Advertisement

Alcoholism pp 41-70 | Cite as

Etiology of Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary Integration

  • Ralph E. Tarter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 7)

Abstract

An understanding of etiological factors in alcoholism has remained elusive despite intensive study by researchers in the biological and social sciences over the past several decades. Reviews of advances in disciplines as disparate as genetics (Cadoret, 1976; Goodwin, 1976), epidemiology (Cahalan and Cisin, 1976), biochemistry (Walsh, 1973), cultural anthropology (Bacon, 1973; Stivers, 1976) and psychology (Hoffman, 1976) have been unable to specify the necessary conditions antecedent to this disorder.

Keywords

Skin Conductance Drinking Pattern Stimulant Drug Physiological Reactivity Blood Alcohol Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amark, C. A study in alcoholism: Clinical, social-psychiatric and genetic investigations. Acta Psychiatrica Neurologica Scandinavica, Supplement 70, 1951.Google Scholar
  2. Astin, A. A factor study of the MMPI psychopathic deviate scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1959, 23, 550–554.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, M. Cross cultural studies of drinking. In P. Bourne and R. Fox (Eds.), Alcoholism: Progress in research and treatment. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, C. Bowers, M. Amphetamine (Benzadine) therapy of children’s behavior disorders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1941, 11, 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, R. Cutter, H. Alcohol, customary drinking behavior and pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977, 179–188.Google Scholar
  6. Cadoret, R. Genetic determinants of alcoholism. In R. Tarter and A. Sugerman (Eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Cadoret, R., Cunningham, L., Loftus, R. and Edwards, J. Studies of adoptees from psychiatrically disturbed biologic parents. Behavioral Pediatrics, 1975, 87, 301–306.Google Scholar
  8. Cahalan, D. Cisin, I. Epidemiological and social factors associated with drinking problems. In R. Tarter and A. Sugerman (Eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  9. Cantwell, D. P. Psychiatric illness in the families of hyperactive children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 27, 9 414–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantwell, D. Familial-genetic research with hyperactive children. In D. Cantwell (Ed.), The hyperactive child: Diagnosis, management, current research. New York: Spectrum Publications, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. Carpenter, J. Effects of alcohol on some psychological processes: A critical review with special reference to automobile driving skill. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1962, 23, 274 314.Google Scholar
  12. Chandler, B., Parsons, O. Vega, A. Autonomic functioning in alcoholics: A study of heart rate and skin conductance. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1975, 36, 566–577.Google Scholar
  13. Chotlos, J. Goldstein, G. Psychophysiological responses to meaningful sounds. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 1967, 145, 314–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cleckley, H. The Mask of Sanity. St. Louis, Mo. Mosby, 1964.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, N. Douglas, V. Characteristics of the orienting response in hyperactive and normal children. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9, 238–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole, J. Ryback, R. Pharmacological therapy. In R. Tarter and A Sugerman (Eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Conners, C. Stimulant drugs and cortical evoked responses in learning and behavior disorders in children. In W. Smith (Ed.), Drugs, development and cerebral function. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. Coopersmith, S. Woodrow, K. Basal conductance levels of normals and alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1967 28, 27–32.Google Scholar
  19. Cutter, H., Maloof, B., Kurtz, N., Jones, W. Feeling pain: The differential response of alcoholics and nonalcoholics before and after drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1976, 37, 273–277.Google Scholar
  20. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D. C., 1968.Google Scholar
  21. Docter, R., Naitoh, P. Smith, J. Electroencephalographic changes and vigilance behavior during experimentally induced intoxication with alcoholic subjects. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1966, 28, 605–615.Google Scholar
  22. Douglas, V. Stop, look and listen: The problem of sustained attention and impulse control in hyperactive and normal children. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 1972, 4, 259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dykman, R., Ackerman, P., Galbrecht, C. Reese, W. Physiological reactivity to different stressors and methods of evaluation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1963, 25, 37–39.Google Scholar
  24. Fuxe, K., Hokfelt, T. Ungerstedt, N. Central monoaminergic tracts. In W. Clark and J. del Guidice (Eds.), Principles of Psychopharmacology. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  25. Garfield, Z. McBrearty, J. Arousal level and stimulus response in alcoholics after drinking. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1970, 31, 832–838.Google Scholar
  26. Gittleman-Klein, R., Klein, D., Katz, S., Saraf, K. Bollack, E. Comparative effects of methylphenidate and thioridazine in hyperkinetic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 1217–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldstein, S. Linden, J. Multivariate classification of alcoholics by means of MMPI. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1969, 74, 661–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gomberg, E. The young male alcoholic—A pilot study. (In preparation)Google Scholar
  29. Goodwin, D., Schulsinger, F., Hermanssen, L., Guze, S. Winokur, G. Alcoholism and the hyperactive child syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1975, 160, 349–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gross, M. Imipramine in the treatment of minimal brain dysfunction in children. Psychosomatics, 1973, 14, 183–285.Google Scholar
  31. Gualtieri, C. Imipramine and children: A review and some speculations about the mechanism of drug action. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1977, 38, 368–375.Google Scholar
  32. Guze, S. The validity and significance of the clinical diagnosis hysteria (Briquet’s syndrome). American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 138–141.Google Scholar
  33. Hare, R. Psychopathy: Theory and research. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  34. Hill, D. Amphetamine in psychopathic states. British Journal of Addictions, 1944, 44, 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hill, E., Haertzen, C. Davis, H. An MMPI factor analysis study of alcoholics, neurotic addicts and animals. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1962, 23, 411–431.Google Scholar
  36. Hoffman, H. Personality measurement for the evaluation and prediction of alcoholism. In R. Tarter and A. Sugerman (Eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  37. Hore, B. Craving for alcohol. British Journal of Addictions, 1974, 69, 137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Irwin, S. A rational framework for the development, evaluation and use of psychoactive drugs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 124, February Supplement, 1–19.Google Scholar
  39. Isbell, H. Craving for alcohol. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1955, 16, 38–42.Google Scholar
  40. Jellinek, E. Phases of alcohol addiction. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1952, 13, 673–684.Google Scholar
  41. Jones, H. The study of patterns of emotional expression. In M. Reymert (Ed.), Feelings and emotions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  42. Jones, M. Personality correlates and antecedents of drinking patterns in adult males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 2–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kissin, B. Gross, M. Drug therapy in alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125, 69–79.Google Scholar
  44. Kissin, B., Platz, A. Su, W. Social and psychological factors in the treatment of chronic alcoholism. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1970, 8, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kissin, B., Schenker, V. Schenker, A.The acute effects of ethyl alcohol and chlorpromazine on certain physiological functions in alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1959, 20, 480–492.Google Scholar
  46. Kline, N., Wren, J., Cooper, T., Varga, E. Canal, G. Evaluation of lithium therapy in chronic and periodic alcoholism. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1974, 268, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kline, N., Wren, J., Cooper, T., Varga, E. Canal, G. Evaluation of lithium therapy in chronic and periodic alcoholism. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1974, 268, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Learmonth, G., Ackerly, W. Kaplan, M. Relationship between palmar skin potential during stress and personality variables. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1959, 21, 156–157.Google Scholar
  49. Loper, R., Kammeier, M. Hoffman, H. MMPI characteristics of college freshman males who later become alcoholics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 82, 159–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ludwig, A. Stark, L. Alcohol craving: Subjective and situational aspects. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1974, 35, 899–905.Google Scholar
  51. Ludwig, A., Wikler, A. Stark, L. The first drink: Psychological aspects of craving. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 30, 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lykken, D. A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957, 55, 6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maloof, B. Alcohol stress and coping: An examination of the differential impact of alcohol on the ability of alcoholics and nonalcoholics to cope with a stressful situation. Doctoral Dissertation, Brandeis University, 1974. Cited in Dissertation Abstracts International, 1975, 36, 1099.Google Scholar
  54. Mann, H. Greenspan, S. The identification and treatment of adult brain dysfunction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 1013–1017.Google Scholar
  55. Mawson, A. Mawson, C. Psychopathy and arousal: A new interpretation of the psychophysiological literature. Biological Psychiatry, 1977, 12, 49–74.Google Scholar
  56. McClelland, D., Davis, W., Kalin, R. Warner, E. The drinking man. New York: The Free Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  57. McCord, W. McCord, J. A longitudinal study of the personality of alcoholics. In D. Peltman and C. Snyder (Eds.), Society, culture and drinking patterns. New York: Wiley, 1962.Google Scholar
  58. Mello, N. Mendelson, J. Drinking patterns during work contingent and noncontingent alcohol acquisition. In N. Mello and J. Mendel son (Eds.), Recent advances in studies of alcoholism: A interdisciplinary symposium. Superintendant of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  59. Mendelson, W., Johnson, N. Stewart, M. Hyperactive children as adolescents: A follow-up study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1971, 153, 273–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morrison, J. Stewart, M. The psychiatric status of the legal families of adopted hyperactive children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 888–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nathan, P. E., O’Brien, J. Norton, D. Comparative studies of the interpersonal and affective behavior of alcoholics and non-alcoholics during prolonged experimental drinking. In N. Mello and J. Mendelson (Eds.), Recent advances in studies of alcoholism: An interdisciplinary symposium. Superintendant of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  62. O’Mai ley, J. Eisenberg, L. The hyperkinetic syndrome. Seminars in Psychiatry, 1973, 5, 95–103.Google Scholar
  63. Parthington, J. Johnson, F. Personality types among alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1969, 30, 21–33.Google Scholar
  64. Petrie, A. Individuality in Pain and Suffering. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  65. Prichep, L., Sutton, S. Hakerem, G. Evoked potentials in hyper-kinetic and normal children under certainty and uncertainty: A placebo and methylphenidate study. Psychophysiology, 1976, 13, 419–428.Google Scholar
  66. Quay, H. Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1965, 122, 180–183.Google Scholar
  67. Quitkin, F. Klein, D. Two behavioral syndromes in young adults related to possible minimal brain dysfunction. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1969, 7, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Robins, L., Bates, W. O’Neal, P. Adult drinking patterns of former problem children. In D. Pittman and C. Snyder (Eds.), Drinking patterns. New York: Wiley, 1962.Google Scholar
  69. Schacter, S. Emotion, obesity and crime. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  70. Schenker, V., Kissin, B. Maynard, L. The effects of ethanol on amine metabolism in alcoholism. In R. Maickel (Ed.), Biochemical factors in alcoholism. London: Oxford Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  71. Shopsin, B. Kline, N. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Potential for drug abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 1976, 11, 451–456.Google Scholar
  72. Sprague, R., Barnes, K. Werry, R. Methylphenidate and thioridazine: Learning, reaction time, activity and classroom behavior in disturbed children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1976, 40, 615–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Steffen, J., Nathan, P. E. Taylor, H. Tension reducing effects of alcohol: Further evidence and some methodological considerations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 542–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart, M., Mendelson, W. Johnson, N. Hyperactive children as adolescents: How they describe themselves. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 1973, 4, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stivers, R. Culture and alcoholism. In R. Tarter and A. Sugerman (Eds.), Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary approaches to an enduring problem. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  76. Tarter, R. Personality characteristics of male alcoholics. Psychological Reports, 1975, 37, 91–96.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tarter, R. Psychological deficit in chronic alcoholics: A review. International Journal of the Addictions, 1975, 10, 327–368.Google Scholar
  78. Tarter, R., McBride, H., Buonpane, N. Schneider, D. Differentiation of alcoholics according to childhood history of minimal brain dysfunction, family history and drinking pattern. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1977, 34, 761–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tarter, R. Novick, L. Perceptual reactance in alcoholics and its relationship to hyperactivity symptomatology in childhood (in preparation).Google Scholar
  80. Tarter, R., Perley, R. Sansom, C. Psychological history, minimal brain dysfunction and differential drinking patterns of male alcoholics (in preparation).Google Scholar
  81. Tarter, R. Schneider, D. Blackouts: Relationship with memory capacity and alcoholism history. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 1492–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tarter, R. Sugerman, A. Craving for alcohol: Role of drinking pattern, psychosocial history, cognitive style, motor control and personality variables. In M. Gross (Ed.), Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  83. Venables, P. The electrodermal physiology of schizophrenics and children at risk for schizophrenia: Controversies and developments. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3, 28–38.Google Scholar
  84. Walsh, M. The biochemical aspects of alcoholism. In P. Bourne and R. Fox (Eds.), Alcoholism: Progress in research and treatment. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  85. Wanberg, K., Horn, J. Foster, M. A differential model for the diagnosis of alcoholism. Scales for the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (unpublished manual). Fort Logan Mental Health Center, Alcoholism Division, Denver, Colorado, 1974.Google Scholar
  86. Weiss, G., Minde, K., Werry, J., Douglas, V. Nemeth, E. Follow-up studies of children who present with symptoms of hyperactivity. In C. Conners (Ed.), Clinical use of stimulant drugs in children. New York: American Elsevier, 1974.Google Scholar
  87. Weikens, L. Richter, C. A great craving for salt by a child with corticoadrenal insufficiency. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1940, 114, 866–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wender, P. Minimal brain dysfunction in children. New York: Miley 1971.Google Scholar
  89. Wenger, M. Studies of autonomic balance in Army Air Force Personnel. Comparative Psychology Monograph, 1948, 19, (Serial # 101).Google Scholar
  90. Winokur, G., Rimmer, J. Reich, T. Alcoholism IV: Is there more than one type of alcoholism ? British Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 118, 525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wood, D., Reimherr, F., Wender, P. Johnson, G. Diagnosis and treatment of minimal brain dysfunction in adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 1435–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zahn, T., Abate, F., Little, B. Wender, P. Minimal brain dys-function, stimulant drugs and autonomic nervous system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zentall, S. Optimal stimulation as a theoretical basis of hyperactivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1975, 45, 549– 549–563.Google Scholar
  94. Zentall, S. Zentall, T. Amphetamine’s paradoxical effects may be predictable. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1976, 9, 67–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph E. Tarter
    • 1
  1. 1.Carrier Clinic FoundationBelle MeadUSA

Personalised recommendations