Advertisement

Pregnancy and Sarcoidosis

  • John F. Metcalf

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is an interstitial lung disease that affects patients in younger age groups, many of whom are women in the childbearing years. The major lesion of sarcoidosis is a cellular process that results in pulmonary granulomas and alveolitis. Although the course of pregnancy and labor in patients who have sarcoidosis is usually successful, there are certain minimum criteria that are necessary for successful completion of the pregnancy and labor. These clinical criteria are set forth, and the use of oxygen during labor is discussed. Those patients with severe progressive disease requiring high doses of corticosteroids and/or marginal requirements for completion of pregnancy should be counseled concerning risks.

Keywords

Interstitial Lung Disease Pulmonary Infiltrate Cardiac Sarcoidosis Erythema Nodosum Pulmonary Sarcoidosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Novy MJ, Edwards MJ: Respiratory problems in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 99: 1024–1045, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinberger SE, Weiss ST, Cohen WR, et al: Pregnancy and the lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 121: 559–581, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cugell DW, Frank NR, Gaensler EA, et al: Pulmonary function in pregnancy. Am Rev Tuberc 67: 568–597, 1953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prowse CM, Gaensler EA: Respiratory and acid-base changes during pregnancy. Anesthesiology 26: 381–392, 1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jaffe RB, Josimovich JB: Endocrine physiology of pregnancy, in Danforth DN (ed): Obstetrics and Gynecology. Hagerstown, MD, Harper & Row, 1977, pp 286–298Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    James DG, Neville E, Siltzbach LE, et al: A worldwide review of sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 321–333, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Israel HL, Sones M: Sarcoidosis: Clinical observations on 160 cases. Arch Intern Med 102: 766–776, 1953Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lofgren S, Stanvenow S: Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 84 (Suppl): 71–75, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neville E, Mills RGS, James DG: Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its relation to lupus pernio. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 416–425, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beekman JF, Zimmet SM, Chan BK, et al: Spectrum of pleural involvement in sarcoidosis. Arch Intern Med 81: 190–194, 1976Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mayock RL, Bertrand P, Morrison CE, et al: Manifestations of sarcoidosis. Analysis of 145 patients with a review of nine series selected from the literature. Am J Med 35: 67–89, 1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spilberg 1, Siltzbach LE, McEwen C: The arthritis of sarcoidosis. Arthritis Rheum 12: 126–137, 1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delaney P: Neurologic manifestations in sarcoidosis. Ann Intern Med 87: 336–345, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bahr AL, Krumholz A, Kristt D, Hodges FJ: Neuroradiological manifestations of intracranial sarcoidosis. Radiology 127: 713–717, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kendall BE, Tatler GLV: Radiological findings in neurosarcoidosis. Br J Radiol 51: 81–92, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grizzanti JN, Knapp AB, Schecter AJ, Williams HN: Radiotherapy for sarcoid meningitis. Am J Med 73: 605–608, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Silverman KJ, Hutchins GM, Bulkley BH: Cardiac sarcoid: A clinicopathologic study of 84 unselected patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Circulation 58: 1204–1211, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fleming HA, Bailey SM: Sarcoid heart disease in the UK. Tenth International Conference on Sarcoidosis, 1984, p. 81Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldstein RA, Israel HL, Becker KL, et al: The infrequency of hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis. Am J Med 51: 21–30, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klatskin G: Hepatic granulomata. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 427–432, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Selroos O: Sarcoidosis of spleen. Acta Med Scand 200: 337–340, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Konda J, Ruth M, Sassaris M, et al: Sarcoidosis of the stomach and rectum. Am J Gastroenterol 73: 516–518, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Katz S: Endocrine aspects of sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 278: 427–434, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stuart C, Neelon FA, Lebovitz HE: Hypothalamic insufficiency: The cause of hypopituitarism in sarcoidosis. Ann Intern Med 88: 589–594, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sones M, Israel HL: Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis. Am J Med 29: 84–93, 1960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Longcope WT: Sarcoidosis or Besnier-Boech-Schaumann disease. JAMA 117: 1321–1327, 1941Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bacharach R: Sarcoidosis: A clinical review of 111 cases. Am Rev Respir Dis 84: 12–16, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wurm K: On the significance of the sequence of the different stages in sarcoidosis, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, University of Karlova Press, 1977, pp 483–485Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dunbar RD: Sarcoidosis and its radiologic manifestations. CRC Crit Rev Diag Imaging 13: 185–221, 1978Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller A, Teirstein AS, Chuang M: The sequence of physiologic changes in pulmonary sarcoidosis: Correlation with radiologic changes and response to therapy. Mt Sini Med J 44: 852–865, 1977Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Winterbauer RH, Hutchinson JF: Use of pulmonary function tests in the management of sarcoidosis. Chest 78: 640–647, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kirils DR, McCormick VD, Greenspan RH: Pulmonary sarcoidosis. Roentgenologic analysis of 150 patients. Am J Radiol 117: 777–786, 1973Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sahn SA, Schwartz MI, Lakshminarayan S: Sarcoidosis: The significance of an acinar pattern on chest roentgenogram. Chest 65: 684–687, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Feigin DS, et al: Necrotizing sarcoid-like granulomatosis. Clinical, pathologic and immunological findings. Hum Pathol 11: 510–515, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Churg A, Carrington CB, Gupta R: Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis. Chest 76: 406–412, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Freundlich IM, Libshitz HI, Glassman LM, et al: Sarcoidosis. Typical and atypical thoracic manifestations and complication. Clin Radiol 21: 376–383Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Solomon A, Kreel L, McNicol M, et al: Computed tomography in pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 754–758, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Israel HC, Ostrow A: Sarcoidosis and aspergilloma, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, University of Karlova Press, 1972, pp 495–497Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rabinowitz JG, Ulreich S, Soriano C: The usual unusual manifestations of sarcoidosis and the “hilar haze”—a new diagnostic aid. Am J Radiol 120: 821–831, 1974Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Westcott JL, DeGraff ACP Sarcoidosis, hilar adenopathy and pulmonary artery narrowing. Radiology 108: 585–586, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tolbot FJ, Katz S, Matthews MJ: Bronchopulmonary sarcoidosis. Some unusual manifestations and the serious complications thereof. Am J Med 26: 340–355, 1959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richert JH, Klocke RA: Sarcoidosis: Long-term followup of pulmonary function. Med Ann DC 33: 188–191, 1966Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sharma OP, Colp C, Williams MH: Pulmonary function studies in patients with bilateral sarcoidosis of hilar lymph nodes. Arch Intern Med 117: 436–439, 1966Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Holmgren A, Svanborg N: Studies on the cardiopulmonary function in sarcoidosis I. Cases with bilateral lymph node enlargement and radiographically normal lungs. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 366: 5–38, 1961Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lyons HA: Pulmonary compliance in granulomatous disease of the lung. Am J Med 25: 23–30, 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Snider GL, Doctor L: The mechanics of ventilation in sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 89: 897–908, 1961Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosen V, Amorosa JK, Moon S, et al: Occurrence of lung granulomas in patients with stage I sarcoidosis. Am J Roentgenol 129: 1083–1085, 1972Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Miller A, Chuang M, Teirstein AS, et al: Pulmonary function in stage I and II pulmonary sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 292–300, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marshall R, Karlish AJ: Lung function in sarcoidosis. Thorax 26: 402–405, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50..
    Emirgil C, Sobol BJ, Williams MH: Long-term study of pulmonary sarcoidosis: The effects of steroid therapy as evaluated by pulmonary function studies. J Chron Dis 22: 69–86, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ting EY, Williams MH; Mechanics of breathing in sarcoidosis of lung. JAMA 192: 619–624, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Coates FO, Comroe JH: Pulmonary function in sarcoidosis. J Clin Invest 30: 848–852, 1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Emirgil C, Sobol BJ, Herbert WH, et al: The lesser circulation in pulmonary fibrosis secondary to sarcoidosis and its relationship to respiratory function. Chest 60: 371–378, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    DeRemee RA, Anderson HA: Sarcoidosis. A correlation of dyspnea with roentgenographic stage and pulmonary function changes. Mayo Clin Proc 49: 742–745, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lewis BM, Kurtzman RS, Martin ND, et al: Effects of sarcoid on the lungs. Arch Intern Med 115: 330–335, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaneku K, Sharma OP: Airway obstruction in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 13: 231–240, 1977Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Levinson RS, Metzger LF, Stanley NN, et al: Airway function in sarcoidosis. Am J Med 62: 51–59, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Young RL, Lordon RE, Krumholz RA, et al: Pulmonary sarcoidosis: Pathophysiologic correlation. Am Rev Respir Dis 97: 997–1008, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huang CT, Heurich AE, Rosen Y, et al: Pulmonary sarcoidosis. Roentgenographic, functional and pathologic correlations. Respiration 37: 337–345, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Mikus JP, et al: Structure and function in sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 265–283, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Young RC, Carr C, Shelton TG, et al: Sarcoidosis: Relationship between changes in lung structure and function. Am Rev Respir Dis 95: 224–238, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hamer NAJ: Changes in the components of the diffusing capacity in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Thorax 18: 275–287, 1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Saumon G, Georges R, Loiseau A, et al: Membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pul¬monary sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 284–291, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Battesti JP, Georgese, Bosset F, et al: Chronic cor pulmonary in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Thorax 33: 76–84, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Papadimitriou JM, Spector WG: The origin, properties and fate of epithelial cells. J Patho1105: 187–203, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Teilum G: Morphogenesis and development of sarcoid lesions: Similarities to the group of collagenesis. Acta Med Scand 425: 14–18, 1964Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Judd PA, Finnegan P, Curran RC: Pulmonary sarcoidosis: A clinicopathologic study. J Pathol 115: 191–198, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liebow AA: Pulmonary angitis and granulomatosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 108: 1–18, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cain H, Kraus B: Asteroid bodies: Derivatives of the cytophere. Virchows Arch [Cell Pathol] 26: 119–132, 1977Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lofgren S: Pathogenesis of hyaline formation in sarcoidosis lymph nodes. Acta Med Scand 425: 27–30, 1964Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Crystal RG, Roberts WC, Hunninghake GW, et al: Pulmonary sarcoidosis: A disease characterized and perpetuated by activated lung T-lymphocytes. Ann Intern Med 94: 73–94, 1981Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gupta RC, Keuppers F, DeRemee RA, et al: Pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis in relationship to circulating complexes. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 416–425, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    James DG, Williams WJ: Immunology of sarcoidosis. Am J Med 72: 5–8, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kent DC, Hook UN, Elliott RC, et al: The definitive evaluation of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 101: 721–727, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rasmussen SM, Neukirch F: Sarcoidosis. Acta Med Scand 199: 209–216, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Siltzbach LE: Current status of the Nickerson-Kveim reaction. Am Rev Respir Dis [suppl] 84: 89–93, 1961Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gilman MJ, Wang KP: Transbronchial lung biopsy in sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 721–724, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roethe RA, Fuller PB, Byrd RB, et al: Transbronchial lung biopsy in sarcoidosis. Chest 77: 400–402, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Karma A: Ophthalmic changes in sarcoidosis. Acta Ophthalmol [Suppl] 141: 1–94, 1979Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Selroos O: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the spleen in diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 517–518, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tachibara T: Peritoneoscopy of sarcoid hepatosplenomegaly. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 520–521, 1976Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Villar T: Nasal granulomas. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 425–426, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Numao Y, Sekiguch M, Fruie T, et al: A study of cardiac involvement in 963 cases of sarcoidosis by ECG and endo-myocardial biopsy, in Williams WJ, Davies BH (eds): Eighth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Cardiff, Wales, Alpha Omega, 1980, pp 607–614Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Siltzbach LE, James DG, Neville E, et al: Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis around the world. Am J Med 57: 847–852, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    James DG, Neville E, Siltzbach LE: A worldwide review of sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 321–334, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Smellie H, Hoyle C: Natural history of pulmonary sarcoid. Q J Med 29: 539–581, 1960Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Scadding JG: Prognosis of intrathoracic sarcoid in England; review of 136 cases after five years observation. Br Med J 2: 1165–1172, 1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sones M, Israel HL: Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis. Am J Med 29: 84–93, 1960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hagerstrano I, Linell F: The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the autopsy material from a Swedish town. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 425: 171–173, 1964Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Longcope WT, Freiman DH: A study of sarcoidosis based on a combined investigation of 160 cases including 30 autopsies from the John Hopkins Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Medicine 31: 1–132, 1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tierstein AS, Siltzbach LE, Berger HW, et al: Causes of death in sarcoidosis: The significance of the presenting chest radiograph, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Praha, University of Karlova Press, 1971, pp 541–545Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Epter GR, McLoud TC, Gaensler EA, et al: Normal chest roentgenograms in chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. N Eng J Med 298: 934–939, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dauber JH, Rossman MD, Daniele RP; Bronchoalveolar cell populations in acute sarcoidosis: Observations in smoking and non-smoking patients. J Lab Clin Med 94: 862–871, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Crystal RG, Bitterman PB, Rennard SI, et al: Interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. N Engl J Med 310: 235–244, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rosen Y, Athanassiades TJ, Moon G, et al: Non-granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis in sarcoidosis. Chest 74: 122–125, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lieberman J: The specificity and nature of serum-angiotensin converting enzyme (serum ACE) elevations in sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 498–513, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Silverstein E, Pertschuk LP, Friedland J: Immunofluorescent localization of angiotensin converting enzyme in epithelioid and giant cells of sarcoidosis granulomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 6646–6648, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pertschuk LP, Silverstein E, Friedland J: Immunologic diagnosis of sarcoidosis, detection of angiotensin converting enzyme in sarcoid granulomas. Am J Clin Pathol 75: 350–354, 1980Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    DeRemee RA, Rohrbach MS: Serum antigiotensin-converting enzyme activity in evaluating the clinical course of sarcoidosis. Ann Intern Med 92: 361–365, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ueda E, Kawabe T, Tachibana T, et al: Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity as an indicator of prognosis in sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 121: 669–671, 1979Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Line BR, Hunninghake GW, Keogh BA, et al: Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: Correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies and bronchoalveolar lavage. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 440–446, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Scadding JG: Prognosis of intrathoracic sarcoidosis in England: A review of 136 cases after five years observation. Br Med J 2: 1165–1172, 1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sones M, Israel HL: Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis. Philadelphia. Am Rev Respir Dis 84 (Part 2): 60–65, 1961Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    James DG, Carstairs LS, Trowell J, et al: Treatment of sar¬coidosis: Report of a controlled therapeutic trail. Lancet 2: 526–528, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Siltzbach LE: Sarcoidosis—clinical features and management. Med Clin North 51: 483–502, 1967Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Turiaf J, Johns CJ, Teirstein AS, et al: The problem of the treatment of sarcoidosis: Report of the subcommittee on therapy. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 743–751, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Johns CJ, MacGregor MI, Zachary JB, et al: Extended experience in the long-term corticosteroid treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 278: 722–731, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Israel HL, Fouts DW, Beggs RA: A controlled trial of prednisone treatment of sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 107: 609–614, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Selroos O, Sellergren TL: Corticosteroid therapy of pulmonary sarcoidosis. (A prospective evaluation of alternative day and daily dosage in stage 11 disease). Scand J Respir Dis 60: 215–221, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sharma OP, Colp C, Williams MH: Course of pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without corticosteroid therapy as determined by pulmonary function studies. Am J Med 41: 541–551, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stone DJ, Schwartz A: A long-term study of sarcoid and its modification by steroid therapy. Am J Med 41: 528–540, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Eule H, Roth I, Weide W: Clinical and functional results of a controlled clinical trial of the value of prednisone therapy in sarcoidosis Stage I and II, in Williams W, Davies B (eds): Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Diseases. Cardiff, Wales, Alpha Omega, 1980, pp 624–628Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Refvem O, Refvem OK: Long-term corticosteroid treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in Williams W, Davies B (eds): Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Diseases. Cardiff, Wales, Alpha Omega, 1980, pp 648–665.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Harkeroad LE, Young RL, Savage PJ, et al: Pulmonary sarcoidosis: A long term followup of the effects of steroid therapy. Chest 82: 84–87, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hoyle C, Smellie H, Leak D: Prolonged treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis with corticosteroids. Thorax 22: 519–524, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mayock RL, Sullivan RD, Greening RR, et al: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy. JAMA 164: 158–163, 1957Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Reisfield DR: Boeck’s sarcoid and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gyneco175: 795–801, 1958Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Reisfield DR, Yahia C, Laurenzi GA: Pregnancy and cardiorespiratory failure on Boecks’ sarcoid. Surg Gynecol Obstet 109: 412–416, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nordland M, Ylvisaker RS, Larson P, et al: Pregnancy complicated by idiopathic thrombreytopenic purpura and sarcoid disease of the spleen. Minn Med 29: 166–170, 1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Aykan F, Justowitz N: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Dis Chest 17: 544–549, 1950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gallagher JP, Douglas IH: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2: 590–592, 1953Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Agha FP, Uade A, Amendola MA, et al: Effects of pregnancy on sarcoidosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 155: 817–822, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Grossman JH, Littner MR: Severe sarcoidosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 50 (Suppl): 81–84, 1977Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    O’Leary JA: Ten-year study of sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gyneco184: 462–466, 1962Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fried KH: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Acta Med Scand 425 (Suppl): 218–220, 1964Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dines DE, Banner EA: Sarcoidosis during pregnancy; improvement in pulmonary function. JAMA 200: 726–727, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Given FT, DiBenedetto RL: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy: Report of 5 cases and 1 maternal death. Obstet Gynecol 22: 355–359, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Russell KP: Sarcoidosis (Boeck’s sarcoid) and pregnancy. Am Rev Tuber 63: 603–607, 1951Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Donaldson SW, Tompsett AC, Grekin RH, et al: Sarcoidosis V. Effects of pregnancy on course of disease. Ann Intern Med 34: 1213–1218, 1971Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bermon RH: Sarcoidosis benefited by pregnancy: Report of a case. JAMA 147: 246–248, 1951Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Aikens RL, Beckwith CJW: Sarcoidosis: Improvement in chest X-ray shadows during pregnancy. Dis Chest 28: 580–583, 1955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Krupp PJ: Maternal mortality at Charity Hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol 73: 248–261, 1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Arbitol MM: Improvement of sarcoidosis during pregnancy. NY State J Med 58: 1882–1884, 1958Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Peters WA, Spaeth W: Sarcoidosis: Effects of pregnancy and subsequent ACTH and croticoid therapy or disease. NC Med J 18: 548–552, 1957Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Scadding JG: Sarcoidosis. London, Eyre, Spottiswoode, 1967Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Siltzbach LE: Sarcoidosis, in Rovinsky JJ, Guttmacher AF (eds): Medical, Surgical and Gynecologic Complications of Pregnancy, ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1965, pp 483–502Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Viragh Z, Mandi L, Kelemen J: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, University of Karlova Press, 1972, pp 501–503Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Emmerlich E: Sarcoidosis and pregnancy, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. Prague, University of Karlova Press, 1972, p 505Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Novy MJ, Tyler JM, Shwachmant H, et al: Cystic fibrosis and pregnancy: Report of a case, with a study of pulmonary function and arterial blood gases. Obstet Gynecol 30: 530–536, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Fainstat T: Cortisone-induced congenital cleft palate in rabbits. Endocrinology 55: 502–508, 1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Warrell DW, Taylor R: Outcome for the factors of mothers receiving prednisone during pregnancy. Lancet 1: 117–118, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Walsh SD, Clark FR: Pregnancy in patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Scot Med J 12: 302–306, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schatz M, Patterson R, Zeitz S, et al: Corticosteroid therapy for the pregnant asthmatic patient. JAMA 233: 804–807, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Metcalf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations