 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    BLACK, F. L., Measles, in: Manual of Clinical Microbiology 2nd ed. (E. H. LENNETTE AND J. P. TRUANT, eds.), American Society of Microbiology, Bethesda, Maryland, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    BLACK, F. L., HIERHOLZER, W., WOOD ALL, J. P., AND PINHEIRO, F., Intensified reactions to measles vaccine in unexposed populations of American Indians J. Infect. Dis 124:306–317 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    BLACK, F. L., AND ROSEN, L., Patterns of measles antibodies in residents of Tahiti and their stability in the absence of re-exposure, J. Immunol. 88:725–731 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    BLACK, F. L., AND SHERIDAN, S. R., Studies on attenuated measles-virus vaccine. IV. Administration of vaccine by several routes, N. Engl. J. Med. 263:166–170 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    BLACK, F. L., AND SHERIDAN, S. R., Blood leukocyte response to live measles vaccine, Am. J. Dis. Child. 113:301–304 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    BLAKE, F. C., AND TRASK, J. D., Studies on measles. II. Symptomatology and pathology in monkeys experimentally infected, J. Exp. Med. 33:413–422 (1921).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    BRIDGES, E. L., Uttermost Part of the Earth, Dutton, New York, 1949.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    BROWN, P., BASRIGHT, M., AND GAJDUSEK, D. C., Response to live attenuated measles vaccine in susceptible island populations in Micronesia, Am.J. Epidemiol. 82:115–122 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    BROWN, P. D., GAJDUSEK, C., ANDTSAI, T., Persistence of measles antibody in the absence of circulating natural virus five years after immunization of a virgin population with Edmonston B vaccine, Am J. Epidemiol 90:514–518 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    CELERS, J., Problèmes de santé publique posés par la rougeole dans les pay favorisés, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 16:5–18 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Center for Disease Control, Atypical measles—California 1974–1975, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 25:245–246 (1976).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    CHALMERS, A. K., The Health of Glasgow 1818–1925, Bell and Bain, Glasgow, 1930.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    CHERRY, J. D., FEIGIN, R. D., LOBES, L. A., JR., HIN- THORN, D. R., SHACKLEFORD, P. G., SHIRLEY, R. H., LINS, R. D., AND CHOI, S. C., Urban measles in the vaccine era: A clinical, epidemiologic and serologic study, J. Pediatr. 81:217–230 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    CHRISTENSEN, P. E., HENNING, S., BANG, H. O., ANDERSEN, V., JORDAL, B., AND JENSEN, O., An epidemic of measles in southern Greenland, 1951: Measles in virgin soil. II. The epidemic proper, Acta Med. Scand. 144:430–449 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    CIONGOLI, A. K., PLATZ, P., DUPONT, B., SVEJGAARD, A., FOG, T., AND JERSLID, C., Lack of antigen response to myxoviruses in multiple sclerosis, Lancet 2:1147 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cook, S. D., Dowling, P. D., and Russell, W. C, Multiple sclerosis and canine distemper, Lancet 1:605–606 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    CORNEY, B. G., The behavior of certain epidemic diseases in natives of Polynesia with especial reference to the Fiji Islands, Trans. Epidemiol. Soc. London (N. Ser.) 3:76–95 (1884).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    DESEDA-TOUS, J., CHERRY, J. D., SPENCER, M. J., WIL- LIVER, R. C., BOYER, K. M., DUDLEY, J. P., ZAHRADNIK, J. M., KRAUSE, P. J., AND WALBERGH, E. W., Measles revaccination, persistence and degree of antibody titer by type of immune response, Am.J. Dis. Child. 132:287–290 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DETELS, R., BRODY, J. A., MCNEW, J., AND EDGAR, A. H., Further epidemiological studies of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis, Lancet 2:11–14 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    ENDERS, J. F., AND PEEBLES, T. C, Propagation in tissue cultures of cytopathogenic agents from patients with measles, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 86:277–286 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    FENNER, F., The Impact of Civilization on the Biology of Man (S. V. BOYDEN, ed.), University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1970.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fox, J. P., BLACK, F. L., AND KOGON, A., Measles and readiness for reading and learning. V. Evaluative comparison of the studies and overall conclusions, Am. J. Epidemiol. 