Advertisement

Bone Marrow Toxicity of Antitumor Agents

  • Jeffrey J. Kirshner
  • Harvey D. Preisler
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 25)

Abstract

Bone marrow suppression is the dose-limiting toxicity for the majority of antitumor agents and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to the toxic effects which antineoplastic drugs produce in some of the other organ systems, bone marrow suppression is usually predictable and dose-related. An understanding of normal hematopoiesis, cell cycle kinetics, the mechanism of action and the pharmacokinetics of the various drugs will enable the clinical oncologist to administer chemotherapy more intelligently, safely and effectively.

Keywords

Bone Marrow Progenitor Cell Pluripotent Stem Cell Acute Leukemia Alkylating Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Metcalf D: Hemopoietic colonies, in vitro cloning of normal and leukemic cells. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Till JE, McCullough EA: A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow. Radiat Res 14:213–222, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fauser AA, Messner HA: Identification of megakaryocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils in colonies of human bone marrow containing neutrophilic granulocytes and erythroblasts. Blood 53:1023–1027, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Messner HA, Izaguirre CA, Jamal N: Identification of T-lymphocytes in human mixed hemopoietic colonies. Blood 58:402–405, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradley TR, Metcalf D: The growth of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. Aust J Exp Biol Med 44:287–299, 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Axelrad AA, McLeod DL, Shreeve MM, Heath DS: Properties of cells that produce erythrocytic colonies in vitro. In: Hemopoiesis in Culture, Robinson WA (ed), Washington, DC, US Gov’t Printing Office, 1974, p 226.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stephenson JR, Axelrad AA, McLeod DL, Shreeve MM: Induction of colonies of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by erythropoietin in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:1542, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mazur E, Hoffman R, Chasis J, Marchesi S, Bruno E: Immunofluorescent identification of human megakaryocyte colonies using antiplatelet glycoprotein antiserum. Blood 57:277–286, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nakeff A, Daniels-McQueen S: in vitro colony assay for a new class of megakaryocyte precursor: Colony-forming unit megakaryocyte (CFU-M). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 151:587–590, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Claesson MM, Rodger MD, Johnson GR, Whittinham S, Metcalf D: Colony formation by human T lymphocytes in agar medium. Clin Exp Immunol 28:526, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fibach E, Gerassi E, Sachs L: Induction of colony formation in vitro by human lymphocytes. Nature 259:127–129, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Izaguirre CA, Minden MD, Howatson AF, McCulloch EA: Colony formation by normal and malignant human B-lymphocytes. Br J Cancer 42:430, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dexter TM: Hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture. Acta Haemat 62:299–305, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buick RN, Till JE, McCulloch EA: Colony assay for proliferative blast cells circulating in myeloblasts leukemia. Lancet 1:862–863, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tannock IF: Cell kinetics and chemotherapy: A critical review. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1117–1133, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gray JW, Dean PN, Mendelsohn ML: Quantitative cell-cycle analysis. In: Flow Cytometry and Sorting, Melamed MR, Mullaney PF, Mendelsohn ML (eds), New York, Wiley, 1979, p 383–408.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iscove NN, Till JE, McCulloch EA: Proliferative state of human granulopoietic cells. Blood 36:828, 1970.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu YK, Stallard SS, Koo V, Dannaher CL: The proliferative states of circulating granulopoietic stem cellsin man. Scand J Haematol 22:258–262, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cronkite EP, Fliedner TM, Bond VP, et al: Dynamics of hemopoietic proliferation in man and mice studied by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA. Ann NY Acad Sci 77:803–820, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Killmann SA: Cell classification and kinetic aspects of normoblastic and megaloblastic erythropoiesis. Cell Tissue Kinetics 3:217–228, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kesse-Elias M, Harriss EP, Gyftaki E: In vitro study of DNA synthesis time and cell cycle time in erythrocyte precursors of normal and thalassaemic subjects using 3H- and 14C-thymidine double labelling technique. Acta Haematol 38:170–177, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marsh JC: The effects of cancer chemotherapeutic agents on normal hematopoietic precursor cells: A review. Cancer Res 36:1853–1882, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dow LW: Sensitivity of normal and neoplastic cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Adv Intern Med 25:427–452, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blackett NM, Marsh JC, Gordon MY, Okell SF, Aguado M: Simultaneous assay by 6 methods of the effect on hemopoietic precursor cells of adriamycin, methyl CCNU, 60 Co gamma rays, vinblastine, and cytosine