Detection of Fatigue Damage by X-Rays
X-ray diffraction is one of the means for investigating the microscopic structure of crystalline materials. X-ray diffraction is advantageous when it is applied to metal materials; it responds very sensitively to changes in the metal’s crystalline structure. Another characteristic advantage of the x-ray diffraction approach is its nondestructive nature in the measurement of crystalline material parameters, enabling us to observe the process of mechanical phenomena of metals, such as fatigue.
The x-ray diffraction patterns obtained on a fatigued material include a great deal of information covering the macroscopic and microscopic characters consistent with the nature of the material. Residual stresses measured by x-ray and x-ray diffraction line broadening are the parameters easily obtained by conventional x-ray diffraction techniques and are taken as the macroscopic and submacroscopic material parameters whose changes are taken as the conventional measure of fatigue damage. The microscopic material parameters that are extracted mainly by means of the x-ray microbeam technique are another measure of damage in fatigue. The basic concept of defining macroscopic, submacroscopic and microscopic material parameters that are related with nondestructive detection of fatigue damage is discussed on the basis of engineering applications. Some examples of practical detection of fatigue damage are presented.
KeywordsResidual Stress Fatigue Crack Fatigue Damage Fatigue Crack Propagation Crack Propagation Rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Taira, S., “X-Ray Studies on Mechanical Behavior of Materials”, Society of Materials Science, Japan, 1974.Google Scholar
- 2.Taira, S., “X-Ray Approach for the Study on Mechanical Behavior of Metals”, Proc. Intl. Conf. Mech. Behav. Mat., Kyoto, Special Vol. (1972) 111–28.Google Scholar
- 3.Taira, S., “X-Ray Diffraction Approach for Studies on Fatigue and Creep”, Exp. Mech., Vol. 13, No. 11 (1973) 449–64.Google Scholar
- 4.J. Mat. Sci. Japan, Vol. 11 (1962), 629–718; Vol. 12 (1963) 829–911; Vol. 13 (1964) 905–1012; Vol. 14 (1965) 923–1029; Vol. 15 (1966) 813–901; Vol. 16 (1967) 921–1041; Vol. 17 (1968) 1047–80; Vol. 18 (1969) 1033–56; Vol. 20 (1971) 1239–60; Vol. 21 (1972) 1045–1171; Vol. 23 (1974) 1–96; Vol. 24 (1975) 1–102; Vol. 25 (1976) 1–129.Google Scholar
- 7.Ohuchida, H., A. Nishioka and M. Nagao, “X-Ray Detection of Fatigue Damage in Machine Parts”, Proc. 13th Jap. Congr. on Mat. Res. (1970) 167–72.Google Scholar
- 8.Ohuchida, H., M. Nagao and M. Kuboki, “X-Ray Detection of Fatigue Damage in Wheel Shafts”, Proc. 1974 Symp. on Mech. Behav. Mat., Vol. 1 (1974) 381–404.Google Scholar
- 9.Rowland, E., “Effect of Residual Stress on Fatigue”, Proc. 10th Sagamore Army Mat. Res. Conf. (1964) 229.Google Scholar
- 10.Nelson, D.V., R.E. Ricklefs and W.P. Evans, “The Role of Residual Stresses in Increasing Long-Life Fatigue Strength of Notched Machine Members”, ASTM STP 467 (1970) 228–53.Google Scholar
- 11.Honda, K. and T. Goto, “X-Ray Committee Report on X-Ray Study on Fatigue of Metal - Report 2”, J. Soc. Mat. Sci., Japan, Vol. 19 (1970) 714–21.Google Scholar
- 13.Hirsch, P.B. and J.N. Keller, “A Study of Cold-Worked Aluminum by an X-Ray Micro-Beam Technique, I: Measurement of Particle Volume and Misorientations”, Acta Cryst., Vol. 5 (1952) 162–67; Hirsch, P.B., “A Study of Cold-Worked Aluminum by an X-Ray Microbeam Technique, II: Measurement of Shape of Spots, and III: The Structure of Cold-Worked Aluminum”, Acta Cryst., Vol. 5 (1952) 168–72.Google Scholar
- 14.Taira, S. and K. Hayashi, “X-Ray Study on Fatigue of Mild Steel (On the Feature of Fatigue Mechanism in Comparison with Other Mode of Fracturing)”, Trans. Iron and Steel Inst., Japan, Vol. 8 (1968) 220–29; Hayashi, K., “X-Ray Study of Micro- Structure Change Due to Fatigue of Low Carbon Steel”, Proc. Intl. Conf. Mech. Behav. Mat., Kyoto, Vol. 2 (1972) 26–38.Google Scholar
- 15.Hayashi, K., Dr. Eng. Thesis, Kyoto Univ. (1967).Google Scholar
- 17.Hall, W.H., “X-Ray Line Broadening”, Proc. Phys. Soc., A-62 (1949) 741–43.Google Scholar
- 19.Taira, S., K. Hayashi and K. Tanaka, “X-Ray Investigation on Fatigue Fracture of Notched Specimens (Investigation on Fatigue Process of Cold-Rolled or Quench Aged Low-Carbon Steel Specimens)”, Proc. 11th Japan Congr. Mat. Res. (1968) 18-24; Taira, S. and K. Tanaka, “Study of Fatigue Crack Propagation by X-Ray Diffraction Approach”, Engng. Frac. Mech., Vol. 4 (1972) 925–38.Google Scholar
- 20.Taira, S. and K. Tanaka, “Microscopic Study of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Carbon Steel”, Proc. Intl. Conf. Mech. Behav. Mat., Kyoto, Vol. 2 (1972) 48–58.Google Scholar
- 21.Taira, S., K. Tanaka, T. Tanabe and Z.Ryu, “Investigation on Fatigue Crack Propagation of Low Carbon Steel”, Bull. JSME, 328 (1973) 3531–42.Google Scholar
- 22.Taira, S. and K. Tanaka, to be published in Bull. Soc. Mat. Sci., Japan.Google Scholar