Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy
The prescribing of vitamin and mineral supplements during pregnancy has become standard practice in many hospitals in the United States, but the recommendations that suggest that vitamins and minerals are important in improving pregnancy outcome are often based on studies that have serious deficiencies. Much of our knowledge regarding transport of vitamins across the placenta is derived from animal studies and simple case reports. The animal data are generally obtained using study designs in which vitamins are totally excluded or administered to excess, and this type of design has little application to the levels of vitamins present in the clinical setting even in the severely malnourished mother. Human studies that report pregnancy complications associated with vitamin deficiencies are generally uncontrolled and frequently are performed in populations of patients that have deficiencies of many vitamins and minerals.
KeywordsCholesterol Zinc Chromium Estrogen Manganese
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