The Use of Activated Macrophages for the Destruction of Heterogeneous Metastasis

  • Alan J. Schroit
  • Isaiah J. Fidler
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 40)


Metastasis, the spread of malignant cells from the primary tumor to distant sites, is the major cause of cancer mortality. Indeed, by the time many malignancies are diagnosed, metastases have already been established in a variety of sites distant from the primary tumor, making selective excision or destruction by irradiation or chemotherapeutic agents extremely difficult. Exacerbating the problem of treating metastatic disease is the fact that cancer cells in different metastases originating from the same primary tumor, and in some instances even different zones within the same metastatic nodule, may respond completely differently to treatment. For example, although new and highly promising chemotherapeutic agents have been developed, their overall effectiveness is hindered by the common occurrence of drug resistance due to the rapid emergence of drug-resistant tumor cell variants, which then populate drug-resistant metastases (1,2; see also Chapters 5 and 6).


Alveolar Macrophage Muramyl Dipeptide Tumor Cell Variant Tumoricidal Macrophage Promising Chemotherapeutic Agent 
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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan J. Schroit
  • Isaiah J. Fidler

There are no affiliations available

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