Advertisement

Immunodeficiency, Autoimmunity, and Malignancy

  • M. A. H. French
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 21)

Abstract

Much of our current knowledge about the normal physiology of the immune system has been derived from the study of primary immunodeficiency diseases in the context of “experiments of nature.” Not surprisingly, therefore, a similar approach has been taken as one way of testing the hypothesis that immune responses are part of the normal homeostatic mechanism for controlling malignancy (“immune surveillance”). The demonstration of an increased incidence of malignancy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases might provide evidence in support of this view. Furthermore, the association of malignancy with particular types of immune defects might provide insight into which parts of the normal immune response are involved with tumour immunity.

Keywords

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Primary Immunodeficiency Ataxia Telangiectasia Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Progressive Systemic Sclerosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gatti RA, Good RA. Occurrence of malignancy in immunodeficiency diseases. Cancer 28: 89–98, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asherson GL, Webster ADB. Malignancy and immunodeficiency disease. In Diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1980, pp. 274–281.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fudenberg H, Good RA, Goodman HC, Hitzig W, Kunkel H, Roitt I, Rosen F, Rowe D, Seligmann M, Soothill J. Primary immunodeficiencies, report of a World Health Organisation Committee. Paediatrics 47: 927–946, 1971.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kersey JH, Spector BD, Good RA. Primary immunodeficiency diseases and cancer: The immunodeficiency- cancer registry. Int J Cancer 12: 333–347, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Page AR, Hansen AE, Good RA. Occurrence of leukaemia and lymphoma in patients with agamma- globulinaemia. Blood 21: 197–206, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koren HS, Amos DB, Buckley RH. Natural killing in immunodeficient patients. J Immunol 120: 796–799, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spector BD, Perry GS, Good RA, Kersey JH. Immunodeficiency diseases and malignancy. In Twomey JJ, Good RA (eds.), Comprehensive immunology, vol. 4. New York: Plenum, 1978, pp. 203–222.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Report of a WHO scientific group. Immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 13: 296–359, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Gast GC, Wilkins SR, Webster AD, Rickinson A, Platts-Mills TA. Functional immaturity of isolated B cells from patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Clin Exp Immunol 42: 535–544, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Platts-Mills TAE, de Gast GC, Pereira RS, Webster ADB, Wilkins SR. The significance of immature B cells found in the peripheral blood of patients with late onset hypogammaglobulinemia. In Seligman M, Hitzig WH (eds.), Primary immunodeficiencies. Inserm symposium no. 16. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Webster ADB, Asherson GL. Identification and function of T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Clin Exp Immunol 18: 499–504, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Filipovich AH, Spector BD, Kersey J. Immunodeficiency in humans as a risk factor in the development of malignancy. Prev Med 9: 252–259, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hermans PE, Diaz-Buxo JA, Stobo JD. Idiopathic late-onset immunoglobulin deficiency. Clinical observations in 50 patients. Am J Med 61: 221–237, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gonzalez-Vitale JC, Gomez LG, Goldblum RM, Goldman AS, Patterson M. Immunoblastic lymphoma of small intestine complicating late-onset immunodeficiency. Cancer 49: 445–449, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    French M, Dawkins R, Jackson M. Primary immunoglobulin deficiency and haematological disorders. Postgrad Med J 59: 32–36, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ruddell WSJ, Bone ES, Hill MJ, Blendis LM, Walters CL. Gastric juice nitrate: A risk factor for cancer in the hypochlorhydric stomach? Lancet 2: 1037–1039, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Asherson GL, Webster ADB. Thymoma and immunodeficiency. In Diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1980, pp. 78–98.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sonadjian JV, Enriquez P, Silverstein MN, Pepin J. The spectrum of diseases associated with thymoma: Coincidence or syndrome. Arch Intern Med 134: 374–379, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Asherson GL, Johnson S, Platts-Mills TAE, Webster ADB. Pathogenesis of hypogammaglobulinemia with thymoma and late-onset hypogammaglobulinemia. J Clin Path 32: Suppl (Roy Coll Path) 13: 5–9, 1979.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cassidy JJ, Oldham G, Platts-Mills TAE. Functional assessment of a B-cell defect in patients with selective IgA deficiency. Clin Exp Immunol 35: 296–305, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Asherson GL, Webster ADB. Selective IgA deficiency. In Diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1980, pp. 99–128.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oxelius VA, Laurell AB, Lindquist B, Golebiowska H, Axelsson U, Bjorkander J, Hanson LA. IgG sub¬classes in selective IgA deficiency: Importance of IgG2-IgA deficiency. N Eng J Med 304: 1476–1477, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cunningham-Rundles C, Pudifin DJ, Armstrong D, Good RA. Selective IgA deficiency and neoplasia. Vox Sang 38: 61–67, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hobbs J. IgM deficiency. In Bergsma D (ed.); Immunodeficiency in man and animals. Birth defects original article series XI. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1975, pp. 112–116.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Webster ADB. Metabolic defects in immunodeficiency diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 49: 1–10, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nathan CF, Murray HW, Cohn ZA. The macrophage as an effector cell. New Eng J Med 303: 622–626, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blume RS, Wolff SM. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Studies in four patients and a review of the literature. Medicine 51: 247–280, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roder JC, Haliotis T. A selective natural killer cell deficiency in man and a mouse model. In Seligmann M, Hitzig WH (eds.), Primary immunodeficiencies. Inserm symposium no. 16. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, p. 207–217.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karre K, Klein GO, Kiessling R, Klein G, Roder JC. Low natural in vivo resistance to syngeneic leukaemias in natural killer-deficient mice. Nature 284: 624–626, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Talmadge JE, Meyers KM, Prieur DJ, Starhey JR. Role of NK cells in tumour growth and metastasis in beige mice. Nature 284: 622–624, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blaese RM, Strober W, Waldmann TA. Immunodeficiency in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. In Bergsma D (ed.), Immunodeficiency in man and animals. Birth defects original article series. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1975, pp. 250–254.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shapiro R, GerrardJM, Perry GS, White JG, Krivit W, Kersey JH. A metabolic abnormality in platelets from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome heterozygotes. Lancet 1: 121–123, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blaese RM, Strober W, Brown RS, Waldmann TA. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: A disorder with a possible defect in antigen processing or recognition. Lancet 1: 1056–1060, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cooper MD, Chase HP, Lowman JT, Krivit W, Good RA. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: An immunologic deficiency disease involving the afferent limb of immunity. Am J Med 44: 499–513, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lipinski M, Virelizier JL, Tursz T, Griscelli C. Natural killer and killer cell activities in patients with primary immunodeficiencies or defects in immune interferon production. Eur J Immunol 10: 246–249, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Perry GS, Spector BD, Shuman LM, Mandel JS, Aderson E, McHugh RB, Hanson MR, Fahlstrom SM, Krivit W, Kersey JH. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in the United States and Canada (1892-1979). J Paediatrics 97: 72–78, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Heidleberger KP, Le Golvan DP. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and cerebral neoplasia: Report of a case with localised reticulum cell sarcoma. Cancer 33: 280–284, 1974.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parkman R, Rappeport J, Geha R, Belli J, Cassady R, Levey R, Nathan DG, Rosen RS. Complete cor¬rection of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. New Eng J Med 298: 921–927, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Polani PE. DNA repair defects and chromosome instability disorders. In Ciba Foundation Symposium 66 (new series), Human genetics: Possibilities and realities. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979, pp. 81–133.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McFarlin DE, Strober W, Waldmann TA. Ataxia telangiectasia. Medicine 51: 281–314, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Waldmann TA. Immunological abnormalities in ataxia telangiectasia. In Bridges BA, Harriden DG (eds.), Ataxia telangiectasia—A cellular and molecular link between cancer, neuropathology and immune deficiency. Chichester: John Wiley, 1982, pp. 37–51.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nelson DL. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in immunodeficiency patients. In Seligmann M, Hitzig WH (eds.), Primary immunodeficiencies. Inserm symposium no. 16. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, pp. 141–149.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sedgwick RP, Boder E. Ataxia telangiectasia. In Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology 14. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing, 1972, pp. 267–339.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spector BD, Filipovich AH, Perry GS, Kersey JH. Epidemiology of cancer in ataxia telangiectasia. In Bridges BA, Harden DG (eds.), Ataxia telangiectasia—A cellular and molecular link between cancer, neuropathology and immune deficiency. Chichester: John Wiley, 1982, pp. 103–138.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brouet JC, Seligmann M. The immunological classification of acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. Cancer 42: 817–827, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hecht F, McCaw B, Koler RD. Ataxia telangiectasia: Clonal growth of translocation lymphocytes. New Eng J Med 289: 286–291, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McCaw BK, Hecht F, Harnden DG, Teplitz R. Somatic rearrangement of chromosome 14 in human lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 72: 2071–2075, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Oxford JM, Harnden DG, Parrington JM, Delharty JD. Specific chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia. J Med Genet 12: 251–262, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cunliffe PN, Mann JR, Camerson AH, Roberts KD. Radiosensitivity in ataxia telangiectasia. Br J Radiol 48: 374–376, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Levin S, Perlov S. Ataxia telangiectasia in Israel with observations on its relationship to malignant disease. Isr J Med Sci 7: 1535–1541, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    German J, Bloom D, Passarge E. Bloom’s syndrome. VII. Progress report for 1978. Clin Genet 15: 361–367, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chaganti RSK, Schonberg S, German J. A manyfold increase in sister chromatid exchanges in Bloom’s syndrome lymphocytes. Proc Nat Acad Sci (Wash) 71: 4508–4512, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hiitteroth TH, Litwin SD, German J. Abnormal immune responses of Bloom’s syndrome lymphocytes in vitro. J Clin Invest 56: 1–7, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weemaes CMR, Bakkeren JAJ, Ter Haar BGA, Hustinx TWJ, van Munster PJJ. Immune responses in four patients with Bloom’s syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopath 12: 12–19, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Taniguchi N, Mukai M, Nagaoki T, Miyawaki T, Moriya N, Takahashi H, Kondo N. Impaired B-cell dif-ferentiation and T-cell regulatory function in four patients with Bloom’s syndrome. Clin Immunol Im- munopathol 22: 247–258, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beard MEJ, Young DE, Bateman CJT, McCarthy GT, Smith ME, Sinclair L, Franklin AW, Scott RB. Fanconi’s anaemia. Q J Med 42: 403–422, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Miller RW, Tedaro GJ. Viral transmission of cells from persons at high risk of cancer. Lancet 1: 81–82, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Karup-Pederson F, Hertz H, Lundsteen C, Platz P, Thomsen M. Indication of primary immune deficiency in Fanconi’s anaemia. Acta Paediatr Scand 66: 745–751, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abels D, Reed WB. Fanconi-like syndrome. Immunologic deficiency, pancytopaenia and cutaneous malignancies. Arch Dermatol 107: 419–423, 1973.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sarna G, Tomasulo P, Lotz MJ, Bubinak JF, Shulman RN. Multiple neoplasms in two siblings with a variant form of Fanconi’s anaemia. Cancer 36: 1029–1033, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Swift M. Malignant neoplasms in heterozygous carriers of genes for certain autosomal recessive syndromes. In Mulvill JJ (ed.), Genetics of human cancer, progress in cancer research and therapy, vol. 3. New York: Raven Press, 1977, pp. 209–221.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Provisor AJ, Iacuone JJ, Chilcote RR, Neiburger RG, Crussi FG, Baehner RL. Acquired agammaglobu- linaemia after a life-threatening illness with clinical and laboratory features of infectious mononucleosis in three related male children. New Eng J Med 293: 62–65, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Purtilo DT, Cassel CK, Yang JPS, Harper R, Stephenson SR, Landing BJ, Vawter GF. X-linked recessive progressive combined variable immunodeficiency (Duncan’s disease). Lancet 1: 935–941, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Purtilo DT, Paquin L, De Florio D, Virzi F, Sakhuja R. Immunodiagnosis and immunopathogenesis of the X-linked recessive lymphoproliferative syndrome. Sem Haematol 16: 309–343, 1979.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sakamoto K, Freed HJ, Purtilo DT. Antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus in families with the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. J Immunol 125: 921–925, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Purtilo DT. Epstein-Barr virus-induced oncogenesis in immune-deficient individuals. Lancet 1: 300–303, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Waterson AP. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Br Med J 286: 743–746, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Menitove JE, Aster RH, Casper JT, Lauer SR, Gottschall JL, Williams JE, Gill JC, Wheeler DV, Piaskowski V, Kirchner P, Montgomery RR. T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with classic hemophilia treated with cryoprecipitate and lyophilised concentrates. N Eng J Med 308: 83–86, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Masur H, Michelis MA, Wormser GP, Lewin S, Gold J, Taper ML, Giron J, Lerner CW, Armstrong D, Setia U, Sender JA, Siebken RS, Nicholas P, Arlen Z, Maayan S, Ernst JA, Siegal FP, Cunningham-Rundles S. Opportunistic infections in previously healthy women. Initial manifestations of a community-acquired cellular immunodeficiency. Ann Intern Med 97: 533–539, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Oleinick A. Leukaemia or lymphoma occurring subsequent to an autoimmune disease. Blood 29: 144–153, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Krain LS, Bierman SM. Pemphigus vulgaris and internal malignancy. Cancer 33: 1091–1099, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    NIH Conference. Sjogren’s syndrome (Sicca syndrome): Current issues. Ann Intern Med 92: 212–226, 1980.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Talal N, Bunim JJ. The development of malignant lymphoma in the course of Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Med 36: 529–540, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kassan SS, Thomas TL, Montsopoulous HM, Hoover R, Kimberly RP, Budman DR, Costa J, Decker JL, Chused TM. Increased risk of lymphoma in Sicca syndrome. Ann Intern Med 89: 888–892, 1979.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zulman J, Jaffe R, Talal N. Evidence that the malignant lymphoma of Sjogren’s syndrome is a monoclonal B-cell neoplasm. New Eng J Med 299: 1215–1220, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Steinberg AD. Studies of immune regulation, 587-592. In Decker JL, moderator. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Evolving concepts. Ann Intern Med 91: 587–604, 1979.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Paty JG, Sienknecht CW, Townes AS, Hanissian AS, Miller JB, Masi AT. Impaired cell-mediated immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A controlled study of 23 untreated patients. Am J Med 59: 769–779, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Neighbour PA, Grayzel Al, Miller AE. Endogenous and interferon-augmented natural killer cell activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Studies of patients with multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol 49: 11–21, 1982.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Caldwell DS. Musculoskeletal syndromes associated with malignancy. Sem Arthr Rheum 10: 198–223, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Canoso JJ, Cohen AS. Malignancy in a series of 70 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 17: 383–390, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lewis RB, Castor CW, Kinsley RE, Bole GG. Frequency of neoplasia in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 19: 1256–1260, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Green JA, Dawson AA, Walker W. Systemic lupus erythematosus and lymphoma. Lancet 2: 753–756, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Casey TP. Azathioprine (Imuran) administration and the development of malignant lymphomas in NZB mice. Clin Exp Immunol 3: 305–312, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Owens DS, Waller M, Toone E. Rheumatoid disease and malignancy. Arthritis Rheum 10: 302–303, 1967 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Isomaki H, Hakulinen T, Joutsenlahti U. Lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1: 392, 1979 (letter).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kahn MF, Arlet J, Bloch-Michel H, Caroit M, Chaonat Y, Renier JC. Leucemies aigiies apres traitement par agents cytotoxiques en rheumatologie. 19 observations chez 2006 patients. Nouv Presse Med 8: 139–397, 1979.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Haynes DC, Gershwin ME. The immunopathology of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Sem Arthritis Rheum 11: 331–351, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bernstein RM, Steigerwald JC, Tan EM. Association of antinuclear and antinucleolar antibodies in progressive systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol 48: 43–51, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wright JK, Hughes P, Rowell NR, Sneddon IB. Antibody dependent and phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte cytotoxicity in systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol 36: 175–182, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wright JK, Hughes P, Rowell NR. Spontaneous lymphocyte-mediated (NK cell) cytotoxicity in systemic sclerosis: A comparison with antibody-dependent lymphocyte (K cell) cytotoxicity. Ann Rheum Dis 41: 409–413, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Talbott JH, Barrocas M. Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and malignancy, pulmonary and non-pulmonary. Medicine 58: 182–207, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Talbott JH, Barrocas M. Carcinoma of the lung in progressive systemic sclerosis: A tabular review of the literature and a detailed report of the roentgenographic changes in two cases. Sem Arthritis Rheum 9: 191–217, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Duncan SC, Winkelmann RK. Cancer and scleroderma. Arch Dermatol 115: 950–955, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermato-myositis. New Eng J Med 292: 344–347, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dawkins RL, Mastaglia FL. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity to muscle in polymyositis: Effect of immunosuppressive therapy. New Eng J Med 288: 434–438, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tan EM. Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA): Their immunobiology and medicine. In Kunkel HG, Dixon FJ (eds.), Advances in immunology vol 33. London: Academic Press, 1982, pp. 167–240.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Barnes BE. Dermatomyositis and malignancy: A review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 84: 68–76, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bohan A, Peter JB, Bowman RL, Pearson CM. A computer-assisted analysis of 153 patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Medicine 56: 255–286, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Callen JP, Hyla JF, Bole GG, Kay DR. The relationship of dermatomyositis and polymyositis to internal malignancy. Arch Dermatol 116: 295–298, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Callen JP. The value of malignancy evaluation in patients with dermatomyositis. J Am Acad Dermatol 6: 253–259, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Venables PJW, Mumford PA, Maini RN. Antibodies to nuclear antigens in polymyositis: Relationship to autoimmune “overlap syndromes” and carcinoma. Ann Rheum Dis 40: 217–223, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Penn I. Depressed immunity and the development of cancer. Clin Exp Immunol 46: 459–474, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Armstrong MYK, Ruddle NH, Lipman MB, Richards FF. Tumour induction by immunologically activated murine leukaemia virus. J Exp Med 137: 1163–1179, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hirsch MS, Proffitt MR, Black PH. Auto-immunity, oncornaviruses and lymphomagenesis. Contemp Top Immunobiol 6: 209–227, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston/Dordrecht/Lancaster 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. H. French

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations