• Harold E. Schroeder
  • Mary Jane Black


It is difficult to estimate the importance and prevalence of problems with assertive-ness because the construct has been so variously and vaguely defined. For some it has meant standing up for one’s rights. Wolpe and Lazarus (1966), for example, defined it as all socially acceptable expression of rights and feelings. In a similar vein, Alberti and Emmons (1974) defined assertiveness as acting in one’s own best interests without anxiety or destroying the rights of others. In these definitions, the meaning of socially acceptable and rights is not clarified. For others, it has come to refer to any difficulty in social interactions. Either the aggressive or withdrawn person, in this context, may be understood as unassertive. Rich and Schroeder (1976) proposed a functional definition that could accommodate a wide variety of social skills:


Cognitive Restructuring Homework Assignment Social Skill Training Response Class Response Shaping 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold E. Schroeder
    • 1
  • Mary Jane Black
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKent State UniversityKentUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatrySt. Luke’s HospitalClevelandUSA

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