The Esophagus and Stomach

  • John T. Cunningham

Abstract

The approach to upper gastrointestinal disease during pregnancy presents some unique problems in that pregnancy itself produces certain physiological changes that may increase or decrease the incidence of some disorders, although others are unaffected. The presence of the fetus and its gestational age have a profound influence on the diagnostic and therapeutic options that are available. Individual risk: benefit ratios must be assessed, although very little or no objective data exist as to the safety or efficacy of these agents or procedures in pregnancy.

Keywords

Estrogen Histamine Folic Acid Progesterone Perforation 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

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  • John T. Cunningham

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