arabinoside. Exp Hematol 6:2–8, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Greenberg PL, Vankersen I, Mosny S: Cytotoxic effects of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcyto-sine and 6-thioguanine in vitro on granulocytic progenitor cells. Cancer Res 36:4412–4417, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Preisler HD, Epstein J: A comparison of two methods for determining the sensitivity of human myeloid colony-forming units to cytosine arabinoside. Br J Haematol 47:519–527, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown CB, Carbone PP: Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on normal bone marrow growth in vitro. Cancer Res 31:185–190, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bruce WR, Meeker BE, Valeriote FA: Comparison of the sensitivity of normal hematopoietic and transplanted lymphoma colony-forming cells to chemotherapeutic agents administered in vitro. J Natl Cancer Inst 37:233, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Labedzki L, Illiger J, Drebber G, et al: Monitoring of aggressive chemotherapy by circulating myeloid stem cells. Exp Hematol 7 (Suppl 6):140, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lohrmann HP, Schreml W, Fliedner TM, Heimpel M: Reaction of human granulopoiesis tohigh dose cyclophosphamide therapy. Blut 38:9–16, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lohrmann HP, Schreml W, Lang M, et al: Changes of granulopoiesis during and after adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer. Br J Haematol 40:369–381, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nowrousian MR, Schmidt CG: Differential sensitivity of murine bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells to cisplatin. Exp Hematol 9:23, 1981.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rothman SA, Weich JK: Cisplatin toxicity for erythroid precursors. N Engl J Med 304:360, 1981.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Golde DW, Cline MJ: Production, distribution, and fate of granulocytes. In: Hematology, Williams WJ (ed), New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977, p 699–706.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aster RH: Production, distribution, life-span, and fate of platelets. In: Hematology, Williams WJ (ed), New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977, p 1210–1220.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carter SK, Livingston RB: Drugs available to treat cancer. In: Principles of Cancer Treatment. Carter SK, Glatstein E, Livingston RB (eds), New York, McGraw Hill, 1981, p 111–145.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greenwald ES: Cancer Chemotherapy. Second edition. Flushing, NY: Medical Examination Publishing Company, 1973.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Henderson ES: The granulocytopenic effects of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In: Drugs and hematologic Reactions, Dimitrov NV and Nodine JH (eds), New York, Grune & Stratton, 1974, p 207–221.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pinedo HM. Cancer Chemotherapy Annual 2. New York: Elsevier, 1980.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Delmonte L: Effect of myleran on murine hemopoiesis. I. Granulocytic cell line specificity of action on progenitor cells. Cell Tiss Kinet 11:347–358, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Delmonte L: Effect of myleran on murine hemopoiesis. II. Direct and host-mediated action on proliferative capacity and differentiation bias of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S). Cell Tiss Kinet 11:359–367, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Delmonte Lb: Effect of myleran on murine hemopoiesis. III. Changes in the density distribution of spleen colony forming (CFU-S) and agar gel colony-forming cells (CFU-C). Cell Tiss Kinet 11:369–375, 1978.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dunn CDR, Elson LA: The comparative effect of busulfan (‘myleran’) on hematopoietic colony-forming units in the rat. Cell Tiss Kinet 3:131, 1970.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fried W, Barone J: Residual marrow damage following therapy with cyclophosphamide. Exp Hematol 8:610–614, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fried W, Kedo A, Barone J: Effects of cyclophosphamide and of busulfan on spleen colony-forming units and on hematopoietic stroma. Cancer Res 37:1205–1209, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Botnick LE, Hannon EC, Hellman S: Multisystem stem cell failure after apparent recovery from alkylating agents. Cancer Res 38:1942–1947, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morley A: Residual marrow damage from cytotoxic drugs. Aust NZ J Med 10:569–571, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ash R, Chaffey JT, Hellman S: The effect of nitrogen mustard on the survival of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Cancer Res 32:1695–1702, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Preisler HD, Henderson ES: Effects of cytosine arabinoside and 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea on hematopoietic precursors in the mouse. J Natl Cancer Inst 47:971–977, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Haas RJ, Rohruber W, Netzel B, et al: Effects of CCNU on hematopoiesis in rats. Cancer Treat Rep 63:377–383, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Byfield JE, Galalro-Jones P, Murnane J, et al: Transport-dependent cytotoxicity of water versus lipid soluble alkylating agents: Origins of cumulative marrow toxicity. Proc Amer Ass Cancer Res 20:136, 1979.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Panasci LC, Fox PA, Schein PS: Structure activity studies of methylnitrosurea antitumor agents with reduced murine bone marrow toxicity. Cancer Res 37:3321–3328, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Panasci LC, Comis R, Ginsberg S, et al: Phase I trial of chlorozotocin: Attempted amelioration of myelotoxicity by glucose administration. Cancer Treat Rep 65:647–650, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schein PS, Bull JM, Doukas D, et al: Sensitivity of human and murine hematopoietic precursor cells to 2-[3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosureido] D-glucopyranose and 1,3-bis(2-chlor-oethyl)-1-nitrosurea. Cancer Res 38:1070–1074, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pinedo HM, Chabner BA: The role of drug concentration, duration of exposure, and endogenous metabolites in determining MTX cytotoxicity. Cancer Treat Rep 61:709–715, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Koizumi S, Yamagani M, Ueno Y, Miura M, Taniguchi N: Resistance of human bone marrow CFU-C To high dose methotrexate cytotoxicity. Exp Hematol 8:635–640, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Frei E, Blum RH, Pitman SW, et al: High dose methotrexate with leucovorin rescue. Rationale and spectrum of anti-tumor activity. Am J Med 68:370–376, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Burchenal JH, Murphy ML, Ellison RR, et al: Clinical evaluation of a new antimetabolite, 6-mercaptopurine, in the treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Blood 8:965–999, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Le Page GA, Whitecar JPJ: Pharmacology of 6-thioguanine in man. Cancer Res 31:1627, 1971.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Radley JM, Scurfield G: Effects of 5-fluorouracil on mouse bone marrow. Brit J Haematol 43:341–352, 1979.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fraile RJ, Baker LH, Buroker TR, Horwitz J, Vaitkevicius VK: Pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil administered orally, by rapid infusion and by slow infusion. Cancer Res 40:2223–2228, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lokich J, Bothe A, Fine N, Perri J: Phase I study of protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil. Cancer 48:2565–2568, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hall SW, Valdivieso M, Benjamin RS: Intermittent high single dose ftorafur. A phase I clinical trial with a pharmacology-toxicity correlation. Cancer Treat Rep 61:1495–1498, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kessel D, Hall TC, Rosenthal D: Uptake and phosphorylation of cytosine arabinoside by normal and leukemic human blood cells in vitro. Cancer Res 24:459–463, 1969.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rustum YM, Preisler HD: Correlation between leukemic cell retention of 1-β-darabinosyl-cytosine-5′-triphosphate and response to rherapy. Cancer Res 39:42–49, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Frei E III, Bickers JN, Hewlett JS, et al: Dose schedule and anti-tumor studies of arabinosyl cytosine (NSC 63878). Cancer Res 29:1325–1332, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Early AP, Preisler HD, Slocum H, Rustum YM: High dose cytosine arabinoside for acute leukemia and refractory lymphoma: Clinical efficacy and pharmacology. Cancer Res (in press).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wodinski I, Swiniarski J, Kensler CJ: Spleen colony studies of leukemia L1210. I. Differential sensitivities of normal and leukemic bone marrow colony-forming units to single and divided dose therapy with cytosine arabinoside. Cancer Chemother Rep 51:423, 1967.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Buick RN, Messner HA, Till JE, et al: Cytotoxicity of adriamycin and daunomycin for normal and leukemia progenitor cells in man. J Natl Cancer Inst 62:249–252, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Spiro TE, Mattelaer M, Eflra A, Stryckmans P: Sensitivity of myeloid progenitor cells in healthy subjects and patients with chronic myeloid leukemia to chemotherapeutic agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 66:1053–1059, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Razek A, Valeriote F, Vietti T: Survival of hematopoietic and leukemia colony-forming cells in vivo following the administration of daunorubicin or adriamycin. Cancer Res 32:1496–1500, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Huybrechts M, Trouet A: Comparative toxicity of detorubicin and doxorubicin, free and DNA-bound for hemopoietic stem cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 5:79–82, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Issell BF, Ginsberg SJ, Tihon C, Rudolph AR, Commis RL: Combining the in vitro human tumor and bone marrow clonogenic assays in cancer therapy development. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, 1982.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Crooke ST, Bradner WT: Mitomycin C: A review. Cancer Treat Rev 3:121–140, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Blum Rh, Carter SK, Agre K: A clinical review of bleomycin — a new antineoplastic agent. Cancer 31:903–914, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bogliolo GV, Massa GG, Solvero AF, Lanfranco EO, Pannacciulli IM: Sensitivity of spleen colony-forming units to chronic bleomycin. Brit J Cancer 40:489–492, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Briganti G, Levi G, Spalletta E, Galloni L, Mauro F: Effect of bleomycin on mouse haematopoietic colony-forming cells in culture (CFUC). Cell Tiss Kinet 3:145–151, 1980.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goldberg J, Zamkoff KW, Tice D, et al: The in vitro effects of vincristine on blood CFU-C in the blastic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Blood 54:220A (Suppl 1), 1979.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Winton EF, Vogler WR, Parker MB, Kincade JM: Temporal correlation of the marrow’s production of granulopoietic stimulatory activity and granulocyte regeneration after vinblastine. Exp Hematol 9:619–627, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Blum RH, Dawson DM: Phase I trial of vindesine in man. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 17:108, 1976.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Creaven PJ, Newman SJ, Selaury OS, Cohen MH, Primack A: Phase I clinical trials of weekly administration of 4′-demethylepipodo phyllotoxin-9-(4,6-O-ethylidene-β-glucopyranoside) (NSC-14-540; VP-16-213). Cancer Chemother Rep 58:901–907, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rozencweig M, Von Hoff DD, Henney JE, Muggia FM: VM-26 and VP-16-213: A comparative analysis. Cancer 40:334–342, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vietti TJ, Valeriote FA, Kalish R, Coulter D: Kinetics of cytotoxicity of VM-26 and VP-16-213 on L1210 leukemia and hematopoietic stem cells. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1313–1320, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Spivak SD: Procarbazine. Ann Intern Med 81:795–802, 1974.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thurman WG, Bloedow C, Howe CD, et al: A phase I study of hydroxyurea. Cancer Chemother Rep 29:103, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rozencweig M, Von Hoff DD, Slavik M, Muggia FM: Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II). A new anticancer drug. Ann Intern Med 86:803–812, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chary KK, Higby DJ, Henderson ES, Swinerton KD: Phase I study of high dose cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) with forced diuresis. Cancer Treat Rep 61:367, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lippman AJ, Helson C, Helson L, et al: Clinical trials of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (NSC-119875). Cancer Chemother Rep 57:191–200, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jenkins VK, Perry RR, Goodrich WE: Effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) on hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Exp Hematol 9:281–287, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wierda D, Pazdernik TL: Toxicity of platinum complexes on hemopoietic precursor cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 211:531–538, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Legna SS, Keating MJ, Zauder AR, McCredie KB, Bodey GP, Freireich EJ: 4′(9-Acridinylamino) methansulfon-m-anisidide (AMSA): A new drug effective in the treatment of adult acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med 93:17–20, 1980.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Von Hoff DD, Mowser D, Gormley P, et al: Phase I study of methanesulfonamide N-(4-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methoxyphenyl)-(m-AMSA) using a single dose schedule. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1421–1426, 1978.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zauder AR, Maddux B, Spitzer G, et al: Evaluation of toxicity of AMSA on murine bone marrow. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 21:275, 1980.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spiro TE, Socquet M, Delforge A, Stryckmans P: Chemotherapeutic sensitivity of normal and leukemic hematopoietic progenitor cells to N-4-(9 acridinylamino)-3-methoxyphenyl-methaneosulforamide, a new anticancer agent. Natl Cancer Inst 66:615–618, 1981.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gutterman JU, Blumenschein GR, Alexanian R, et al: Leukocyte interferon induced tumor regression in human metastatic breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma. Ann Intern Med 93:399–406, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Balkwill FR, Oliver RT: Growth inhibitory effects of interferon on normal and malignant human haemopoietic cells. Int J Cancer 20:500–505, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Greenberg PL, Mosny SA: Cytotoxic effects of interferon in vitro on granulocytic progenitor cells. Cancer Res 37:1794–1799, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Trainor KJ, Morley AA: Screening of cytotoxic drugs for residual bone marrow damage. J Natl Cancer Inst 57:1237–1239, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Trainor KJ, Seshadri RS, Morley AA: Residual Marrow injury following cytotoxic drugs. Leukemia Res 3:205–210, 1979.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dumenil D, Sainteny F, Frindel E: Some effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on bone marrow stem cells. I. The long-term effects of phqse-specific drugs on mouse bone marrow stem cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2:197–201, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dumenil D, Sainteny F, Frindel E: Some effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on bone marrow stem cells. II. Effect on non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma chemotherapy on various hemopoietic compartments of the mouse. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2:203–207, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Botnick LE, Hannon EC, Hellman S: A long lasting proliferative defect in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment following cytotoxic agents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phy 5:1621–1625, 1979.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Botnick LE, Hannon EC, Vigneulle R, Hellman S: Differential effects of cytotoxic agents on hematopoietic progenitors. Cancer Res 41:2338–2342, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Standen GR, Blackett NM: Effect of daily administration of cytotoxic drugs on the erythroid and granulocytic repopulating ability of rat bone marrow. Acta Haematol 63:252–256, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    DiFino SM, Lachant NA, Kirshner JJ, Gottlieb AJ: Adult idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Clinical findings and response to therapy. Am J med 69:430–442, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kim HD, Boggs DR: A syndrome resembling idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 10 patients with diverse forms of cancer. Am J Med 67:331–337, 1979.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kirshner JJ, Zamkoff KZ, Gottlieb AJ: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Hodgkin’s disease: Report of two cases and a review of the literature. Am J Med Sci 280:21–28, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Auclerc G, Jacquillat C, Auclerc MF, Weil M, Bernard J: Posttherapeuric acute leukemia. Cancer 44:2017–2025,1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Casciato DA, Scott JL: Acute leukemia following prolonged cytotoxic agent therapy. Medicine 58:32–47, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Coleman CN, Williams CJ, Flint A, Glatstein EJ, Rosenberg SA, Kaplan HS: Hematologic neoplasia in patients treated for Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 297:1249–1252, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rosner F, Grunwald H: Hodgkin’s disease and acute leukemia: Report of eight cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 58:339–353, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Reimer RR, Hoover R, Fraumeni JF, Young RC: Acute leukemia after alkylating agent therapy for ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 297:177–181, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rosner F, Carey RW, Zarrabi MH: Breast cancer and acute leukemia: Report of 24 cases and review of the literature. Am J Hematol 4:151–172, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rosner F, Grunwald H: Multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia terminating in acute leukemia. Review with emphasis on karyotypic and ultra-structural abnormalities. NY Stage J Med 80:558–570, 1980.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Landaw SA: Acute leukemia in polycythemia vera. Sem in Hematol 13:33–48, 1976.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Zarrabi MH, Rosner F, Bennett JM: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and acute myeloblastic leukemia: Report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Cancer 44:1070–1080, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zarrabi MH, Grunwald HW, Rosner F: Chronic lympkhocytic leukemia terminating in acute leukemia. Arch Intern Med 137:1059–1064, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Grunwald HW, Rosner F: Acute leukemia and immunosuppressive drug use: A review of patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for non-neoplastic diseases. Arch Intern Med 139:461, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Preisler HD, Lyman GH: Acute myelogenous leukemia subsequent to therapy for a different neoplasm: Clinical features and response to therapy. Am J Hematol 3:209–215, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Comis RL, Schein PS, Hoth D, Holland J: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocal #7981. A phase III study: Comparison of FAM versus MA in locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer, 1979.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Williams WJ: Hematology in the aged. In: Hematology, Williams WJ (ed), New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977, p 49–54.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mauch P, Botnick L, Hellman S: Decline in bone marrow proliferative capacity as a function of age. Blood 58 (Suppl 1):113A, 1981.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bonadonna G, Valagussa P: Dose-response effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 304:10–15, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Frei E III, Canellos GP: Dose: A critical factor in cancer chemotherapy. Am J Med 69:585–594, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sacks EL, Goris ML, Glatstein E, Gilbert EH, Kaplan HS: Bone marrow regeneration following large field radiation: Influence of volume, age, dose, and time. Cancer 42:1057–1065, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chamberlain W, Barone J, Kedo A, Fried W: Lack of recovery of murine hematopoietic stromal cells after irradiation induced damage. Blood 44:385–392, 1974.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zeltzer PM, Feig SA: Theophylline induced lomustine toxicity. Lancet 2:960–961, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Alberts DS, Peng YM, Moon TE: Alpha-tocopherol pretreatment increases adriamycin bone marrow toxicity. Biomed EXP 29:189–191, 1978.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fitchen JH, Koeffler HP: Cimetidine and granulopoiesis: Bone marrow culture studies in normal man and patients with Cimetidine — associated neutropenia. Brit J Haematol 46:361–366, 1980.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Byron JW: Cimetidine and bone marrow toxicity. Lancet 2:555–556, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Klotz SA, Kay BF: Cimetidine and agranulocytosis. Ann Intern Med 88:579–580, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Posnett DN, Stein RS, Graber SE, Krantz SB: Cimetidine-induced neutropenia. A possible dose-related phenomenon. Arch Intern Med 139:584–586, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    O’Donnel JF, McKoy WS, MaKuch RW, Bull JM: Increased in vitro toxicity to mouse bone marrow with 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea and hyperthermia. Cancer Res 39:2547–2549, 1979.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Preisler HD, Gessner T: Intergroup AML Study, 1981.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bertino JR: Rescue techniques in cancer chemotherapy: Use of leucovorin and other rescue agents after methotrexate treatment. Sem in Oncol 4:203–216, 1977.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Pinedo HM, Zaharko DS, Bull JM, Chabner BA: The reversal of methotrexate cytotoxicity of mouse bone marrow cells by leucovorin and nucleosides. Cancer Res 36:4418–4424, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schreml W, Lohrmann HP: Effect of high dose methotrexate with citrovorum factor on human granulopoiesis. Cancer Res 39:4195–4199, 1979.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Howell SB, Ensminger WD, Krisham A, Frei E: Thymidine rescue of high dose methotrexate in humans. Cancer Res 38:325–330, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Straw JA, Talbot DC, Taylor GA, Harry KR: Some observation on the reversibility of methotrexate toxicity in normal proliferating tissues. J Natl Cancer Inst 58:91–97, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Howell SB, Mansfield SJ, Taetle R: Significance of variation in serum thymidine concentration for the marrow toxicity of methotrexate. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 5:221–226, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chabner BA, Johns V, Bertino JB: Enzymatic cleavage of methotrexate provides a method for prevention of drug toxicity. Nature 239:395–399, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Capizzi RL: Improvement in the therapeutic index of methotrexate by asparaginase. Cancer Chemother Rep 6:37, 1975.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rothstein G, Clarkson DR, Larsen W, Grosser BI, Athema JW: Effect of lithium on neutrophil mass and production. N Engl J Med 298:178–182, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Harker WG, Rothstein G, Clarkson D, et al: Enhancement of colonystimulating activity production by lithium. Blood 49:263–267, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Joyce RA, Chervenick PA: The effect of lithium on release of granulocytes colony stimulating activity in vitroin vitro. Adv Exp Med Biol 127:79–86, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Richman CM, Kinnealey A, Hoffman PC: Granulopoietic effects of lithium on human bone marrow in vitro. Exp Hematol 9:449–455, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Doukas MA, Coppola MA, Niskanen EO, Quesenberry PJ: In vitro and in vivo effect of lithium on a primitive hemopoietic stem cell. Blood 58:108A (Suppl 1), 1981.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Belch AR, Ronald AR, Feld R, Pater JC: Efficacy of lithium during remission induction of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Blood 58:135A(Suppl 1), 1981.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Greco FA, Brereton MD: Effect of lithium carbonate on theneutropenia caused by chemotherapy: A preliminary clinical trial. Oncology 34:153, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Stein RS, Beaman C, Ali MY, Hansen R, Jankins DD, June’an HG: Lithium carbonate attenuation of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. N Engl J Med 297:430–435, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Abrams RA, McCormack K, Bowles C, Deisseroth AB: Cyclophosphamide treatment expands the circulating hematopoietic stem cell pool in dogs. J Clin Invest 67:1392–1399, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Blackett NM, Aguado M: The enhancement of hematopoietic stem cell recovery in irradiated mice by prior treatment with cyclophosphamide. Cell Tiss Kinet 12:291–298, 1979.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hedley DW, McElwain TJ, Millar JL, Gordon MY: Acceleration of bone marrow recovery by pre-treatment with cyclophosphamide in patients receiving high dose melphalan. Lancet 2:966–968, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gurwith MJ, Brunton JL, Lank BA, Harding GKM, Ronald AR: A prospective controlled investigation of prophylactic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in hospitalized granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med 66:248–256, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Douer D, Champlin RE, Ho WG, et al: High dose combined modality therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation in resistant cancer. Am J Med 71:973–976, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Spitzer G, Dicke KA, Litam J, et al: High dose combination chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation in adult solid tumors. Cancer 45:3075–3085, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tobias JS, Weiner RS, Griffiths CT, et al: Cryopreserved autologous marrow infusion following high dose cancer chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 13:269–277, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey J. Kirshner
  • Harvey D. Preisler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations