Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Ammonia Lasers

  • C. O. Weiss
  • M. Fourrier
  • C. Gastaud
  • M. Redon


NH3 is one of the spectroscopically best studied molecules which also has properties uniquely favourable for optically pumped lasers:
  1. 1)

    high permanent dipole moment,

  2. 2)

    high rotational constant,

  3. 3)

    inversion splitting of the ground state energy levels in the 1 cm wavelength range.



Laser Line Stimulate Raman Scattering Doppler Width Pulse Single Photon Raman Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brewer, R.G. and Shoemaker, R.L., 1971: “Photo Echo and Optical Nutation in Molecules”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang, T.Y., Bridges, T.J. and Burkhardt, E.G., 1970: “CW Laser Action at 81.5 and 263.4 μm in Optically Pumped Ammonia Gas”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 357–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Danielewicz, E.J. and Weiss, C.O., 1978-a: “Far Infrared Laser Emission from 15NH3 Optically Pumped by a CW Sequence Band CO2 Laser” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Danielewicz, E.J. and Weiss, C.O., 1978-b: “New CW Far Infrared D20 12CH3F and 14NH3 Laser Lines”, Opt. Commun. 27, 98–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, B.W., Vass, A., Pidgeon, C.R. and Allan, G.R., 1981: “New FIR Laser Lines from an Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Laser with Isotopic 13C1602 Pumping”, Opt. Comm. 37, 303–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deka, B.K., Dyer, P.E. and Winfield, R.J., 1980: “Optically Pumped NH3 Laser Using a Continuously Tunable CO2 Laser”, Opt. Commun. 33, 206–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fetterman, H.R., Schlossberg, H.R. and Waldman, J., 1972: “Submilli meter Lasers Optically Pumped Off-Resonance”, Opt. Commun. 6., 156–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fetterman, H.R., Schlossberg, H.R. and Parker, C.D., 1973: “CW Submillimeter Laser Generation in Optically Pumped Stark-Tuned NH3”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 684–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fetterman, H.R., Parker, C.D., Tannenwald, P.E., 1976: “Enhancement of Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasing by Stark Modulation”, Opt. Commun. 18, 10–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fetterman, H.R., 1978: private communication.Google Scholar
  11. Fourrier, M. and Redon, M., 1972: “Infrared-Microwave Double Resonance of NH3 in the Presence of a High Field Stark Effect”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 463–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frank, E.M., Weiss, C.O., Siemsen, K., Grinda, M. and Willenberg, G.D., 1982: “Predictions of Far-Infrared Laser Lines from 14NH3 and 15NH3”, Opt. Lett. 7, 96–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freund, S.M. and Oka, T., 1976: “Infrared-Microwave Two-Photon Spectroscopy: The v2 Band of NH3”, Phys. Rev. A-13, 2178–2190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garing, J.S., Nielsen, H.H. and Rao, K.N., 1959: “The Low-Frequency Vibration Rotation Bands of the Ammonia Molecule”, J. Mol. Spectr. 3, 496–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gastaud, C., Sentz, A., Redon, M. and Fourrier, M., 1980: “New CW FIR Laser Action by Stark Tuning from Optically Pumped CH3OH and CH3OD”, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-16, 1285–1287.Google Scholar
  16. Gastaud, C., Sentz, A., Redon, M. and Fourrier, M., 1981-a: “Continuous-wave Stark Far Infrared Lasing Lines in 15NH3 Optically Pumped by a CO2 or N2O Laser”, Opt. Lett. 6, 449–451.Google Scholar
  17. Gastaud, C., Sentz, A., Redon, M. and Fourrier, M., 1981-b: “Nouvelles Raies d’Emission en Infrarouge Lointain dans Pompe parles Lasers à CO2 et N2O en Présence d’Effet Stark”, Colloque O.H.D. Toulouse, 335–337.Google Scholar
  18. Gullberg, K., Hartmann, B. and Kleman B., 1973: “Submillimeter Emission from Optically Pumped 14NH3”, Physica Scripta J8, 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heppner, J., Weiss, C.O., Hübner, U. and Schinu, G., 1980: “Gain in CW Laser Pumped FIR Laser Gases”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs, R.R., Prosnitz, D., Bischel, W.K. and Rhodes, C.K., 1976: “Laser Generation from 6 to 35 μm Following Two-Photon Excitation of Ammonia”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 710–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, C.R., Buchwald, M.I., Gundersen, M. and Bushnell, A.H., 1978: “Ammonia Laser Optically Pumped with an HF Laser”, Opt. Commun. 24, 27–30.Google Scholar
  22. Landsberg, B.M., 1980: “New CW FIR Laser Lines from Optically Pumped Ammonia Analogues”, Appl. Phys. 23, 127–130.Google Scholar
  23. Lee, W., Kim, D., Malk, E. and Leap, J., 1979: “Hot-Band Lasing in NH3”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 838–839.Google Scholar
  24. Leite, J.R.R., Ducloy, M., Sanchez, A., Seligson, D. and Feld, M.S., 1977: “Laser Saturation Resonances in NH3 observed in the Time- Delayed Mode”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1469–1472.Google Scholar
  25. Marx, R., Hübner, U., Abdul-Halim, I., Heppner, J., Ni, Y.C., Willenberg, G.D. and Weiss, C.O., 1981: “Far-Infrared CW Raman and Laser Gain of lH3”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1 123–1127.Google Scholar
  26. McCombie, J., Peterson, J.C. and Duxbury, G., 1981, 5th National Quantum Electronics Conference of G.B., Hull University, paper 62.Google Scholar
  27. Pinson, P., Delage, A., Girard, G. and Miction, M., 1981: “Characteristics of Two-Step and Two-Photon Excited Emissions in 14NH3”, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2634–2637.Google Scholar
  28. Redon, M., Gastaud, C. and Fourrier, M., 1979-a: “New CW FIR Far-Infrared Lasing in 14NH3 Using Stark Tuning”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 412–414.Google Scholar
  29. Redon, M., Gastaud, C. and Fourrier, M., 1979-b: “Far-Infrared Emissions in NE3 Using Forbidden Transitions Pumped by a CO2 Laser”, Opt. Commun. 30, 95–98.Google Scholar
  30. Redon, M., 1980: Thesis, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris.Google Scholar
  31. Redon, M., Gastaud, C. and Fourrier, M., 1980-a: “Far-Infrared Emissions in Ammonia by Infrared Pumping Using a N20 Laser”, Inf. Phys. 20, 93–98.Google Scholar
  32. Redon, M., Gastaud, C. and Fourrier, M., 1980-b: “New CW FIR Laser Lines Obtained in Ammonia Pumped by a CO2 Laser, Using the Stark Tuning Method”, Int. J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 1, 95–109.Google Scholar
  33. Redon, M., Gastaud, C. and Fourrier, M., 1980-c: “New CW FIR Laser Action in Stark Tuned Ammonia and Stark FIR Lasing Spectroscopy in the v2 Band”, Opt. Commun. 34, 455–459.Google Scholar
  34. Sasada, H., 1980: “Microwave Inversion Spectrum of 15NH3”, J. Mol. Spectr. 83, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shimizu, T. and Oka, T., 1970: “Infrared-Microwave Double Resonance of NH3 Using an N20 Laser”, Phys. Rev. A2, 1177–1181.Google Scholar
  36. Shimizu, F., 1970-a: “Stark Spectroscopy of NH v2 Band by 10 ym CO2 and N2O Lasers”, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3572–3576.Google Scholar
  37. Shimizu, F.,1970-b: “Stark-Spectroscopy of 15NH3 v2 Band by 10 ym Lasers”, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1149–1151.Google Scholar
  38. Shimoda, K., Ueda, Y. and Iwakori, J., 1980: “Infrared Laser Stark Spectroscopy of Ammonia”, Appl. Phys. 21, 181–189; 22, 439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tanaka, A., Tanimoto, A., Murata, N., Yamanaka, M. and Yoshinaga, H., 1977: “CW Efficient Optically-Pumped Far-Infrared Waveguide NH3 Lasers”, Opt. Commun. 22, 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tiee, J.J. and Wittig, C., 1978: “Optically Pumped Molecular Lasers in the 11–17 jum Region”, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Townes, C.H. and Schawlow, A.L., 1955: “Microwave Spectroscopy”, McGraw-Hill, New-York.Google Scholar
  42. Wiggins, J.D., Drozdowicz, Z. and Temkin, R.J., 1978: “Two-Photon Transitions in Optically Pumped Submillimeter Lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Willenberg, G.D., Weiss, C.O. and Jones, H., 1980-a: “Two-Photon Pumped CW Laser”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 133–135.Google Scholar
  44. Willenberg, G.D., Hiibner, U. and Heppner, J., 1980-b: “Far-Infrared CW Raman Lasing in NH3”, Opt. Commun., 33, 193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Willenberg, G.D., 1981: “Continuous-wave Far-Infrared Two-Photon-Pumped, Single-Photon-Pumped, and Raman Emission from 14NH3”, Opt. Lett. 6, 372–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Woods, R.A., Davis, B.W, Vass, A. and Pidgeon, C.R,1980: “Application of an Isotopically Enriched 13C16O2 Laser to an Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Laser”, Opt. Lett. 153–154.Google Scholar
  47. Yamabayashi, N., Fukai, K., Miyazaki, K. and Fujisawa, K., 1981 “Resonant Pumping Far-Infrared NH3 Laser”, Appl. Phys. B26, 33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Znotins, T.A., Reid, J., Garside, B.K. and Ballik, E.A., 1980: “12 μm NH3 Laser Pumped by a Sequence CO2 Laser”, Opt. Lett. 5, 528–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. O. Weiss
    • 1
  • M. Fourrier
    • 2
  • C. Gastaud
    • 2
  • M. Redon
    • 2
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Technische BundesanstaltBraunschweigFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Dispositifs Infrarouge Tour 12, 2e étageUniversité P. et M. CurieParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations