Resolution of Individual Electron Orbits for Solid State Atoms by Flux Quantum Analysis? Simple IIIB-Compounds and Phase Transition of Gadolinium (A3-A2)

  • Jules T. Muheim


The study of spark mass spectra has led to the discovery that flux quantization (fq) is important both for processes connected with chemical bonding and for the structure of atoms in solids. Magnetic flux which is involved in any changes of state appears to be quantized with regard to well-determined planar dimensions of atoms and molecules. From the multi-positive atomic ions on the one hand (1) and the valence effects revealed by the molecule formation from non-molecular solids on the other hand (2) it follows that both charge or current type processes and spin type processes involve an-identical minimum flux ϕo=h/2e. This value corresponds to Dirac’s equation 76 in (3) (cf. also (4)). The plasma process associated with the ion formation involves an electronic Bose-Einstein condensation for which an (electronic) quasiequilibrium may be assumed. The individual atom behaves approximately as a harmonic oscillator (charge oscillator, (5)). Since the flux is quantized it would in principle be possible to obtain absolute information about microdimensions. As the mass of the process-carrying quasiparticle deviates in a bond-dependent way from the ideal boson mass 2me, the information is only relative. In the case of a compound MX information about the shell structure of the atoms as well as the ratio of the radii anion/cation may be obtained from the K-slopes of the normalized concentrations of multipositive ions as a function of the degree of ionization.


Electron Orbit Orbit Structure Flux Quantization Orbit Order Valence Effect 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jules T. Muheim
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Solid State PhysicsSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZürichSwitzerland

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