Historical Perspective: Metallurgical Effects of High Strain-Rate Deformation and Fabrication

  • John S. Rinehart

Abstract

Research on the reaction of metals to explosions and impacts has been largely stimulated and guided by practical problems. French militarists as early as the 1830’s were fragmenting hollow cannon balls under controlled conditions to establish optimum loading and material properties of the casings. Shortly before World War I, the British engineer Hopkinson made detailed observations on spalling of metals. In the 1930’s, the possibilities of using high explosives to form and project missiles was recognized. This led to the development of the metal-lined shaped charges used so effectively in World War II and later in the recovery of oil, and to the method used to trigger atomic explosions. Development of sophisticated electronic missile fuzing during and following the war emphasized the need for equally sophisticated fragmentation control, a field that has since occupied the attention of many engineers. The non-military use of explosives to work and deform metals started and began to flourish in the 1950’s with many small industrial operations springing up. The extensive engineering developments have heretofore been accompanied by only limited basic research efforts but recently these have greatly expanded in a concerted attempt to understand metal behavior under rapidly applied intense loading.

Keywords

Clay Depression Welding Manganese Brittle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Duvall, G.E., Shock Waves in Solids, in “Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials,” ed, by B.M. French and N.M. Short, p. 19. Mono Book Corp., Baltimore, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Helie, F., “Traite de Balistique Experimentale.” Dumaine, Paris, 1840.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Munroe, C.E., Modern explosives, Scribners Mag., 3, 563, (1888).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Munroe, C.E., “The Applications of Explosives”, Pop, Sci. Monthly, 56, 444–455, (1900).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rinehart, J.S. and Pearson J., “Explosive Working of Metals.” Macmillan, New York, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hopkinson, J., “On the Rupture of Iron Wire by a Blow”, Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., II, 40, (1872), (See also “Original Papers”, 2, p. 316. Cambridge University Press, London).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hopkinson, J., “Further Experiments on the Rupture of Iron Wires”, Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., II, 119, (1872), (See also “Original Papers”, 2, p. 321. Cambridge University Press, London).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hopkinson, B., The Effects of Momentary Stresses in Metals, in “Scientific Papers”, p. 49. Cambridge University Press, London, 1905.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hopkinson, B., Brittleness and Ductility, in “Scientific Papers”, p. 64. Cambridae University Press, London, 1910.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hopkinson, B., The Pressure of a Blow, in “Scientific Papers”, p. 423. Cambridge University Press, London, 1912.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davies, R.M., A Critical Study of the Hopkinson Pressure Bar, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), 240A, 375, (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wood, R.W., Optical and Physical Effects of High Explosives, Proc. Roy. Soc., A., 157, 249, (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donnell, L.H., Longitudinal Wave Transmission and Impact, Trans., ASME, 52, 153, (1930).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clark, D.S. and Wood, D.S., The Tensile Impact Properties of Some Metals and Alloys, Trans., ASM, 42, 45, (1950).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    von Karman, T. and Duwez, P., The Propagation of Plastic Deformation in Solids, J. Appl. Phys., 21, 987, (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pack, D.C., Evans, W.M., and James, H.J., The Propagation of Shock Waves in Steel and Lead, Proc. Phys. Soc., 60, 1, (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goranson, R.W., Bancroft, D., Burton, B.L., Blechar, T., Houston, E.E., Gittings, E.F., and Landeen, S.A., Dynamic Determinations of the Compressibility of Metals, J. Appl. Phys., 26, 1472, (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kunetka, J.W., “City of Fire, Los Alamos and the Atomic Age, 1943–1945”, Rev. Ed. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1979.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Al’tshuler, L.V., Krupnikov, K.K., and Brazhnik, M.I., Dynamic Compressibility of Metals Under Pressures from 400,000 atmospheres to 4,000,000 atmospheres, Soviet Physics, JETP (Eng. Trans.), 34 (7), 614, (1958).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bancroft, D., Peterson, E.L., and Minshall, F.S., Polymorphism of Iron at High Pressure, J. Appl. Phys., 27, 291, (1956). “Behavior of Dense Media Under High Dynamic Pressures” Proc. I.U.T.A.M. Symposium held in Paris, Sept. 1967. Dunod, Paris, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chou, P.C. and Hopkins, A.K., eds., “Dynamic Response of Materials to Intense Impulsive Loading”. Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davids, N., ed., “Proceedings of International Symposium on Stress Wave Propagation in Materials”. Interscience, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katz, S., Doran, D.G., and Curran, D.R., Hugoniot Equation of State of Aluminum and Steel From Oblique Measurements, J. Appl. Phys., 30, 568, (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lundergan, C.D., The Hugoniot Equation of State of 6061-T6 Aluminum at Low Pressures, SC-4637 (RR). 19 p. Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, 1961.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mallory, H.D., Propagation of Shock Waves in Aluminum, J. Appl. Phys., 26, 555, (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McQueen, R.G. and Marsh, S.P., Equation of State of Nineteen Metallic Elements From Shock Wave Measurements to two Mega-bars, J. Appl. Phys., 31, 1253, (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McQueen, R.G., Zukas, E., and Marsh, S.P., Residual Tempera-tures of Shock Loaded Iron, in “Proc. Symposium on Dynamic Behavior of Materials,” p. 336, ASTM Special Tech. Publ., 1963.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Minshall, F.S., Properties of Elastic and Plastic Waves Determined by Pin Contractors and Crystals, J. Appl. Phys., 26, 463, (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rice, M.H., McQueen, R.G., and Walsh, J.M., Compression of Solids by Strong Shock Waves, in “Solid State Physics,” 6, ed. by Seitz, G. and , D., p. 1. Academic Press, New York, 1958.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walsh, J.M. and Christian, R.H., Equation of State of Metals From Shock Wave Measurements, Phys. Rev., 97, 1544, (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Walsh, J.M., Rice, M.H., McQueen, R.G., and Yarger, F.L., Shock Wave Compressions of Twenty-Seven Metals; Equations of State of Metals, Phys. Rev., 108, 196, (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Evans, W.M., Deformation and Fractures Produced by Intense Stress Pulses in Steel, Research, 5, 502, (1952).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kolsky, H., “Stress Waves in Solids”. Oxford University Press, Oxford, (1953). (Reprinted by Dover, 1963 ).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rinehart, J.S. and Pearson, J., “Behavior of Metals Under Impulsive Loads”. American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1954. (Reprinted by Dover, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shewmon, P.G. and Zackay, V.F., eds., “Proceedings of a Conference on Response of Metals to High Velocity Deformation”. , New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilson, F.W., ed., “High Velocity Forming of Metals”. American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1964.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ezra, A.A., “Principles and Practice of Explosive Metal- Working”. Industrial Newspapers Ltd., London, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Rinehart
    • 1
  1. 1.HyperDynamicSSanta FeUSA

Personalised recommendations