Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Revisited

  • Igor Tkatchenko

Abstract

The search for practical new energy and organic raw materials, coupled with the uncertainty and cost of crude oil imports, has renewed interest in the production of fuels and chemicals from hydrogen-deficient materials. Coal, lignite, oil shale, tar sands, can be gasified either in situ or ex situ to produce a gas containing large quantities of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Sulfur free and also methane free gas mixtures when reacted over specifically designed catalysts give a variety of organic products. The synthesis of such products, with the exception of methane, is generally referred to as the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction (1).

Keywords

Titanium Nickel Methane Cobalt Manganese 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1-.
    H. Fischer and H. Tropsch, Brennstoff. Chem., 7, 97 (1926).Google Scholar
  2. 2-.
    P. Sabatier and J. B. Senderens, C.R. Acad. Sci., 134, 514 (1902).Google Scholar
  3. 3-.
    H. H. Storch, N. Golumbic, and R. B. Anderson, “The Fischer-Tropsch and related synthesis”, Wiley, New York, N.Y. (1951).Google Scholar
  4. 3a-.
    R.B. Anderson in P.H. Emmett Ed., “Catalysis”, Reinhold New York N.Y. 4, 29 (1956).Google Scholar
  5. 3b-.
    P.H. Emmett, “Catalysis Then and Now”, Franklin Publishing, Engelwood, New Jersey, 1965.Google Scholar
  6. 4-.
    H. Pichler, Adv. Catal., 4, 271 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 5-.
    H. Pichler and O. Roelen, Ullman’s Encyklopädic der Technischen Chemie, Verlag Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich-Berlin, Vol. 9, p. 684 (1957).Google Scholar
  8. 6-.
    H. Pichler and A. Hector, Encylopedia of Chemical Technology, Wiley, 2nd Ed. 4, 446 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. 7-.
    H. Tramm, Brennstoff. Chem., 37, 117 (1956).Google Scholar
  10. 8-.
    H. Tramm, Chem.-Ing.-Techn., 24, 237 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 9-.
    H. Kölbel and K.D. Tillmetz, J. Catal., 34, 307 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10-.
    H. Pichler and H. Schulz, Chem.-Ing.-Techn., 42, 1102 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11-.
    H. Schulz, B.R. Raon, and M. Elstner, Erdöl u. Kohle-Erdgas, Petrochemie, 23, 651 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. 12-.
    M.E. Dry, T. Shingles, L.J. Boshoff, and G.J. Oosthuizen, J. Catal. 15, 190 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12a.
    W. Rähse and D. Schneidt, Ber. Bunsengesellschaft, 77, 127 (1973).Google Scholar
  16. 13-.
    M.A. Vannice, Catal. Rev.-Sci. Eng., 14, 153 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 14-.
    N. Nahon, V. Perrichon and P. Turlier, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  18. 15-.
    B. Büssemeier, C.D. Frohning, G. Horn, and W. Kluy, (to Ruhrchemie) Ger. OLS 2. 518. 964 (appl. 1975 ).Google Scholar
  19. 15a.
    Büssemeier, C.D. Frohning, G. Horn, and W. Kluy, (to Ruhrchemie) Ger. OLS 2.536.488 (appl. 1975 ).Google Scholar
  20. 16-.
    G. Henrici-Olivé and S. Olivé, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 15, 136 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 17-.
    H. Pichler, H. Schulz, and F. Hojabri, Brennstoff Chem., 48, 78 (1967).Google Scholar
  22. 18-.
    J. Barrault and R. Maurel, private communication.Google Scholar
  23. 19-.
    S.R. Craxford and E.K. Rideal, J. Chem. Soc., 1604 (1939).Google Scholar
  24. 19a-.
    S.R. Craxford and E.K. Rideal, Trans. Faraday Soc., 42, 576 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 20.
    V. Ponec, Catal.Rev.-Sci. Eng., US, 18, 151 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 21-.
    H. Schulz and A. Zein el Deen, Fuel Processing Technology, 1, 45 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 22-.
    G.A. Martin, M. Primet and J.A. Dalmon, J. Catal., 53, 321 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 23-.
    J.A. Dalmon and G.A. Martin, JCS, Trans. Faraday Soc. I, under press.Google Scholar
  29. 24-.
    G. Blyholder and P.H. Emmett, J. Phys. Chem., 63, 962 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 24a.
    Blyholder and P.H. Emmett, J. Phys. Chem., 64, 470 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 25-.
    R.W. Joyner, J. Catal., 50, 176 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 26-.
    H. Kölbel and D. Hanus, Chem. Ing. Techn., 46, 1042 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 27-.
    Yu B. Kryukov, A.N. Bashkirov, R.A. Fridman, L.G. Liverov, R.M. Smirova, G.T. Lysenko, and N.D. Stepanova, Neftekhimiya, 5, 226 (1965).Google Scholar
  34. 28-.
    A. Deluzarche, R. Kieffer, and A. Muth, Tetrahedron Lett., 3357 (1977).Google Scholar
  35. 29-.
    R.S. Nyholm in W.M.H. Sachtler, G.C.A. Schmit and P. Zwietering, Ed.,Proc. 3rd Inernat. Congr. Catal., North Holland, Amsterdam Vol. 1, p. 25 (1965).Google Scholar
  36. 30-.
    E.L. Muetterties, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg., 85, 451 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 31-.
    R. Ugo, Catal. Rev.-Sci. Eng., 11, 225 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 32-.
    J.P. Collman and S.R. Winter, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 4089 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 33-.
    C.P. Casey and M.S. Neumann, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 5395 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 34-.
    J.A. Gladysz and W. Tam, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 2545 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 35-.
    E.J. Gibson and R.W. Clarke, J. Appl. Chem., 11, 293 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 36-.
    W.K. Hall, R.J. Kokes, and P.H. Emmett, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 79, 2983 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 36a-.
    W.K. Hall, R.J. Kokes, and P.H. Emmett, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 82, 1027 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 37-.
    R.L. Pruett, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 295, 239 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 38-.
    M.G. Thomas, B.F. Beier, and E.L. Muetterties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 48, 1296 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 39-.
    C. Masters and J.A. Van Doom (to Shell Research) Ger. OLS 2.644.185 (appl. 9. 30. 76 ).Google Scholar
  47. 39-.
    C. Masters and J.A. Van Doom (to Shell Research) Ger. OLS 2.644.185 (appl. 9. 30. 76 ).Google Scholar
  48. 40-.
    Y. Chauvin, D. Commereuc,and I. Tkatchenko (to Institut Français du Pétrole) French Demande 76 32 940 (appl. 10. 27. 76 ).Google Scholar
  49. 41-.
    G. Fachinetti, C. Floriani and H. Stoeckli-Evans, JCS Dalton, 2297 (1977).Google Scholar
  50. 42-.
    J.C. Hufmann, J.B. Stone, W.C. Krusell and K.G. Caulton, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 5829 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 43-.
    H.A. Hodali, D.F. Shriver, and C.A. Hammlung, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 5239 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 44-.
    D.F. Shriver, J. Organometl. Chem., 94, 259 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 45-.
    P. Grenouillet and I. Tkatchenko, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  54. 46-.
    G.C. Demitras and E.L. Muetterties, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 2796 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 47-.
    M. Ichikawa, JCS Chem. Comm., 567 (1978).Google Scholar
  56. 48-.
    D. Ballivet-Tkatchenko, G. Coudurier, A. Kiennemann, H. Mozzanega and I. Tkatchenko, J. Mol. Catal., under press.Google Scholar
  57. 49-.
    A.K. Smith, A. Theolier, J.M. Basset, R. Ugo, D. Commereuc and Y. Chauvin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 2590 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 50-.
    R.M. Laine, R.G. Rinker, and P.C. Ford, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 252 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 51-.
    C.H. Cheng, D.E. Hendriksen, and R. Eisenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 2797 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 52-.
    H.C. Kang, C.H. Mauldin, T. Cole, W. Sleiger, K. Carm, and R. Pettit, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 8323 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 53-.
    R.B. King, C.C. Frazier, R.M. Hanes and A.D. King Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 2925 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 54-.
    P.C. Ford, R.G. Rinker, C. Ungermann, R.M. Laine, V. Landis, and S.A. Moya, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 4595 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 55-.
    C.H. Cheng and R. Eisenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 5968 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 56-.
    C.P. Casey and S.M. Neuman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 1651 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 57-.
    J.M. Manriquez, A.R. Mc Alister, R.D. Sanner, and J.E. Bercaw, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 6734 (1976).Google Scholar
  66. 58-.
    L.I. Shoer and J. Schwartz, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 5832 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Tkatchenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut de Recherches sur la CatalyseVilleurbanne CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations