Culture and Emotions

  • Michael Lewis
  • Carolyn Saarni
Part of the Genesis of Behavior book series (GOBE, volume 5)


Emotions are undisputedly multifaceted and derived from an interaction of biological and environmental socializing influences. To date in the study of emotions among children, much effort has been expanded in measurement issues and tracing the measurement of facial expression across the opening months and years of life. In general, the guiding principle of this task has been the assumption of a strong biological model that posits a fixed and universal connection between emotional expression—in particular, facial expression—and emotion. Following Darwin, many have focused on infant facial expression and on the connection between stimuli and emotions as expressed in the face and the voice.


Facial Expression Emotional State Emotional Expression Emotional Experience Emotional Expressiveness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buck, R. W., Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F. Sex, personality, and physiological variables in the communication of affect via facial expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 30, 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., Friesen, W. V. Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. Science, 1983, 221, 1208–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gardner, H. Developmental Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown, 1982.Google Scholar
  4. Gardner, H. Developmental Psychology( 2nd ed. ). Boston: Little, Brown, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. Hochschild, A. R. Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 1979, 85, 551–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lewis, M., Feiring, C. Direct and indirect interactions in social relationships. In L. Lipsett (Ed.), Advances in infancy research(Vol. 1 ). New York: Ablex, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. Lewis, M., Michalson, L. Children’s emotions and moods: Developmental theory and measurement. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lewis, M., Weinraub, M. The father’s role in the infant’s social network. In M. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (Vol. 1). New York: Wiley, 1976.Google Scholar
  9. Watson, J. B. Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Lewis
    • 1
  • Carolyn Saarni
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, UMDNJ-Rutgers Medical SchoolInstitute for the Study of Child DevelopmentNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Department of CounselingSonoma State UniversityRohnert ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations