Advertisement

An Electrochemical Approach for the Solution of Cardiovascular Problems

  • Supramaniam Srinivasan

Abstract

Thrombosis, an in vivo reaction at the blood vessel wall (or prosthetic material)/blood interface, has been the subject of investigations for over 150 years. It involves a series of reactions of blood coagulation factors and of blood cells, particularly platelets. The conventional approach in blood coagulation studies is the hematological one which, however, provides insights on the possibilities of electrochemical pathways for the thrombosis cascade. For a little over 30 years, detailed studies on blood vessel walls, blood cells, prosthetic materials, and blood coagulation factors using electrokinetic and electrode kinetic techniques have been carried out to unravel the intermediate steps in the thrombosis cascade. Most of the studies have been carried out in vitro but have necessarily also involved in vivo experiments coupled with clinical investigations. To provide a fundamental bioelectrochemical viewpoint to the reader, this chapter is presented in somewhat of a reverse order of the historical one, i.e., adsorption and charge transfer reactions of blood coagulation factors→electrokinetic characterization of the blood vessel walls and of blood cells→interactions of anti- or procoagulant drugs with the vascular components→selection of conducting and insular materials for vascular and heart valve prostheses.

Keywords

Zeta Potential Blood Vessel Wall Biomedical Mater Charge Transfer Reaction Cardiovascular Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. F. Mustard, in Thromboembolism-A New Approach to Therapy, J. R. A. Mitchell and J. G. Domenet, eds., Academic Press, New York (1977), Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Biggs and R. G. Macfarlane, Human Blood Coagulation, F. A. David Company, Philadelphia (1962).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Vroman, Blood, The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. N. Sawyer, ed., Biophysical Mechanisms in Vascular Homeostasis and Intravascular Thrombosis, Appleton-Century Crofts, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Srinivasan and P. N. Sawyer, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 456 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Srinivasan, L. Duic, N. Ramasamy, P. N. Sawyer, and G. E. Stoner, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 77, 798 (1973).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Srinivasan and B. R. Weiss, in Colloidal Dispersions and Micellar Behavior, K. L. Mittal, ed., ACS Symposium Series 9, Washington, D.C. (1975), Chapter 24.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Srinivasan, G. L. Cahen, and G. E. Stoner, in Electrochemistry the Past Thirty Years and the Next Thirty Years, A Volume in Honor of J. O’M. Bockris, H. Bloom and F. Gutmann, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1977), Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Srinivasan, N. Ramasamy, B. Stanczewski, and P. N. Sawyer, Advances in Cardiovascular Physics, Vol. 3, D. N. Ghista, ed., S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland (1979), p. 133.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. M. Jung, K. Kinoshita, K. Tanou, I. Isohisa, and H. Yazamaki, Thrombosis and Hemostasis 47, 203 (1982).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. G. Macfarlane, Nature 202, 498 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. W. Davie and O. D. Ratnofl, Science 145, 1310 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. C. Hemker and M. J. P. Kahn, Nature 215, 1201 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Genton and P. Steele, Reference 1, p. 107.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. C. F. Poole, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 44, 377 (1959).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. B. Zucker, in Hematology, J. Williams, E. Beutler, A. J. Erslev, and R. W. Rundles, eds., McGraw-Hill, New York (1972), pp. 1014–1022.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Feijen, T. Beugeling, A. Bantjes, and C. Th. Smit Sibinga, Reference 1, p. 100.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. W. Salzman, E. W. Merrill, A. Binder, C. F. W. Wolf, T. P. Ashford, and W. G. Austen, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 3, 69 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. B. Zucker and L. Vroman, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131, 318 (1969).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. W. Kim, R. G. Lee, H. Oster, D. J. Lentz, D. L. Coleman, J. D. Andrade, and D. Olsen, Trans. Am. Soc. Artificial Internal Organs 20, 449 (1974).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. E. Stoner, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 3, 655, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. B. Matthews, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 3, 475 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. E. Stoner and S. Srinivasan, J. Phys. Chem. 74, 1088 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Ramasamy, M. Ranganathan, L. Duic, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 354 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. E. Stoner and L. Walker, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 3, 645 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Ramasamy, J. S. Keates, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1, 244 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. W. Morrisey, L. E. Smith, R. R. Stromberg, and C. A. Fensternmaker, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 56, 557 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    L. Duic, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, J. Electrochen. Soc. 120, 348 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. Ramasamy, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, Electrochim. Acta 19, 137 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. P. Esnouf and F. Jobin, Biochem. J. 102, 660 (1967).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. F. Mamman, Thrombosis and Bleeding Disorders, N. B. Bang, ed., Academic Press, New York (1971), Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Vroman and A. L. Adams, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 3, 669 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Vroman, Fed. Proc. 30, 5 (1971).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. E. Stoner, S. Srinivasan, and E. Gileadi, J. Phys. Chem. 75, 2107 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Vroman, A. L. Adams, M. Klings, and G. C. Fischer, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 283, 65 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. W. Morrissey and R. R. Stromberg, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 46, 152 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Srinivasan, C. B. Burrowes, T. R. Lucas, S. B. Bauer, and P. N. Sawyer, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 1, 355 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Srinivasan, R. Aaron, P. S. Chopra, T. Lucas, and P. N. Sawyer, Surgery 64, 827 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. N. Sawyer, S. Seto, and S. Srinivasan, Surgery 63, 822 (1968).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. A. Abramson, L. S. Moyer, and M. H. Gorin, Electrophoresis of Proteins and the Chemistry of Cell Surfaces, Hafner Publishing Company, Inc., New York (1965).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. V. F. Seaman, in Cell Electrophoresis, E. J. Ambrose, ed., Little Brown and Company, Boston (1965).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. L. Cohen, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124, 556 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. J. Durant, H. R. Hendrickson, and R. Montgomery, Arch. Biochem. 99, 418 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. F. Stoltz, M. Stoltz, P. Alexander, F. Strufl, and A. Larcan, Bibl. Anatomica 10, 343 (1969).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Eika, Thrombosis Research 2, 349 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. E. Brooks and G. V. F. Seaman, Bibl. Anatomica 11, 251 (1972).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. McKenna, F. Bachmann, J. Galante, S. P. Kanshal, and P. Meredith, Blood, 48, 977 (1976).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Yamazaki, R. Tsukui, T. Motomiya, S. M. Jung, M. Sonoda, C. Watanabe, M. Ogino, and N. Miyagawa, Thrombosis Research 22 (1981).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    S. Srinivasan, T. Lucas, C. B. Burrowes, N. A. Wanderman, A. Redner, Bernstein, and P. N. Sawyer, VI Conference on Microcirculation, European Society for Microcirculation, Aalborg, Denmark (1970), p. 40.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    S. Srinivasan, J. Solash et al., Contraception 9, 291 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Schwann et al., Microcirculation Vol. 1, J. Grayson and W. Zingg, eds., Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York (1976), p. 218.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. F. Stoltz, M. Stoltz, and A. Larcan, Bibl. Anatomica 10, 474, Karger, Base, Switzerland (1969).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. R. Hampton and R. A. Mitchell, British Medical Journal 1, 1074 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    I. Hawkins, Nature, New Biol. 233, 92 (1971).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    P. S. Chopra, S. Srinivasan, T. Lucas, and P. N. Sawyer, Nature 215, 1494 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P. N. Sawyer and S. Srinivasan, Am. J. Surgery 114, 42 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. J. Marcus and M. B. Zucker, The Physiology of Blood Platelets, Grune and Stratton, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    R. V. Zivkovic, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, Abstracts of the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, IIIrd Congress, Washington (1972), p. 266.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    P. N. Sawyer and S. Srinivasan, in Medical Engineering, C. D. Ray, ed., Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, Illinois (1973), Chapter 82.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. N. Sawyer, S. Srinivasan, S. A. Wesolowski, S. A. Berger, K. E. Campbell, A. A. Samma, S. J. Wood, and L. R. Sauvage, Trans. Am. Soc. Artificial Internal Organs 13, 124 (1967).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    P. N. Sawyer, S. Srinivasan, M. E. Lee, J. G. Martin, T. Murakami, and B. Stanczewski, in Prosthetic Heart Valves, L. A. Brewer, ed., Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois (1969), Chapter 13.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Starr, M. L. Edwards et al., in Prosthetic Heart Valves, L. A. Brewer, ed., Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois (1969), Chapter 7.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. Gileadi, B. Stanczewski, A. Parmeggiani, T. R. Lucas, M. Ranganathan, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, J. Biomedical Medical Res. 6, 489 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. K. Aaron, S. Srinivasan, and P. N. Sawyer, Reference 59, Chapter 83.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    R. E. Baier, V. A. DePalma, A. Furuse, V. L. Gott, G. W. Kamloff, T. Lucas, P. N. Sawyer, S. Srinivasan, and B. Stanczewski, J. Biomedical Mater. Res. 9, 547 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G. A. Grode, R. D. Falb, and S. J. Anderson, in Artificial Heart Program Conference-Proceedings June 9-13, 1969, Washington, D. C., R. J. Hegyoli, ed., US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1969), Chapter 11.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. I. Leininger, R. D. Falb, and G. A. Grode, Materials in Biomedical Engineering, S. N. Levine, ed., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 146, 11 (1969).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. R. Lagagren and J. C. Eriksson, Trans. Am. Soc. Artificial Internal Organs 17, 10 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Supramaniam Srinivasan
    • 1
  1. 1.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations