Advertisement

Oral Oncology pp 217-249 | Cite as

Chemotherapy of Squamous Head and Neck Cancer

  • Susan W. Pitman
  • Joseph R. Bertino
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 20)

Abstract

The role of chemotherapy in the management of cancers of the oral cavity continues to be defined through active ongoing clinical investigation. Since most series combine oral cavity with the other head and neck regions—namely, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasopharynx, and paranasal sinuses—this chapter will review the use of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer and, where possible, cite oral cavity region-specific differences if such exist.

Keywords

Neck Cancer Oral Cavity Dihydrofolate Reductase Advanced Head Thymidylate Synthetase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sako K, Lore JM, Kaufman S, et al. Parenteral hyperalimentation in surgical patients with head and neck cancer: A randomized study. J Surg Onc (16): 391–402, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller EM, Norman D. The role of computed tomography in the evaluation of neck masses. Radiology (133): 145–149, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Son YH. Evaluation of neck mass: Computed tomography. Conn Med (45): 75–78, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker SR, Krause CJ. Ultrasonic analysis of head and neck neoplasms. Ann Otol (90): 126–131, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gooding GAW. Gray-scale ultrasonography of the neck. JAMA (243): 1562–1564, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Amer MF, Al-Sarraf M, Vaitkevicius VK. Factors that affect response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer (43): 2202–2206, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cortes EP, Kalra J, Amin VC, Attie J, Eisenbad L, Khafif R, Wolk D, Aral I, Scrubba J, Akbijik N, Heller K. Chemotherapy for head and neck cancer relapsing after radiotherapy. Cancer (47): 1966–1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Didolkar MS, Coleman JJ, Elias EG, Gray WC, Cosentino E. Chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of head and neck: An effective outpatient schedule of Cytoxan, Oncovin, methotrexate and bleomycin. Head & Neck Surg (4): 92–97, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Woods RL, Fox RM, Tattersall MHN. Advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck—A randomised study of three methotrexate doses. Brit Med J (282): 600–602, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sealy R, Helman P. Treatment of head and neck cancer with intra-arterial cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy. Cancer (30): 187, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wittes RE, Cvitkovic E, Shah J, et al. Cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum (II) in the treatment of epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Treat Rep (61): 359–366, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wittes RE, Heller K, Randolph V, et al. Cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum (H)-based chemotherapy as initial treatment in advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer Treat Rep (63): 1533–1538, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mills EED. Intermittent intravenous methotrexate in the treatment of advanced epidermoid carcinoma. S Afr Med J (46): 398–401, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Frei E, Blum R, Pitman SW, Kirkwood J, Henderson IC, Skarin AT, Mayer RJ, Bast R, Garnick M, Parker I, Canellos G. High-dose methotrexate with leucovorin rescue rationale and spectrum of antitumor activity. Amer J of Med (68): 270–276, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Randolph VL, Vallejo A, Spiro RH, et al. Combination therapy of advanced head and neck cancer: Induction of remissions with diamminedichloroplatinum (II), bleomycin and radiation therapy. Cancer (41): 460–467, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hong WK, Shapshay SM. Treatment of previously untreated stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Otolaryng Clin N Am (13): 521–528, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown AW, Blom J, Butler W, Guerrero GG, Richardson M, Henderson RL. Combination chemotherapy with vinblastine, bleomycin, and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer (45): 2830–2835, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forastiere AA, Crain SM, Coker DD, Elias EG, Amornmarn R, Wiernick PH. Cisplatin and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 196, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Price LA, Hill BT. Safe and effective 24-hour combination chemotherapy without cisplatin as initial treatment in head and neck cancer. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc 1: 202, 1982.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hill BT, Dalley VM, Shaw JH. 24-hour combination chemotherapy without cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 202, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vogl SE, Lerner H, Kaplan BH, Camacho F, Anberg J, Schoenfeld D. Mitomycin-C, methotrexate, bleomycin and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in the chemotherapy of advanced squamous cancer of the head and neck. Cancer (50): 6–9, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Amer MH, Izbicki R, Vaitkevicius VK, Al-Sarraf M. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, Oncovin and bleomycin (COB) in advanced head and neck cancer, phase II. Cancer (45): 217–223, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Decker DA, Drelichman A, Jacobs J, Hoschner J, Kinzie J, Loh JJK, Weaver A, Al-Sarraf M. Adjuvant chemotherapy with high dose bolus cis-diammindichloroplatinum II and 120 hour infusion 5-fluorouracil in stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 195, 1982.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kish J, Drelichman A, Weaver A, Jacobs J, Bergsman K, Al-Sarraf M. Cis-platinum and 5-fluorouracil infusion in patients with recurrent and disseminated epidermoid cancer of the head and neck. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 193, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ervin RJ, Weichselbaum R, Miller D, et al. Treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with cis-platin, bleomycin, and methotrexate (PBM). Cancer Treat Rep (65): 787–791, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Molinari R, Mattavelli F, Cantu G, Chiesa F, Costa L, Tancini G. Results of a low-dose combination chemotherapy with vincristine, bleomycin and methotrexate (V-B-M) based on cell kinetics in the palliative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer (16): 469–472, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeConti RC, Schoenfeld D. A randomized prospective comparison of intermittent methotrexate, methotrexate with leucovorin and a methotrexate combination in head and neck cancer. Cancer (48): 1061–1072, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coker DD, Elias EG, Chretien PB, Gray WC, Coleman JJ, Zentai TA, Didolkar MS, Morris DM, Viravathana T, Hebel JR. Combination chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head & Neck Surg (4): 111–117, 1981.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams SD, Einhorn LH, Velez-Garcia E, Essessee I, Ratkin G, Birch R, Garrard J. Chemotherapy of head and neck cancer: Comparison of cisplatin and vinblastine and bleomycin (PVB) versus methotrexate (MTX). Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 202, 1982.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woods RL, Fox RM, Tattersall MHN. Methotrexate treatment of advanced head and neck cancers: A dose response evaluation. Cancer Treat Rep (65) (Suppl): 155–159, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bertino JR, Boston B, Capizzi RL. The role of chemotherapy in the management of cancer of the head and neck: A review. Cancer (36): 752–758, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Creagan ET, Fleming TR, Edmonson JH, Ingle J, Woods JE. Cyclophosphamide, adriamy-cin and cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum II in the treatment of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer (47): 240–244, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Presant CA, Ratkin G, Klahr C et al. Adriamycin, BCNU plus cyclophosphamide (ABC) in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer (44): 1571–1575, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jorgensen K, Schlichting J. Relationship between histologic grading of head and neck tumours and regression after chemotherapy. Acta Radiologica Oncology (19): 357–359, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ohnuma, A. Effects of combination therapy with bleomycin (NSC-125066) and dibromodulcitol (NSC-104800) on squamous cell carcinoma in man. Cancer Chem. rep. (56): 625–633, 1972.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Papac RJ, Lefkowitz E, Bertino JR. Methotrexate (NSC-740) in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. II. Intermittent intravenous therapy. Cancer Chemother Rep (51): 69–72, 1967.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lane M, Moore JE, Levin H et al. Methotrexate therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. JAMA (204): 561–564, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leone LA, Albala MM, Rege VB. Treatment of carcinoma of the head and neck with intravenous methotrexate. Cancer (21): 828–837, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DePalo GM, DeLana M, Molinari R, et al. Clinical evaluation of high weekly intravenous doses of methotrexate in advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma. Tumori (56): 259–268, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Papac R, Minor DR, Rudnick S, et al. Controlled trial of methotrexate and Bacillus Calmette-Guarin therapy for advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer Res (38): 3150–3153, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vogler WR, Jacobs J, Moffitt S, Velez-Garcia E, Goldsmith A, Johnson L, Mackay S. Methotrexatee therapy with or without citrovorum factor in carcinoma of the head and neck, breast, and colon. Cancer Clin Trials (2): 227–236, 1979.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Woods. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hong WK, Schaefer S, Issell B, Cummings C, Luedka D, Bromer R, Lavin L. A prospective randomized trial of methotrexate versus cisplatin in the treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 202, 1982.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vogl. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vogl. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldsmith MA, Carter S. The integration of chemotherapy into a combined modality approach to cancer therapy. V. Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Cancer Treat Rev (2): 137–158, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huseby RA, Downing V. The use of methotrexate orally in treatment of squamous cancers of the head and neck. Cancer Chemother Rep (16): 511–514, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Papac RJ, Jacobs EM, Foye LV Jr, et al. Systemic therapy with amethopterin in squamous carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Chemother Rep (32): 47–54, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hellman S, Iannotti At, Bertino JR. Determination of the levels of serum folate in patients with carcinoma of the head and neck treated with methotrexate. Cancer Res (24): 105–113, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vogler WR, Huseby CM Jr, Kerr W. Toxicity and antitumor effect of divided doses of methotrexate. Arch Intern Med (115): 285–293, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kligerman MM, Hellman S, VonEssen DE, et al. Sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiology (87): 247–250, 1966.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Andrews NC, Wilson WL. Phase II study of methotrexate (NSC-740) in solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep (51): 471–474, 1967.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sullivan RD, Miller E, Sires MP. Antimetabolite-metabolite combination cancer chemotherapy—effects of intra-arterial methotrexate intramuscular citrovorum factor therapy in human cancer. Cancer (12): 1248–1262, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Capizzi RL, DeConti RC, Marsh JC, Bertino JR. Methotrexate therapy of head and neck cancer: Improvement in therapeutic index by the use of leucovorin “rescue.” Cancer Res (30): 1782–1788, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kirkwood JM, Canellos GP, Ervin TJ, Pitman SW, Weichelsbaum R, Miller D. Increased therapeutic index using moderate dose methotrexate and leucovorin twice weekly vs weekly high-dose methotrexate-leucovorin in patients with advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: A safe new effective regimen. Cancer (47): 2414–2421, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pitman SW, Parker LM, Tattersall MHN, Jaffe N, Frei E. Clinical trial of high-dose methotrexate (NSC-740) with citrovorum factor (NSC-3590)—Toxiologic and therapeutic observations. Cancer Chemo Rep (6): 43–49, 1975.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Condit PT, Chang RE, Joel W. Renal toxicity of methotrexate. Cancer (23): 126–131, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stoller RG, Jacobs SA, Drake JC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose methotrexate. Cancer Chemother Rep (6): 19–24, 1975.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pitman SW, Frei E III. Weekly methotrexate-calcium leucovorin rescue. I. Effects of alkalinization on nephrotoxicity. Cancer Treat Rep (61): 695–701, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stoller RG, Hander KR, Jacobs SA, et al. Use of plasma pharmacokinetics to predict and prevent methotrexate toxicity. N Engl J Med (297): 630–634, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levitt M, Mosher MB, DeConti RC, Farber LR, Skeel RT, Marsh JC, Mitchell MS, Papac RJ, Thomas ED, Bertino JR. Improved therapeutic index of methotrexate with “leucovorin rescue.” Cancer Res (33): 1729–1734, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Krishan A, Pitman S, Tattersall MHN, et al. Flow micro-fluorometric patterns of human bone marrow and tumor cells in response to cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Res (36): 3813–3820, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jaffe N, Frei E III, Traggis D, et al. Weekly high-dose methotrexate citrovorum factor in osteogenic sarcoma: Pre-surgical treatment of primary tumor and of overt pulmonary metastases. Cancer (39): 145–150, 1977.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bertino JR. The mechanism of action of the folate antagonists in man. Cancer Res (23): 1286–1306, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goldman ID, Lichenstein NS, Oliverio VT. Carrier mediated transport of the folic acid analogue, methotrexate, in the L1210 leukemia cell. J Biol Chem (243): 5007–5017, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nahas A, Nixon PE, Bertino JR. Uptake and metabolism of N5formyltetrahydrofolate by L1210 leukemia cells. Cancer Res (32): 1416–1421, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huennekens FM, Vitols KS, Henderson GB. Transport of folate compounds in bacterial and mammalian cells. Adv in Enzymology: 313–344, 1978.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Baugh CM, Krumdieck CL, Nair MG. Polygammaglutamyl metabolites of methotrexate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (52): 27–34, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jacobs SA, Adamson RH, Chabner BA, Derr CJ, Johns DG. Stoichiometric inhibition of mammalian dihydrofolate reductase by the -glutamyl metabolite of methotrexate, 4-amino-4-deoxy-N10-methyl-pteroylglutamyl-glutamate. Biochem Biophys Res Comm (63): 692–798, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hryniuk WM, Fischer GA, Bertino JR. S-phase cells of rapidly growing and resting populations. Differences in response to methotrexate. Biol Pharmacol (5): 57–64, 1969.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Henderson ES, Adamson RH, Oliverio VT. The metabolic fate of tritiated methotrexate. II. Absorption and excretion in man. Cancer Res (25): 1018–1024, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chungi VS, Bourne DWA, Dittert LW. Drug absorption VIII: Kinetics of GI absorption of methotrexate. J Pharmaceutic Sci (67): 560–561, 1978.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pinkerton CR, Welshman SG, Dempsey SI, Bridges JM, Glasgow JFT. Absorption of methotrexate under standardized conditions in children with acute lymphoblastic leukeaemia. Br J Cancer (42): 613–615, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Huffman D, Wan SH, Azarnoff DL, Hoogstraten B. Pharmacokinetics of methotrexate. Clin Pharmacol Ther (14): 572–579, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bischoff KG, Dedrick RL, Zaharko DS, Longstreth JA. Methotrexate pharmacokinetics. J Pharmaceutic Sci (60): 1128–1133, 1971.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chabner BA, Young RC. Threshold methotrexate concentration for in vivo inhibition of DNA synthesis in normal and tumorous target tissues. Clin Invest (52): 1804–1811, 1973.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chabner BA, Johns DG, Bertino JR. Enzymatic cleavage of methotrexate provides a method for prevention of drug toxicity. Nature 239: 395–397, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Creaven PJ, Hansen HH, Alford DA, Allen LM. Methotrexate in liver and bile after intravenous dosage in man. Br J Cancer (28): 589–591, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gewirtz DA, White JC, Randolph JK, Goldman ID. Transport, binding and polyglutamylation of methotrexate in freshly isolate rat hepatocytes. Cancer Res (40): 573–578, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kamen BA, Nylen PA, Camitta BM, Bertino JR. Methotrexate accumulation in cells as possible mechanism of chronic toxicity to the drug. Br J Hematol, in press.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wan SH, Huffman DH, Azarnoff D, Stephens R, Hoogstraten B. Effect of route of administration and effusion on methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Cancer Res (34): 3487–3491, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Valerino DM, Johns DG, Zaharko DS, Oliverio VT. Studies of the metabolism of methotrexate by intestinal flora. I. Identification and study of biological properties of the metabolite 4-amino-4-deoxy-N10-methylpteroid acid. Biochem Pharmacol (21): 821–831, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jacobs SA, Stoller RG, Chabner BA, Johns DG. 7-hydroxymethotrexate as a urinary metabolite in human subjects and Rhesus monkeys receiving high-dose methotrexate. J Clin Invest (57): 534–538, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Huang KC, Enczak BA, Liu YK. Renal tubular transport of methotrexate in the Rhesus monkey and dog. Cancer Res (39): 4838–4848, 1979.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rosenberg B, Van Camp L, Krigos T. Inhibition of cell division in Escherichia coli by electrolysis products from a platinum electrode. Nature (205): 698–699, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rosenzweig M, Von Hoff DD, Slavik M et al. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II. Annals Int Med (86): 803–812, 1977.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hill JM, Loeb E, MacLellan A, Hill NO, Khan A, King JI. Clinical studies of platinum coordination compounds in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Cancer (59): 647–659, 1975.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jacobs C, Bertino JR, Goffinet DR, FU WW, Goode RL. 24-hour infusion of cis-platinum in head and neck cancers. Cancer (42): 2135–2140, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sako K, Rizack MS, Kalmens I. Chemotherapy for advanced and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with high and low dose cis-diamminedichloroplatinum. Am J Surg (136): 529–533, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hayat M, Bayssas M, Brule G, et al. Cis-platinum-diamminodichloro (CDDP) in chemotherapy of cancers. Biochemic (60): 935–940, 1978.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Aribas E. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Davis S, Kessler W. Randomized comparison of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum vs cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, methotrexate and bleomycin in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Chemo Pharmacol (3): 57–59, 1979.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pannettiere FJ, Lehane D, Fletcher WS, et al. Cis-platinum therapy of previously treated head and neck cancer: The Southwest Oncology Group’s two-dose-per-month outpatient regimen. Med Pediatr Oncol (8): 221–225, 1980.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Drewinko B, Brown BW, Gottlieb JA. The effect of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) on cultured human lymphoma cells and its therapeutic implications. Cancer Res (33): 3091–3095, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Deconti RC, Toftness BR, Lange RC, et al. Clinical and pharmacological studies with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II. Cancer Res (33): 1310–1315, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ward JM, Arabin ME, Berlin E, et al. Prevention of renal failure in rats receiving cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) by administration of furosemide. Cancer Res (37): 1238–1240, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hayes DM, Critkovic E, Golbey RB, et al. High-dose cis-platinumdiamminedichloride. Cancer (39): 1372–1381, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chary KK, Higby DJ, Henderson ES, et al. Phase I Study of high dose cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II) with forced diuresis. Cancer Treat Rep (61): 367–370, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ozols RF, Javadpour N, Messerschmidt EL, Young RC. Poor prognosis non-seminomatous testicular cancer: An effective “high-dose” cis-platinum regimen without increased renal toxicity. Proc Amer Soc Clin Oncol (1): 113, 1982.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Umezawa H. Chemistry and mechanism of action of bleomycin. Fed Proc (33): 2296–2307, 1976.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sikic BI et al. Improved therapeutic index of bleomycin when administered by continuous infusion in mice. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 2011–2017, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Krakoff IH, Critkovic E, Currie E, Yeh S, Lamonte C. Clinical, pharmacologic and therapeutic studies of bleomycin given by continuous infusion. Cancer (40): 2027–2037, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Byfield JE, Lee YC, Tu L, et al. Molecular interactions of the combined effects of bleomycin and x-ray on mammalian cell survival. Cancer Res (36): 1138–1143, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Holoye PT, Broughton A, Strong JE, et al. Bleomycin: Pharmacokinetics of continuous intravenous infusion. Proc Amer Assoc for Canc Res (17): 70, 1977.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Broughton A, Strong JE. Radioimmunoassay of bleomycin. Cancer Res (36): 1418–1421, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Blum RH, Carter SK, Agre K. A clinical review of bleomycin: A new antineoplastic agent. Cancer (31): 903–913, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bertino JR, Mosher MD, DeConti RC. Chemotherapy of cancer of the head and neck. Cancer (31): 1141–1149, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moertel CG. Clinical management of advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer (36): 675–682, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Johnson RD, Kisken WA, Curreri A. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Surg (90): 760–763, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Heidelberger C. Fluorinated pyrimidines and their nucleosides. In Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Sartorelli and Johns (ed), New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 193–231, 1974.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Goulean M, Bleile B, Tseng BY. Methotrexate-induced misincorporation of uracil into DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci (77): 1956–1960, 1980.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bertino JR, Sawicki WL, Lindquist CA, Gupta VS. Schedule dependent effects of methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Res (37): 327–328, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fernandez DJ, Bertino JR. 5-fluorouracil-methotrexate synergy: Enhancement of 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate binding to thymidylate synthase by dihydropteroylpolyglutamates. Proc Nat’l Acad Sci (USA) (77): 5663–5667, 1980.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cadman E, Heimer R, Davis L. Enhanced 5-fluorouracil nucleotide formation after methotrexate administration: Explanation for drug synergism. (205): 1135–1137, 1979.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cooper GM, Dunning WF, et al. Role of catabolism in pyrimidine utilization for nucleic acid synthesis in vivo. Cancer Res (32): 390–397, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Finn C, Sadee W. Determination of 5-fluorouracil (NSC-19893) plasma levels in rats and man by isotope dilution-mass fragmentography. Cancer Chem Rep (59): 279–286, 1975.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chaudhuri NK, Montag BJ, Heidelberger C. Studies on fluorinated pyrimidines. III. The metabolism of 5-fluorouracil-2–14C and 5-fluorourotic acid-2–14C in vivo. Cancer Res (18): 318–328, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Clarkson B, O’Connor A, Winston, et al. The physiologic disposition of 5-fluorouracil and t-fluoro-21deoxyuridine in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther (5): 581–610, 1965.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Koenig H, Patel A. Biochemical basis for fluorouracil neurotoxicity. The role of Krebs cycle inhibition by fluoroacetate. Arch Neurology (32): 155–160, 1970.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wolf GT, Chretien PB. The chemotherapy and immunotherapy of head and neck cancer. In Cancer of the Head and Neck, JR Suen and EN Myers (eds). New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1981.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Medenica R, Alberto P, Lehman W. Traitement des carcinomes epidermoides oro-pharyngo-larynges dissemines par combinaison de methotrexate et de bleomycine a petites doses. Schwerz Med Wochesnchr (106): 799–802, 1976.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yagoda A, Lippman AJ, Winn RF, et al. Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin (BLM) and methotrexate (MTX) in patients with advanced epidermoid carcinomas. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res (16): 247, 1975.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lekich JJ, Frei E III. Phase II study of concurrent methotrexate and bleomycin chemotherapy. Cancer Res (34): 2240–2242, 1974.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Mosher MB, DeConti RC, Bertino JR. Bleomycin therapy in advanced Hodgkin’s disease and epidermoid cancers. Cancer (30): 56–60, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Broquet MA, Jacot-des-Combes E, Montandon A, et al. Traitement des carcinomes epidermoides oro-pharyngo-larynges par combinaison de methotrexate et de bleomycine. Schwerz Med Wocheschr (104): 18–22, 1974.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Medenica R, Albert P, Lehmann W. Combined chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with methotrexate, bleomycin and hydroxyurea. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (5): 145–149, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jacobs C. High-dose methotrexate and cis-platinum in the treatment of recurrent head and neck cancer. Rec Res Can Res (76): 290–295, 1981.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pitman SW, Minor DR, Papac R, et al. Sequential methotrexate leucovorin (MTX-LCV) and cis-platinum (CDDP) in head and neck cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res (20): 419, 1979.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chandler JR, Tejada FJ. Triple therapy for advanced cancer of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol (107): 27–29, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Elias EG, Chretien PB, Monnard E, et al. Chemotherapy prior to local therapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Preliminary assessment of an intensive drug regimen. Cancer (43): 1025–1031, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Caradonna R, Paladine W, Ruckdeschel JC, et al. Methotrexate, bleomycin and high-dose cis-dichlorociammineplatinum (II) in the treatment of advanced epidermoid carcinomas of the head and neck. Cancer Treat Rep (63): 489–491, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Vogl SH, Kaplan BH. Chemotherapy of advanced head and neck cancer with methotrexate, bleomycin, and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in an effective outpatient schedule. Cancer (44): 26–31, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ervin TJ, Weichselbaum R, Miller D, et al. Treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with cisplatin, bleomycin, and MTX (PBM). Cancer Treat Rep (65): 787–791, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Creagan E, Fleming T, Edmonson J, Ingle J, Woods J. Chemotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer with the combination adriamycin, cyclophosphamide and cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II): Preliminary assessment of a one-day vs. three day drug regimen. Cancer (47): 2549–2551, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Holoye PY, Byers RM, Gard DA, Goepfert H, Guillamondegui OM, Jesse RH. Combination chemotherapy of head and neck cancer. Cancer (42): 1661–1669, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Plasse T, Ohnuma T, Goldsmith MA, Brooks S, Holland JF, Biller H. Bleomycin infusion followed by cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil in patients with head and neck cancer. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 194, 1982.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Glick JH, Marcial V, Richter M, Velez-Garcia E. The adjuvant treatment of inoperable stage III and IV epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck with platinum and bleomycin infusions prior to definitive radiotherapy: An RTOG pilot study. Cancer (46): 1919–1924, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wolf GT, Makuch RW. Pre-operative cis-platinum (CDDP) and bleomycin (BLM) in patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC). Proc Am Soc Clin Onc (20): 400, 1980.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pitman SW, Kowal CD, Papac RJ, et al. Sequential methotrexate-5-fluorouracil: A highly active drug combination in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (20): 473, 1980.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ringborg U, Ewert J, Kinneman J, Lundquist PG, Strander H. Sequential methotrexate-5-fluorouracil treatment of advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. UICC Conf on Clin Onc (14): 1981.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Price LA, Hill BT, Calvert AG, et al. Kinetically based multiple drug treatment for advanced head and neck cancer. Br J Med (3): 10–11, 1975.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tannock I, Sutherland D, Osoba D. Failure of short-course multiple drug chemotherapy to benefit patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. Cancer (49): 1358–1361, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Corbett TH, Griswold DP, Mayo JG, et al. Cyclophosphamide-adriamycin combination chemotherapy of transplantable murine tumors. Cancer Res (35): 1568–1573, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Forastiere AA, Young CW, Wittes RE. A phase II trial of m-AMSA in head and neck cancer. Cancer Chemo Pharmacol (6): 145–146, 1981.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Cheng E, Currie V, Wittes RE. Phase II trial of pyrazofurin in advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer Treat Rep (63): 2047–2048, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Edmonson JH, Frytak S, Letendre L, Kvols LK, Egan RT. Phase II evaluation of dianhydrogalactitol in advanced head and neck carcinomas. Cancer Treat Rep (63): 2081–2083, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Byrne R, Popkin J, Licciardello J, Bromer R, Weinger R, Hong W. Continuous 48-hour infusion of vindesine (DVA) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc (1): 194, 1982.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Snow JB, Gelber RD, Kramer S, et al. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative radiation therapy for patients with carcinoma of the head and neck. Interim Report. Acta Otolaryngol (91): 611–626, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Abe M, Shigematsu Y, Kimura S. Combined use of bleomycin with radiation in the treatment of cancer. Recent Res Cancer Res (63): 2, 169–178, 1978.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lo T, Wiley AL, Ansfield FJ, Brandenburg JH, Davis HL, Gollin FF, Johnson RO, Famirez G, Vermund H. Combined radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: A randomized study. Cancer (126): 229–235, 1976.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bagshaw MA, Doggett RLS. A clinical study of chemical radiosensitization. In Frontiers of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Korger S, Vaeth JM (eds). Baltimore: University Park Press, 1969, pp. 164–173.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cachin Y, Jortay A, Sancho H, et al. Preliminary results of a randomized EORTC study comparing radiotherapy and concomitant bleomycin to radiotherapy alone in epidermoid carcinomas of the oropharynx. Eur J Cancer (13): 1389–1395, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Condit PT. Treatment of carcinoma with radiation therapy and methotrexate. Missouri Med (65): 832–835, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kapstad B, Bang G. Rennaes S, et al. Combined preoperative treatment with cobalt and bleomycin in patients with head and neck carcinoma: A controlled clinical study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phy 4: 85–89, 1978.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Richards GJ Jr, Chambers RG. Hydroxyurea: A radiosensitizer in the treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck. AJR (105): 555–565, 1969.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Stefani S, EElls RW, Abbate J. Hydroxyurea and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: Results of prospective controlled study in 126 patients. Radiology (101): 391–396, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Knowlton AH, Percarpio B, Bobrow S, et al. Methotrexate and radiation therapy in the treatment of advanced head and neck tumors. Radiology (116): 709–712, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kramer S. Methotrexate and radiation therapy in the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, supraglottic larynx and hypopharynx (Preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group). Can J Otolaryngol (4): 213–218, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Arien M. High-dose methotrexate in preoperative management. MY State J Med, 1384–1389, 1979.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Marcial VA, Velez-Garcia E, Figueroa-Valles NR, Cintron J, Vallecillo LA. Multidrug chemotherapy (vincristine-bleomycin-methotrexate) followed by radiotherapy in inoperable carcinomas of the head and neck: Preliminary report of a pilot study of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiation Oncology Biol Phys (6): 717–721, 1980.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Spaulding MB, Klotch D, Grillo J. Adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced tumors of the head and neck. Amer J Surg (140): 538–542, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vogl SE, Lerner H, Kaplan BH, et al. Failure of effective initial chemotherapy to modify the course of stage IV (MO) squamous cancer of the head and neck. Cancer (50): 840–844, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Tannock I, Cummings B, Sorrenti V, et al. Combination chemotherapy used prior to radiation therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Treat Rep (66): 1421–1424, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rygaard J, Hansen HS. Bleomycin as adjuvant in radiation therapy of advanced squamous carcinoma in head and neck. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl (36): 161–166, 1979.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ervin T, Kirkwood J, Weichselbaum R, Miller D, Pitman SW, Frei E. Improved survival for patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck treated with methotrexate-leucovorin prior to definitive radiotherapy or surgery. Laryngoscope (41): 1181–1190, 1981.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Richard JM, Snow GB. Present role of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Amsterdam Excerpta Medica, 14–21, 1975.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Schouwenburg, PF, van Putten LM, Snow GB. External carotid artery infusion with single and multiple drug regimens in the rat. Cancer (45): 2258–2264, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Nervi C, Arcangeli G, Badaracco G. The relevance of tumor size and cell kinetics as predictors of radiation response in head and neck cancer. Cancer (41): 900–906, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Horn Y, Adam Y, Walack N, et al. Long-term remission of an advanced head and neck tumor following intra-arterial infusion with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum. J Surg Onc (18): 189–192, 1981.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Baker SR, Wheeler RH, Ensminger ND. Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancer using a totally implantable infusion pump. Head and Neck Surg (5): 118–124, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan W. Pitman
  • Joseph R. Bertino

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations