Justice in the Political Arena

  • Tom R. Tyler
Part of the Critical Issues in Social Justice book series (CISJ)


Social psychologists have a long-standing concern with understanding the principles that describe the “just” or “fair” allocation of resources. Several possible fair allocation principles have been identified (Deutsch, 1975; Leventhal, 1976), and there has been a considerable amount of research on distributive justice, primarily on the principle of equity (Berkowitz & Walster, 1976; Walster, Walster, & Berscheid, 1978). Recently, this interest in distributive justice has been distinguished from an interest in the procedures through which allocation decisions are made. This latter topic has been labeled Procedural justice (Thibaut & Walker, 1975), and it has also been the subject of a number of studies (Folger, Rosenfield, Grove, & Corkran, 1979; Houlden, LaTour, Walker, & Thibaut, 1978; LaTour, 1978; LaTour, Houlden, Walker, & Thibaut, 1976; Thibaut & Walker, 1975; Thibaut, Walker, LaTour, & Houlden, 1974; Walker, LaTour, Lind, & Thibaut, 1974).


Political System Procedural Justice Distributive Justice Relative Deprivation Political Authority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anton, T. J. Roles and symbols in the determination of state expenditures. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 1967, 11, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, W. G. Equity theory and social comparison processes. In J. M. Suls & R. L. Miller (Eds.), Social comparison processes. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1977.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, W. G. Justice, freedom, and self-interest in intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, R., Meyer, F. A., Jr., Corbett, A. M., & Rudoni, D. Evaluation of police services in medium-sized cities. Law and Policy Quarterly, 1979, 1, 1979, 235 – 248.Google Scholar
  5. Berkowitz, L., & Walster, E. (Eds.). Equity theory: Toward a general theory of social interaction. Advances in experimental social psychology(Vol 9 ). New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, M., & Crosby, F. An empirical examination of relative deprivation theory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1980, 16, 442 – 456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boynton, G. R., & Loewenberg, G. The development of public support for parliament in Germany, 1951-1959. British Journal of Political Science, 1973, 3, 169 – 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brickman, P., & Folger, R. Micro and macro justice. In M. J. Lerner (Ed.), The justice motive in social behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. Buckley, W., Burns, T., & Meeker, L. D. Structural resolutions of collective action problems. Behavioral Science, 1974, 19, 277 – 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns, T. A structural theory of social exchange. Acta Sociologica, 1973, 16, 188 – 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Citrin, J. Comment: The political relevance of trust in government. American Political Science Review, 1974, 68, 973 – 988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Citrin, J., McClosky, H., Shanks, J. M., & Sniderman, P. M. Personal and political sources of political alienation. British Journal of Political Science, 1975, 5, 1 – 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, A. K. Deviance and control. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.Google Scholar
  14. Cook, K. S., & Parcel, T. L. Equity theory: Directions for future research. Sociological Inquiry, 1977, 47, 75 – 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook, T. D., Crosby, F., & Hennigan, K. The construct validity of relative deprivation. In J. M. Suls & R. L. Miller (Eds.), Social comparison processes. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. Coser, L. The functions of social conflict. New York: Free Press, 1956.Google Scholar
  17. Crosby, F. A model of egoistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 85 – 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Curtin, R. T. Income equity among U.S. workers. New York: Praeger, 1977.Google Scholar
  19. Dahrendorf, R. Class and class conflict in industrial society. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  20. Dawes, R. M. Social dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 1980, 31, 169 – 194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deutsch, M. Equity, equality, and need: What determines which value will be used as a basis of distributive justice ? Journal of Social Issues, 1975, 31, 137 – 150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dolbeare, K. The public views the Supreme Court. In H. Jacob (Ed)., Law, politics, and the federal courts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. Easton, D. A systems analysis of political life. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  24. Easton, D. Political science. In D. L. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences(Vol. 12 ). New York: Macmillan, 1968.Google Scholar
  25. Easton, D. A reassessment of the concept of political support. British Journal of Political Science, 1975, 5, 435 – 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Easton, D., & Dennis, J. Children in the political system: The origins of political legitimacy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.Google Scholar
  27. Edelman, M. The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  28. Engstrom, R. L., & Giles, M. W. Expectations and images: A note on diffuse system support for legal institutions. Law and Society Review, 1972, 6, 631 – 636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. Belief, attitude, intention and behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley, 1975.Google Scholar
  30. Flacks, R. Protest or conform: Some special psychological perspectives on legitimacy. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1969, 5, 127 – 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Folger, R., Rosenfield, D., Grove, J., & Corkran, L. Effects of “voice” and peer opinions on responses to inequity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37, 2253 – 2261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Friedman, L. N. The legal system: A social science perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1975.Google Scholar
  33. Gamson, W. A. Power and discontent. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey, 1968.Google Scholar
  34. Gurr, T. R. Why men rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  35. Hochschild, J. L. Equality, differentiation, or both? American beliefs about distributive justice. Unpublished manuscript, Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs, Duke University, 1979.Google Scholar
  36. Homans, G. C. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.Google Scholar
  37. Houlden, P., LaTour, S., Walker, L., & Thibaut, J. Preference for modes of dispute resolution as a function of process and decision control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1978, 14, 13 – 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kelman, H. C. Compliance, identification and internalization: Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1958, 2, 51 – 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kelman, H. C. Patterns of personal involvement in the national system: A socio-psychological analysis of political legitimacy. In J. Rosenau (Ed.), International politics and foreign policy(Rev. ed.). New York: Free Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  40. Krislov, S., Boyum, K. O., Clark, J. N., Schaefer, R. C., & White, S. O. (Eds.), Compliance and the law. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1966.Google Scholar
  41. Lane, R. E. Political ideology. New York: Free Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  42. Lasswell, H. D. Politics: Who gets what, when, how. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936. Lasswell, H. D., & Kaplan, A. Power and society. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950. LaTour, S. Determinants of participant and observer satisfaction with adversary and inquisitorial modes of adjudication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, 36, 1531 – 1545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. LaTour, S., Houlden, P., Walker, L., & Thibaut, J. Procedure. The Yale Law Journal, 1976, 83, 258 – 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leventhal, G. S. Fairness in social relationships. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. Lineberry, R. L. Equality and urban policy: The distribution of municipal public services. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1977.Google Scholar
  46. Mark, M. M. Justice in the aggregate: The perceived fairness of the distribution of income. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1980.Google Scholar
  47. McClosky, H. Consensus and ideology in American politics. American Political Science Review, 1964, 58, 361 – 382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Michener, H. A., & Lawler, E. J. Endorsement of formal leaders: An integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 216 – 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, A. Political issues and trust in government: 1964–1970. American Political Science Review, 68, 951–972.Google Scholar
  50. Montgomery, D. B., & Leonard-Barton, D. Toward strategies for marketing energy conservation. Research Paper No. 372. Stanford, Calif.: Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 1977.Google Scholar
  51. Mueller, J. E. War, presidents and public opinion. New York: Wiley, 1973.Google Scholar
  52. Muller, E. N. Correlates and consequences of belief in the legitimacy of regime structures. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 1970, 14 , 392–412. (a)Google Scholar
  53. Muller, E. N. The representation of citizens by political authorities: Consequences for regime support. American Political Science Review, 1910, 64, 1149–1166. (b)Google Scholar
  54. Muller, E. N. Test of a partial theory of potential for political violence. American Political Science Review, 1972, 66, 928 – 959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muller, E. N., & Jukan, T. O. On the meaning of political support. American Political Science Review, 1971, 77, 1561 – 1595.Google Scholar
  56. Murphy, W. F., & Tanenhaus, J. Public opinion and the United States Supreme Court: A preliminary mapping of some prerequisites for court legitimization of regime changes. In J. B. Grossman & J. Tanenhaus (Eds.), Frontiers of judicial research. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  57. Murphy, W. F., Tanenhaus, J., & Kastner, D. L. Public evaluations of constitutional courts Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1973.Google Scholar
  58. Mussen, P. Early socialization: Learning and identification. New directions in psychology(Vol. 3 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967.Google Scholar
  59. Okun, A. M. Equality and efficiency: The big tradeoff. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1975.Google Scholar
  60. Parkin, F. Class inequality and political order, New York: Praeger, 1971.Google Scholar
  61. Parks, R. B. Complementary measures of police performance. In K. Dolbeare (Ed.), Public policy evaluation. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1976.Google Scholar
  62. Parsons, T. On the concept of influence. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1963, 27, 63 – 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parsons, T. Some reflections on the place of force in social process. In T. Parsons (Ed.), Sociological theory and modern society. New York: Free Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  64. Pettigrew, T. Social evaluation theory. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation(Vol. 15 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  65. Pitts, J. R. Social control. In D. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences(Vol. 14 ). New York: Macmillan Co., 1968.Google Scholar
  66. Prothro, J. W., & Grigg, C. W. Fundamental principles of democracy: Bases of agreement and disagreement. Journal of Politics, 1960, 22, 276 – 294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rainwater, L. What money buys: Inequality and the social meanings of income. New York: Basic Books, 1974.Google Scholar
  68. Rawls, J. A theory of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  69. Sampson, E. E. On justice as equality. Journal of Social Issues, 1975, 31, 45 – 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sarat, A. Studying American legal culture: An assessment of survey evidence. Law and Society Review, 1977, 2, 427 – 488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Scheingold, S. A. The politics of rights: Lawyers, public policy, and political change. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  72. Schelling, T. C. On the ecology of micro-motives(Public Policy Program, Kennedy School of Government, Working Paper). Harvard University, 1970.Google Scholar
  73. Skolnick, J. Social control in the adversary system. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1967, 11, 52 – 70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Starr, S. A., & Williams, R. M. The American soldier: Adjustments during army life(Vol. 1 ). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  75. Strumpel, B. Economic deprivation and societal discontent. In B. Strumpel (Ed.), Economic means for human needs, Ann Arbor: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1976.Google Scholar
  76. Thibaut, J., & Kelley, H. H. The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley, 1959.Google Scholar
  77. Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1975.Google Scholar
  78. Thibaut, J., Walker, L., LaTour, S., & Houlden, P. Procedural justice as fairness. Stanford Law Review, 1974, 26, 1271 – 1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tyler, T. R. Citizen evaluations of the Evanston police. Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University, 1980.Google Scholar
  80. Tyler, T. R., & Caine, A. The influence of outcomes and procedures upon satisfaction with formal leaders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 41, 642 – 655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tyler, T. R., & Griffin, G. Distributive justice in the economic and political arenas. Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University, 1980.Google Scholar
  82. Walker, L., LaTour, S., Lind, A., & Thibaut, J. Reactions of participants and observers to modes of adjudication. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1974, 4, 295 – 310.Google Scholar
  83. Walster, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. Equity: Theory and research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1978.Google Scholar
  84. Wasby, S. L. The impact of the United States Supreme Court. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey, 1970.Google Scholar
  85. Wood, A. L. Deviant behavior and control strategies. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1974.Google Scholar
  86. Worchel, P., Hester, P. G., & Kopala, P. S. Collective protest and legitimacy of authority. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1974, 18, 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom R. Tyler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations