Field Research on the Effects of Crowding in Prisons and on Offshore Drilling Platforms

  • Verne C. Cox
  • Paul B. Paulus
  • Garvin McCain
  • Janette K. Schkade


Much of the contemporary interest in the possible psychological effects of crowding1 stems from the combined influence of Calhoun’s (1962) classic studies on crowding effects in animals and the concern about potential psychological consequences of human population growth. Calhoun’s work raised the possibility that humans might display behavior pathology similar to that observed in severely crowded rats. Increasing population growth offers the possibility that the degree of crowding that yielded behavior pathology in Calhoun’s studies may be approached or achieved by large segments of the world’s human population. Even now it is commonly assumed that existing degrees of crowding in urban areas contribute substantially to behavior pathology (Zlutnick & Airman, 1972).


Housing Unit Psychosomatic Medicine Spatial Density Crew Member Experimental Social Psychology 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Verne C. Cox
    • 1
  • Paul B. Paulus
    • 1
  • Garvin McCain
    • 1
  • Janette K. Schkade
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Texas at ArlingtonArlington, TexasUSA

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