Advertisement

The Functions of Grief

  • James R. Averill
Part of the Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy book series (CISJ)

Abstract

Grief, like other important human problems such as death, was seriously neglected in psychological theory and research for a very long time. One reason for the new place achieved by grief in our field is the stimulating contributions of Averill. In this chapter, he elaborates his conception of grief and discusses its determinants and functions at the biological, psychological, and social levels.

Keywords

Depressive Symptom Social Bond Psychosomatic Medicine Maternal Separation Depressive Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amsel, A. Behavioral habituation, counterconditioning, and a general theory of persistence. In A. Black & W. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning. Vol. 2. Current theory and research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Averill, J. R. Grief: Its nature and significance. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 70, 721–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Averill, J. R. Personal control over aversive stimuli and its relationship to stress. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 286–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Averill, J. R. An analysis of psychophysiological symbolism and its influence on theories of emotion. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 1974, 4, 147–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Averill, J. R. Emotion and anxiety: Sociocultural, biological, and psychological determinants. In M. Zuckerman & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotion and anxiety: New concepts, methods and applications. New York: LEA-Wiley, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Averill, J. R. A selective review of cognitive and behavioral factors involved in the regulation of stress. In R. A. Depue (Ed.), The psychobiology of the depressive disorders: Implications for the effects of stress. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. The social construction of reality. New York: Doubleday, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. Bowlby, J. Maternal care and mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1951.Google Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. Grief and mourning in early infancy and early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1960, 15, 9–32.Google Scholar
  11. Bowlby, J. Process of mourning. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1961, 42, 317–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. Pathological mourning and childhood mourning. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1963, 11, 500–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss. Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  14. Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss. Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, A. E. Grief in the chimpanzee. American Naturalist, 1879, 13, pp. 173–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, D. T. On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist, 1975, 30, pp. 1103–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cannon, W. B. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Appleton, 1929.Google Scholar
  18. Carpenter, C. R. Societies of monkey and apes. Biological Symposia, 1942, 8, 177–204.Google Scholar
  19. Carr, A. C. Bereavement as a relative experience. In B. Schoenberg, I. Gerber, A. Weiner, A. H. Kutscher, D. Peretz, & A. C. Catt (Eds.), Bereavement: Its psychosocial aspects. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. Clarke, J. The precipitation of juvenile delinquency. Journal of Mental Science, 1961, 107, 1033–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis, D. R. The psychological mechanisms of depressions. In E. B. Davies (Ed.), Depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. Dennehy, C. M. Childhood bereavement and psychiatric illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1966, 112, 1049–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doi, L. T. Amae: A key concept for understanding Japanese personality structure. In R. J. Smith & R. K. Beardsley (Eds.), Japanese culture: Its development and characteristics. Chicago: Aldine, 1962.Google Scholar
  24. Doi, T. The anatomy of dependence. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Duffy, E. Activation and behavior. New York: Wiley, 1962.Google Scholar
  26. Durkheim, E. The elementary forms of religious experience. New York: Macmillan, 1915.Google Scholar
  27. Eastman, C. Behavioral formulations of depression. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 277–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Epstein, G., Weitz, L., Roback, H., & McKee, E. Research on bereavement: A selective and critical review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1975, 16, 537–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Ethology: The biology of behavior. New York: Holt, 1970.Google Scholar
  30. Engel, G. L. Is grief a disease? Psychosomatic Medicine, 1961, 23, 18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Engel, G. L. Psychological development in health and disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1962.Google Scholar
  32. Freud, S. (1923) the ego and the id. Standard Edition, Vol. 19. London: Hogarth, 1961.Google Scholar
  33. Garner, R. L. Apes and monkeys: Their life and language. Boston: Ginn, 1900.Google Scholar
  34. Gorer, G. Death, grief, and mourning. London: Cressent Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  35. Hannum, R. D., Rosellini, R. A., & Seligman, M. E. Learned-helplessness in the rat: Retention and immunization. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 449–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harlow, H. F. Learning to love. San Francisco: Albion, 1971.Google Scholar
  37. Harlow, H., & Suomi, S. J. Induced depression in monkeys. Behavioral Biology, 1974, 12, 273–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  39. Heinicke, C. M. Parental deprivation in early childhood: A predispostion to later depression ? In J. P. Scott & E. Senay (Eds.), Separation and depression: Clinical and research aspects. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1973.Google Scholar
  40. Hinde, R. A. The biological basis of human social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.Google Scholar
  41. Hocart, A. M. Death customs. In E. R. A. Seligman & A. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 5. New York: Macmillan, 1937.Google Scholar
  42. Hofer, M. A., Wolff, C. T., Friedman, S. B., & Mason, J. W. A psychoendocrine study of bereavement, Part I. 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid excretion rates of parents following death of their children from leukemia; and Part II. Observations on the process of mourning in relation to adrenocortical function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1972, 34, 481–491, 492–504.Google Scholar
  43. Kaufman, I. C. Mother-infant separation in monkeys: An experimental model. In J. P. Scott & E. C. Senay (Eds.), Separation and depression: Clinical and research aspects. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1973.Google Scholar
  44. Kaufman, I. C., & Rosenblum, L. A. The reaction of separation in infant monkeys: Anaclitic depression and conservation-withdrawal. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1967, 29, 648–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaufman, I. C., & Rosenblum, L. A. Effects of separation from mother on the emotional behavior of infant monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1969, 159, 681–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klein, D. C., Fencil-Morse, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. Learned helplessness, depression, and the attribution of failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976, 33, 508–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klein, D. F. Delineation of two drug-responsive anxiety syndromes. Psycho-pharmacologia, 1964, 5, 397–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lazarus, A. Learning theory and the treatment of depression. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1968, 6, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lazarus, R. S., & Averill, J. R. Emotion and cognition: With special reference to anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  50. Lerner, J. C. Changes in attitudes toward death: The widow in Great Britain in the early twentieth century. In B. Schoenberg, I. Gerber, A. Weiner, A. H. Kutscher, D. Peretz, & A. C. Carr (Eds.), Bereavement: Its psychosocial aspects. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  51. Levis, D. J. Learned helplessness: A reply and an altervative S-R interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1976, 105, 47–65.Google Scholar
  52. Lewinsohn, P. M., Weinstein, M. S., & Shaw, D. A. Depression: A clinical-research approach. In R. D. Rubin & C. M. Franks (Eds.), Advances in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  53. Lewis, J. K., McKinney, W. T., Yong, L. D., & Kraemer, G. W. Mother-infant separation in rhesus monkeys as a model of human depression: A reconsideration. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 55. 699–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lindemann, E. Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1944, 101, 141–148.Google Scholar
  55. Lindsley, D. B. Emotion. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley, 1951.Google Scholar
  56. Lorenz, K. King Solomon’s ring. New York: Crowell, 1952.Google Scholar
  57. Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. Leanred helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1976, 105, 3–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mandelbaum, D. G. Social uses of funeral rites. In H. Feifel (Ed.), The meaning of death. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.Google Scholar
  59. Mandler, G. Mind and emotion. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  60. Marris, P. Widows and their families. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958.Google Scholar
  61. Marris, P. Loss and change. Garden City, N.Y.. Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. McDougall, W. An introduction to social psychology ( 23rd ed. ). London: Methuen, 1936.Google Scholar
  63. Parkes, C. M . Bereavement and mental illness, Part I. A clinical study of the grief of bereaved psychiatric patients; and Part II. A classification of bereavement reactions. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1965,38, 1–12. 13–26.Google Scholar
  64. Parkes, C. M. “Seeking” and “finding” a lost object: Evidence from recent studies of the reaction to bereavement. Social Science and Medicine. 1970, 4, pp. 187–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parkes, C. M. Psychosocial transitions: A field for study. Social Science and Medicine, 1971, 5, 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Parkes, C. M. Bereavement: Studies of grief in adult life. London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.Google Scholar
  67. Parkes, C. M. What becomes of redundant world models? A contribution to the study of adaptation to change. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1975, 48, 131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pine, V. R., Kutscher, A. H., Peretz, D., Slater, R. C., DeBillis, R., Volk, R. J., & Cherico, D. J. Acute grief and the funeral. Springfield, 111.: Charles C Thomas, 1976.Google Scholar
  69. Pollock, G. H. Mourning and adaptation. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 1961, 43, 341–361.Google Scholar
  70. Preston, D. G., Baker, R. P., & Seay, B. Mother-infant separation in the patas monkey. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3, 298–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reite, M., Kaufman, I. C, Pauley, J. D., & Stynes, A. J. Depression in infant monkeys: Physiological correlates. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1974, 36, 363–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosenblatt, P. C., Walsh, R. P., & Jackson, D. S. Grief and mourning in cross-cultural perspective. New Haven: HRAF Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  73. Schaller, G. B. The behavior of the mountain gorilla. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate behavior. New York: Holt, 1965.Google Scholar
  74. Schmale, A. H. Relationship of separation and depression to disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1958, 20, 259–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmale, A. H. Adaptive role of depression in health and disease. In J. P. Scott & E. C. Senary (Eds.), Separation and depression: Clinical and research aspects. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1973.Google Scholar
  76. Schlottmann, R. S., & Seay, B. Mother-infant separation in the Java monkey (Macaca irus)- Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972, 79, 334–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schoenberg, B., Gerber, I., Weiner, A., Kutscher, A. H., Peretz, D., & Carr, A. C. (Eds.) Bereavement: Its psychosocial aspects. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  78. Scott, J. P. The development of social motivation. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, Vol. 15. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  79. Scott, J. P., Stewart, J. M., & DeGhett, J. J. Separation in infant dogs. In J. P. Scott & E. C. Senay (Eds.), Separation and depression: Clinical and research aspects. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1973.Google Scholar
  80. Seay, B., & Harlow, H. F. Maternal separation in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder, 1965, 140. 434–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Seligman, M. E. P. On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 406–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seligman, M. E. P. Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1975.Google Scholar
  83. Selye, H. The stress of life (rev. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.Google Scholar
  84. Sheatsley, P. B., & Feldman, J.J. The assassination of President Kennedy: A preliminary report on public reactions and behavior. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1964, 28, 189–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shoor, M., & Speed, M. H. Delinquency as a manifestation of the mourning process. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1963, 57, 540–558.Google Scholar
  86. Spitz, R. A. Anaclitic depression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1946, 2, 313 - 347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Staddon, J. E. R. On the notion of cause, with applications to behaviorism. Behaviorism, 1973, 1, 25–63.Google Scholar
  88. Suomi, S. J., Eiseld, C. D., Grady, S. A., & Harlow, H. F. Depressive behavior in adult monkeys following separation from family environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1975, 84, 576–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F., & Domek, C. J. Effect of repetitive infant-infant separation of young monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1970, 76, 161–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tinkelpaugh, O. L. The self-mutiliation of a male macacus rhesus monkey. Journal of Mammalogy, 1928, 9, 292–300.Google Scholar
  91. Volkart, E. H., & Michael, S. T. Bereavment and mental health. In A. H. Leighton, J. A. Clausen, & R. N. Wilson (Eds.), Explorations in social psychiatry. New York: Basic Books, 1957.Google Scholar
  92. Weiss, J. M. Effects of coping behavior with and without a feedback signal on stress pathology in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971, 77, 22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weiss, J. M., Glazer, H. L., & Pohorecky, L. A. Coping behavior and neurochemical changes: An alternative explanation for the original “learned helplessness” experiments. In C. Serban & A. Kling (Eds.), Animal models in human psychobiology. New York: Plenum Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  94. Wilson, E. O. Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Universtiy Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  95. Wortman, C. B., & Brehm, J. W. Responses to uncontrollable outcomes: An integration of reactance theory and the learned helplessness model. In L. E. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  96. Yamamoto, J., Okonogi, K., Iwasaki, T., & Yoshimura, S. Mourning in Japan. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 125, 1660–1665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yerkes, R. M., & Yerkes, A. W. The great apes. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1929.Google Scholar
  98. Zedwitz, F. X., von. Beobachtungen im zoologischen Garten Berlin. Der Zoologische Garten, 1930, 2, 278–286.Google Scholar
  99. Zuckerman, S. The social life of monkeys and apes. London: Kegan Paul, 1932.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Averill
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations