Resolution of Individual Electron Orbits for Solid State Atoms by Flux Quantum Analysis? Simple IIIB-Compounds and Phase Transition of Gadolinium (A3-A2)
The study of spark mass spectra has led to the discovery that flux quantization (fq) is important both for processes connected with chemical bonding and for the structure of atoms in solids. Magnetic flux which is involved in any changes of state appears to be quantized with regard to well-determined planar dimensions of atoms and molecules. From the multi-positive atomic ions on the one hand (1) and the valence effects revealed by the molecule formation from non-molecular solids on the other hand (2) it follows that both charge or current type processes and spin type processes involve an-identical minimum flux ϕo=h/2e. This value corresponds to Dirac’s equation 76 in (3) (cf. also (4)). The plasma process associated with the ion formation involves an electronic Bose-Einstein condensation for which an (electronic) quasiequilibrium may be assumed. The individual atom behaves approximately as a harmonic oscillator (charge oscillator, (5)). Since the flux is quantized it would in principle be possible to obtain absolute information about microdimensions. As the mass of the process-carrying quasiparticle deviates in a bond-dependent way from the ideal boson mass 2me, the information is only relative. In the case of a compound MX information about the shell structure of the atoms as well as the ratio of the radii anion/cation may be obtained from the K-slopes of the normalized concentrations of multipositive ions as a function of the degree of ionization.
KeywordsElectron Orbit Orbit Structure Flux Quantization Orbit Order Valence Effect
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.J.T. Muheim, “Discovery of Flux Quantization on the Atomic Scale,” Helv. Phys. Acta 50: 584 (1977).Google Scholar
- 4.C. Kittel, “Introduction to Solid State Physics,” Wiley, New York (1976) p. 382.Google Scholar
- 5.J.T. Muheim, “On a New Method to Study the Polar Properties of Matrix and Impurity Cations in Dielectric Solids by Spark Source Mass Spectrography — With Particular Reference to Eu- and Gd-Chalcogenides and -Pnictides,” Proc. 10th R.-E. Res. Conf. Arizona, Vol. 1:208, USAEC Techn. Inf. Center, Oak Ridge, Tenn. USA (1973).Google Scholar
- 6.J.T. Muheim, “The e+-Lifetime Spectrum of Heteropolar Solids and its Relation to the Chemical Bond and Microscopic Flux Quantization,” 5th Int. Conf. e+-Annihil., Lake Yamanaka, Japan, 8–11 April 1979.Google Scholar
- 7.C.K. Jôrgensen, “Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation States,” Springer, New York (1969) p. 79.Google Scholar
- 10.E. Bucher, A.C. Gossard, K. Andres, J.P. Maita and A.S. Cooper, “Magnetic Properties and Specific Heats of Monochalcogenides of La, Pr, and Tm,” Proc. 8th R.-E. Res. Conf. Reno, Nevada, 1:74, T.A. Henrie and R.E. Lindstrom, Eds. (1970).Google Scholar
- 11.A.R. Moodenbaugh, “Superconductivity of Some NaCl Structure Sulfides, Selenides, and Phosphides,” thesis University of California, San Diego (1975) p. 125.Google Scholar
- 12.J.J. Veyssié, D. Brochier, A. Nemoz and J. Blanc, “Supraconductivité du nitrure de lanthane,” Phys. Lett. 14: 261 (1965). Google Scholar