Detection of Fatigue Damage by X-Rays
X-ray diffraction is one of the means for investigating the microscopic structure of crystalline materials. X-ray diffraction is advantageous when it is applied to metal materials; it responds very sensitively to changes in the metal’s crystalline structure. Another characteristic advantage of the x-ray diffraction approach is its nondestructive nature in the measurement of crystalline material parameters, enabling us to observe the process of mechanical phenomena of metals, such as fatigue.
The x-ray diffraction patterns obtained on a fatigued material include a great deal of information covering the macroscopic and microscopic characters consistent with the nature of the material. Residual stresses measured by x-ray and x-ray diffraction line broadening are the parameters easily obtained by conventional x-ray diffraction techniques and are taken as the macroscopic and submacroscopic material parameters whose changes are taken as the conventional measure of fatigue damage. The microscopic material parameters that are extracted mainly by means of the x-ray microbeam technique are another measure of damage in fatigue. The basic concept of defining macroscopic, submacroscopic and microscopic material parameters that are related with nondestructive detection of fatigue damage is discussed on the basis of engineering applications. Some examples of practical detection of fatigue damage are presented.
KeywordsFatigue Martensite Ductility Hone Rote
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