88:168–175 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    FULGINITI, V. A., ELLER, J. J., DOWNIE, A. W., AND KEMPE, C. H., Altered reactivity to measles virus: Atypical measles in children previously immunized with inactivated measles virus vaccines, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 202:1075–1080 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    GALLAGHER, M., AND FLANAGAN, T. D., Growth of measles in continuous lymphoid cell lines, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34:948 (1975).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    GIBBS, F. A., GIBBS, E. L., CARPENTER, P. R., AND SPIES, H. W., Electroencephalographic abnormality in “uncomplicated” childhood diseases, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 171:1050–1055 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    GORDON, J. E., JANSSEN, A. A. J., AND ASCOLI, W., Measles in rural Guatemala, J. Pediatr. 66:779–786 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    GREENBERG, M., PELLITTERI, O., AND EISENSTEIN, D., T., Measles encephalitis. 1. Prophylactic effect of gamma globulin, J. Pediatr. 46:642–647 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    GRESSER, I., AND KATZ, S. L., Isolation of measles virus from urine, N. Engl. J. Med. 263:452–454 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    GRIFFITHS, D. A., The effect of measles vaccination on the incidence of measles in the community, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A 136:441–449 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    GULICK, L. H., On the climate, diseases and materia medica of the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands, N. Y. J. Med. 14:169–211 (1855).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    HALL, W. W., AND MARTIN, S. J., The structural proteins of measles virus, in: Negative Strand Viruses (B. W. J. MAHY AND R. D. BARRY, eds.), pp. 89–103, Academic Press, London, 1975.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    HAMER, W. H., The Milroy lectures on epidemic disease in England—The evidence of variability and persistency of type, Lancet 1:733–739 (1906).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    HEDRICK, A. W., Monthly estimates of the child population susceptible to measles 1900–1931, Am.J. Hyg. 17:613–636 (1933).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    HELMS, S., AND HELMS, P., Tuberculin sensitivity during measles, Acta Tuberc. Scand. 35:166–171 (1956).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    HIRSCH, A., Handbook of Geographical and Historical Pathology Vol. 1, pp. 154–170, New Sydenham Society, London, 1883.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    HOME, F., Medical Facts and Experiments A. Millar, London, 1759.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Horta-Barbosa, L., Fuccilo, D. A., Hamilton, R.,TRAUB, R., LEY, A., AND SEVER, J. L., Some characteristics of SSPE measles virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 134:17–21 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    deJong, J. G., and Winkler, K. O., Survival of measles virus in air, Nature (London) 201:1054–1055 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    KATZ, S. L., AND ENDERS, J. F., Measles virus, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Infections 4th ed. (E. H. LENNETTE AND N. J. SCHMIDT, eds.), pp. 504–528, American Public Health Association, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    KATZ, S. L., KEMPE, C. H., BLACK, F. L., LEPOW, M. L., KRUGMAN, S., HAGGERTY, R. J., AND ENDERS, J. F., Studies on an attenuated measles-virus vaccine. VIII. General summary and evaluation of the results of vaccination, N. Engl. J. Med. 273:180–184 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    KOPROWSKI, H., The role of hyperergy in measles encephalitis, Am. J. Dis. Child. 103:273–278 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    KRAUSE, P. J., CHERRY, J. D., NAIDITCH, M. J., DESADA-TOUS, J., AND WALBERGH, E. W., Revaccina- tion of previous recipients of killed measles vaccine: Clinical and immunological studies, J. Pediatr. 93: 565–571 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    KRESS, S., SCHLUEDERBERG, A. E., HORNICK, R. B., MORSE, L. J., COLE, J. L., SLATER, E. A., AND MCCRUMB, F. R., Studies with live attenuated measles-virus vaccine. II. Clinical and immunological response of children in an open community, Am. J. Dis. Child. 101:701–707 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    KRUGMAN, S., GILES, J. P., JACOBS, A. M., AND FRIEDMAN, H., Studies with a further attenuated live mea- sles-virus vaccine, Pediatrics 66:471–488 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    KRUGMAN, S., Present status of measles and rubella immunization in the United States: A medical progress report, J. Pediatr. 90:1–12 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landlaekni, Heilbrigdisskyslur (Public Health in Iceland, Rikisprentsmidjan Gutenberg, Reykjavik, 1941–1950.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    LEPOW, M. L., AND NANKERVIS, G. A., Eight-year serological evaluation of Edmonston live measles vaccine, J. Pediatr. 75:407–411 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    LIAN, J.-F., Quantitative approach to measles humoral immunity, Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1979.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    MAXCY, K. F., Principles and methods of epidemiology, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man (T. M. RIVERS, ed.), pp. 128–146, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1948.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    MCCRUMB, F. R., KRESS, S., SAUNDERS, E., SNYDER, M. J., AND SCHLUEDERBERG, A. E., Studies with live attenuated measles vaccine. I. Clinical and immunological responses in institutionalized children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 101:689–700 (1961).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    MCNEILL, W. H., Plagues and Peoples: A Natural History of Infectious Diseases, Doubleday, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Measles Sub-committe: Committee on Development of Vaccines and Immunization Procedures, CLINICAL TRIAL OF LIVE MEASLES VACCINE GIVEN ALONE AND LIVE VACCINE PRECEDED BY KILLED VACCINE, LANCET 2:571–575 (1977).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Measles—United States, first 36 weeks, 1977–1978, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 27:235–237 (1978).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    TER MEULEN, V., MüLLER, D., KäCKELL, Y., KATZ, M., AND MAYERMANN, R., Isolation of infectious measles virus in measles encephalitis, Lancet 2:1172–1175 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    MEYER, H. M., Mass vaccination against measles in Upper Volta, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 16:243–245 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    MORLEY, D., The severe measles of West Africa, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 57:846–849 (1969).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    MYERS, J. M., Assimilation to the ecological and social systems of a community, Am. Sociol. Rev. 15:367–370 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    NATHANSON, N., AND MILLER, A., Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: Critique of the evidence for a viral etiology, Am.J. Epidemiol 107:451–461 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    NATHANSON, N., YORKE, J. A., PIANIGIANI, G., AND MARTIN, J., Requirements for perpetuation and eradication of viruses in populations, in: Persistent Viruses (J. D. STEVENS, G. J. TODARO, AND C. F. FOY, eds.), pp. 75–100, Academic Press, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    NEEL, J. V., CENTERWALL, W. R., CHAGNON, N. A., AND CASEY, H. L., Notes on the effects of meaSles in virgin-soil population of South American Indians, Am.J. Epidemiol 91:418–429 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    NORRBY, E., Viral antibodies in multiple sclerosis, Prog. Med. Virol 24:1–39 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    NORRBY, E., ENDERS-RUCKLE, G., AND TER MEULEN, V., Differences in the appearance of antibodies to structural components of measles virus after immunization with inactivated and live virus, J. Infect. Dis. 132:262–269 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    NUTELS, N., Medical problems of newly contacted Indian groups, Pan. Am. Health Organ. Sei. Publ. 165:68–76 (1968).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    OFFNER, H., AMMITZBOLL, T., CLAUSEN, J., FOG, F., HYLLESTED, K., AND EINSTEIN, E., Immune response of lymphocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis to phytohemagglutinin, basic protein myelin and measles antigens, Acta. Neurol Scand. 50:373–381 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    PAMPIGLIONE, G., Prodromal phase of measles: Some neurophysiological studies, Br. Med. J. 2:1296–1300 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    PANUM, P. L., Observations Made During the Epidemic of Measles on the Faroe Islands in the Year 1846, American Publishing Association, New York, 1940.Google Scholar
  87. 86a.
    PAPP, K., Experiences prouvant que a voie d’infection de la rougeole est la contamination de la muguese conjontivale, Rev. d’lmmunol. 20:27–36 (1956).Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    PATY, D. W., FURESZ, J., BOUCHER, W., RAND, C. G., AND STILLER, C. R., Measles antibodies as related to HLA types in multiple sclerosis, Neurology 20:651–655 (1976).Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    PAYNE, F. E., AND BAUBLIS, J. V., Decreased reactivity of SSPE strains of measles virus with antibody, J. Infect. Dis. 127:505–511 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    PEART, A. F. W., AND NAGLER, F. P., Measles in the Canadian Arctic 1952, Can. J. Public Health 45:146–157 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    RAWLS, W. E., RAWLS, M. L., AND CHERNESKY, M. H., Analysis of a measles epidemic: Possible role of vaccine failures, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 113:941–944 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    RISTORI, C., BOCCARDO, H., BORGONO, J. M., AND AR- MIJO, R., Medical importance of measles in Chile, Am.J. Dis. Child. 103:236–241 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    RUCKDESCHEL, J. C., GRAZIANO, K. D., AND MARDINEY, M. R., JR., Additional evidence that the cell-associated immune system is the primary host defense against measles, Cell Immunol 17:11–18 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    SALMI, A. A., NORRBY, E., AND PANELIUS, M., Identification of different measles virus-specific antibodies in the serum and cerebro-spinal fluid from patients with sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis, Infect. Immun. 6:248–254 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    SCHLUEDERBERG, A. E., Immune globulins in human viral infections, Nature (London) 205:1232–1233 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    SCHUTZ, F., Die Epidemiologic der Masern Gustav Fisher, Jena, 1925.Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    SCRIMSHAW, N. S., SOLOMON, J. B., BRUCH, H. A., AND GORDON, J. E., Studies of diarrheal disease in Central America. VIII. Measles, diarrhea and nutritional deficiency in Guatemala, Am. J. Trop. Med. 15:625–631 (1966).Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    SHASBY, D. M., SHOPE, T. C., DOWNS, H., HERRMANN, K. L., AND POLKOWSKI, J., Epidemic measles in a highly vaccinated population, N. Engl J. Med. 296:585–589 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    SOPER, H. E., The interpretation of periodicity in disease prevalence, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. A 92:34–61 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    SURINGA, D. W. R., BANK, L. J., AND ACKERMAN, A. B., Role of measles in skin lesions and Koplik spots, N. Engl. J. Med. 283:1139–1142 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    SYDENHAM, T., The Works of Thomas Sydenham Vol. 2, pp. 250–251, Sydenham Society, London, 1922.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    TOOTH, J. S. H., AND LEWIS, I. C., Measles epidemic in a primitive isolated community, Med. J. Aust. 1:182–186 (1963).Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    UTERMOHLEN, V., AND ZABRISKIE, J. B., A suppression of cellular immunity in patients with multiple sclerosis, J. Exp. Med. 138:1591–1596 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Valdimarsson, H., Agnarsdottir, G., and Lach- mann, P. J., MEASLES VIRUS RECEPTOR ON HUMAN T LYMPHOCYTES, NATURE (LONDON) 225:554–556 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    VIEIRA, J. P. B., JR., Vacinacäo dos indios Surui contrâ o sarapo, Rev. Assoc. Med. Brazil 16:183–186 (1968).Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, Measles immunity in the first year after birth and the optimum age forvaccination in Kenyan children, WHO Bull 55:21–31 (1977).Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    YEAGER, A. S., DAVIS, J. H., Ross, L. A., AND HARVEY, B. S., Measles immunization successes and failures, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:347–351(1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis L. Black
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations