Evaluation of RES Clearances in Man

  • John W. B. Bradfield


The RES consists of a widely distributed population of fixed and wandering cells which share the common property of being highly phagocytic (Aschoff, 1924). All the cells are mononuclear phagocytes, or macrophages, derived from bone marrow precursors (Langevoortet al, 1970). They have many functions, but tests of RES clearance relate to phagocytosis. The purpose of this chapter is to review critically the methods that are currently available for investigating RE clearance in man. Representative results from studies using each of the main methods are included but no attempt is made to review all results obtained in man using every technique.


Kupffer Cell Mononuclear Phagocyte Test Agent Reticuloendothelial System Blood Clearance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aminoff, D., Vorder Bruegge, W. F., Bell, W. C, Sarpolis, K., Williams, R., 1977, Role of sialic acid in survival of erythrocytes in the circulation: Interaction of neuroaminidase-treated and untreated erythrocytes with spleen and liver at the cellular level,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.74:1521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arend, W. P., and Mannik, M., 1971, Studies on antigen-antibody complexes. II. Quantification of tissue uptake of soluble complexes in normal and complement-depleted rabbits,J. Immunol.107:63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aschoff, L., 1924, Reticuloendothelial system, in:Lectures on Pathology, pp. 1–33, Harper & Row (Hoeber), New York.Google Scholar
  4. Ash well, G., and Morell, A. G., 1974, The role of surface carbohydrates in the hepatic recognition and transport of circulating glycoproteins,Adv. Enzymol.41:99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J. P., and Frank, M. M., 1974, Studies on the in vivo effect of antibody: Interaction of IgM antibody and complement in the immune clearance and destruction of erythrocytes in man,J. Clin. Invest.54:339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baenziger, J., Kornfeld, S., and Kochwa, S., 1974, Structure of the carbohydrate units of IgE immunoglobulin. I. Over-all composition, glycopeptide isolation and structure of the high mannose and oligosaccharide unit,J. Biol. Chem.249:1889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baynes, J. W., and Wold, F., 1976, Effect of glycosylation on the in vivo circulating half-life of ribonuclease,J. Biol. Chem.251:6016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beckerman, C, and Gottschalk, A., 1971, Diagnostic significance of the relative uptake of liver compared with spleen in 99mTc-sulfur colloid scintiphotography,J. Nucl. Med.12:237.Google Scholar
  9. Benacerraf, B., 1964, Functions of the Kupffer cells, in:The Liver, Vol. 2 (C. Roiller, ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Benacerraf, B., Biozzi, G., Halpern, B. N., Stiffel, C., and Mouton, C., 1957a, Phagocytosis of heat- denatured human serum albumin labelled with 131iodine and its use as a means of investigating liver blood flow,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.38:35.Google Scholar
  11. Benacerraf, B., Biozzi, G., Halpern, B. N., and Stiffel, C., 1957b, Physiology of phagocytosis of particles by the RES, in:Physiopathology of the Reticuloendothelial System (B. N. Halpern, ed.), pp. 52–77, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Benacerraf, B., McClusky, R. T., and Patras, D., 1959a, Localisation of colloidal substances in vascular endothelium: A mechanism of tissue damage. I. Factors causing the pathologic deposition of colloidal carbon,Am. J. Pathol.35:75.Google Scholar
  13. Benacerraf, B., Sebestyen, M. M., and Schlossman, S., 1959b, A quantitative study of the kinetics of blood clearance of 32P-labelled Escherichia coli and staphylococci by the reticuloendothelial system,J. Exp. Med.110:27.Google Scholar
  14. Berghem, L., Dencker, L., Hoglund, S., and Schildt, B., 1976, Preparation of cross-linked human serum albumin labelled with 125I for studies of reticuloendothelial system function,Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.36:849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Biozzi, G., Stiffel, C., and Mouton, D., 1963a, Stimulation et depression de la fonction phagocytaire du système réticuloendothélial par des émulsions des lipids: Relations avec quelques phénomènes immunologiques,Rev. Fr. Etud. Clin. Biol.8:341.Google Scholar
  16. Biozzi, G., Stiffel, C., Halpern, B. N., and Mouton, D., 1963b, Lack of action of serum opsonins in phagocytosis of inert particles by cells of the RES,Proc- Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.112:1017.Google Scholar
  17. Bissel, D. M., Hammaker, L., and Schmid, R., 1972, Liver sinusoid cells—Identification of a sub- population for erythrocyte catabolism,J. Cell Biol.54:107.Google Scholar
  18. Bjørneboe, M., Prytz, H., and Ørskov, F., 1972, Antibodies to intestinal microbes in serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver,Lancet 1:58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blumenstock, F., Weber, P., and Saba, T. M., 1977a, Isolation and biochemical characterisation of a2 opsonic glycoprotein from rat serum,J. Biol. Chem.252:7156.Google Scholar
  20. Blumenstock, F., Weber, P., Saba, T. M., and Laffin, R., 1977b, Electroimmunoassay of alpha-2- opsonic protein during reticuloendothelial blockade,Am. J. Physiol.232:R80.Google Scholar
  21. Blumenstock, F. A., Saba, T. M., and Weber, P., 1978a, Purification of alpha-2-opsonic protein from human serum and its measurement by immunoassay,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.23:119.Google Scholar
  22. Blumenstock, F. A., Saba, T. M., Weber, P., and Laffin, R., 1978b, Biochemical and immunological characterisation of human a2 SB glycoprotein; its identity with cold-insoluble globulin,J. Biol. Chem.253:4287.Google Scholar
  23. Bouveng, R., Schildt, B., and Sjoqvist, T., 1975, Estimation of RES phagocytosis and catabolism in man by use of 125I-labelled microaggregates of human serum albumin,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.18:151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bowring, C. S., Glass, H. I., and Lewis, S. M., 1976, Rates of clearance by the spleen of heat damaged erythrocytes,J. Clin. Pathol.29:852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bradfield, J. W. B., 1974, Control of spillover: The importance of Kupffer cell function in clinical medicine,Lancet 2:883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bradfield, J. W. B., 1980a, Intralipid and reticuloendothelial blockade,Lancet 2:1138.Google Scholar
  27. Bradfield, J. W. B., 1980b, A new look at reticuloendothelial blockade,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.61:617.Google Scholar
  28. Bradfield, J. W. B., and Souhami, R. L., 1980, Hepatocyte damage secondary to Kupffer cell phagocytosis, in:The Reticuloendothelial System and the Pathogenesis of Liver Disease (H. Liehr and M. Grun, eds.), pp. 165–171, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  29. Bradfield, J. W. B., and Wagner, H. N., Jr., 1977, The relative importance of blood flow and liver phagocytic function in the distribution of 99mTc-sulfur colloid,J. Nucl. Med.18:620.Google Scholar
  30. Bradfield, J. W. B., and Wells, M., 1978, Liver disease caused by lysosomal enzymes released from Kupffer cells,Lancet 2:836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bradfield, J. W. B., Souhami, R. L., and Addison, I. E., 1974, The mechanism of the adjuvant effect of dextran sulphate,Immunology 26:383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bradley, E. L., IIIrd, 1974, Measurement of hepatic blood flow in man,Surgery 75:783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, D. L., Lachmann, P. J., and Dacie, J. V., 1970, The in vivo behaviour of complement-coated red cells: Studies in C6-deficient, C3-depleted, and normal rabbits,Clin. Exp. Immunol.7:401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brown, R. A., 1983, Failure of fibronectin as an opsonin in the host defence system: A case of competitive self inhibition?Lancet 2:1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Brunner, K. T., Hurez, D., McCluskey, R. T., and Benacerraf, B., 1960, Blood clearance of 32P- labelled vesicular stomatitis and Newcastle disease viruses by the reticuloendothelial system in mice,J. Immunol.85:99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brunswig, D., 1980, Factor VIII related protein—An indicator for Kupffer cell dysfunction?, in:The Reticuloendothelial System and the Pathogenesis of Liver Disease (H. Liehr and M. Grun, eds.), pp. 295–300, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  37. Canalese, J., Gove, C. D., Gimson, A. E. S., Wilkinson, S. P., Wardle, E. N., and Williams, R., 1982, Reticulo endothelial system and hepatic function in fulminant hepatic failure,Gut 23:265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Caride, V. J., Taylor, W., Cramer, J. A., and Gottschalk, A., 1976, Evaluation of liposome-entrapped radioactive tracers as scanning agents. Part 1. Organ distribution of liposome (99mTc-DTPA) in mice,J. Nucl. Med.17:1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chanduri, T. K., Evans, T. C., and Chanduri, T. C., 1973, Autoradiographic studies of distribution in the liver of 198Au and 99mTc-sulfur colloid,Radiology 109:633.Google Scholar
  40. Clarkson, M. J., Hardy-Smith, A., and Richards, T. G., 1976, Measurement of liver blood flow by means of a single injection of bromsulphonthalein without hepatic venous catheterisation,Clin. Sci. Mol. Med.51:141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cochrane, C. G., and Hawkins, D., 1968, Studies on circulating immune complexes. Ill, Factors governing the ability of circulating complexes to localize in blood vessels,J. Exp. Med.127:137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooper, S. M., 1979, Fc-receptor dysfunction in lupus,N. Engl. J. Med.300:1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Coovadia, H. M., and Soothill, J. F., 1976, The effect of protein restricted diets on the clearance of125I-labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone in mice,Clin. Exp. Immunol.23:373.Google Scholar
  44. Crofton, R. W., Diesselhoff-den Dulk, M. M. C., and van Furth, R., 1978, The origin, kinetics and characteristics of the Kupffer cells in the normal steady state,J. Exp. Med.148:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dawson, G., and Clamp, J. R., 1968, Investigations on the oligosaccharide units of an A-myeloma globulin,Biochem. J.107:341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Day, J. F., Thornburg, R. W., Thorpe, S. R., and Baynes, J. W., 1980, Carbohydrate-mediated clearance of antibody-antigen complexes from the circulation: The role of high mannose oligosaccharides in the hepatic uptake of IgM antigen complexes,J. Biol. Chem.255:2360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. De Barsy, T., Devos, P., and van Hoof, F., 1976, A morphological and biochemical study of the fate of antibody-bearing liposomes,Lab. Invest.34:273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. De Nardo, S. J., Bell, G. B., De Nardo, G. L., Carretta, R. F., Scheibe, P. O., Imperato, T. J., and Jackson, P. E., 1976, Diagnosis of cirrhosis and hepatitis by quantitative hepatic and other reticuloendothelial clearance rates,J. Nucl. Med.17:449.Google Scholar
  49. DiLuzio, N. R., 1972, Employment of lipids in the measurement and modification of cellular, humoral and immune responses,Adv. Lipid Res.10:43.Google Scholar
  50. DiLuzio, N. R., and Blickens, D. A., 1966, Influence of intravenously administered lipids on re-ticuloendothelial function,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.3:250.Google Scholar
  51. DiLuzio, N. R., and Riggi, S. J., 1964, The development of a lipid emulsion for the measurement of reticuloendothelial function,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.1:136.Google Scholar
  52. Dobson, E. L., 1957, Factors controlling phagocytosis, in:Physiopathology of the Reticuloendothelial System (B. N. Halpern, ed.), pp. 80–114, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  53. Dornfest, B. S., and Lipp, C., 1975, Further study of splenic RES function in a rat leukemia using 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid as a test clearance agent,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.17:274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Drivas, G., and Wardle, N., 1978, Reticuloendothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes and hyperlipidemia,Metabolism 27:1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Drivas, G., Uldall, P. R., and Wardle, N., 1975, Reticuloendothelial function in renal allograft patients,Br. Med. J.3:743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Drivas, G., James, O., and Wardle, N., 1976, Study of reticuloendothelial phagocytosis capacity in patients with cholestasis,Br. Med. J.1:1568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Drum, D. E., and Beard, J. O., 1978, Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism,J. Nucl. Med.19:154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dunnick, J. K., and Kriss, J. P., 1977, Studies of radiopharmaceutical-enclosing lipid-protein vesicles formed from native plasma components,J. Nucl. Med.18:183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Durocher, J. R., Payne, R. C., and Conrad, M. E., 1974, Role of sialic acid in erythrocyte survival,Blood 45:11.Google Scholar
  60. Du Toit, D. F., Villet, W. T., and Heydenrych, J., 1978, Fat emulsion deposition in mononuclear phagocytic system,Lancet 2:898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Eddleston, A. L. W. F., Blendis, L. M., Osborn, S. B., and Williams, R., 1969, Significance of increased “splenic uptake” on liver scintiscanning,Gut 10:711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Elin, R. J., and Wolff, S. M., 1973, Non-specificity of the Limulus amebocyte lysate test: Positive reactions with polynucleotides and proteins,J. Infect. Dis.128:349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Elin, R. J., and Wolff, S. M., 1976, Biology of endotoxin,Annu. Rev. Med.27:127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Elin, R. J., Robinson, R. A., Levine, A. S., and Wolff, S. M., 1975, Lack of clinical usefulness of the Limulus test in the diagnosis of endotoxemia,N. Engl. J. Med.293:521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Feldman, S., and Pearson, T. A., 1974, The Limulus test and gram negative bacillary sepsis,Am. J. Dis. Child.128:172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ferguson, A., Maxwell, J. D., and Hutton, M. M., 1969, Splenic function in adult coeliac disease,Scott. Med. J.14:261.Google Scholar
  67. Ferguson, A., Hutton, M. M., Maxwell, J. D., and Murray, D., 1976, Adult coeliac disease in hyposplenic patients,Lancet 1:163.Google Scholar
  68. Ferluga, J., and Allison, A. C., 1978, Role of mononuclear infiltrating cells in pathogenesis of hepatitis,Lancet 2:610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Finbloom, D. S., and Plotz, P. H., 1979, Studies of reticuloendothelial functions in the mouse with model immune complexes. I. Serum clearance and tissue uptake in normal C3H mice,J. Immunol.123:1594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Finbloom, D. S., Abeles, D., Rifai, A., and Plotz, P. H., 1980, The specificity of uptake of model immune complexes and other protein aggregates by the murine reticuloendothelial system,J. Immunol.125:1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Finkelstein, M., and Weissman, G., 1978, The introduction of enzymes into cells by means of liposomes,J. Lipid Res.19:289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fischer, G. W., Hunter, K. W., Wilson, S. R., and Mease, A. D., 1980a, Diminished bacterial defenses with Intralipid,Lancet 2:819.Google Scholar
  73. Fischer, G. W., Hunter, K. W., and Wilson, S. R., 1980b, Intralipid and reticuloendothelial clearance,Lancet 2:1300.Google Scholar
  74. Fischer, J., Wolf, R., and Leon, A., 1967,99mTc as a label for erythrocytes,J. Nucl. Med.8:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fischer, J., Wolf, R., Mundschenk, H., Leon, A., and Hromec, A., 1971, Clinical value of the function investigation of the spleen using 51Cr-labelled heat damaged erythrocytes, in:Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine, pp. 445–462, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  76. Forbes, G. B., 1978, Splenic lipidosis after administration of intravenous fat emulsion,J. Clin. Pathol.31:765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ford, P. M., 1975, The effect of manipulation of the reticuloendothelial system activity on glomerular deposition of aggregated protein and immune complexes in two different strains of mice,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.56:523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Forsum, U., Klareskog, L., and Peterson, P. A., 1979, Distribution of Ia-antigen-like molecules on non-lymphoid tissues,Scand. J. Immunol.9:343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Frank, M. M., Schreiber, A. D., Atkinson, J. P., and Jaffe, C. J., 1977, Pathophysiology of immune hemolytic anemia,Ann. Intern. Med.87:210.Google Scholar
  80. Frank, M. M., Hamburger, M. I., Lawley, T. J., Kimberley, R. P., and Plotz, P. H., 1979, Defective reticuloendothelial system Fc-receptor function in systemic lupus erythematosus,N. Engl. J. Med.300:518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Franzl, R. E., 1972, The primary immune response in mice. III. Retention of sheep red blood cell immunogens by the spleen and liver,Infect. Immun.6:469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Freund, U., Krausz, Y., Levij, I. S., and Eliakim, M., 1975, Iatrogenic lipidosis following prolonged intravenous hyperalimentation,Am. J. Clin. Nutr.28:1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Galanos, C., Luderitz, O., Rietschel, E. T., and Westphal, O., 1977, Newer aspects of the chemistry and biology of bacterial lipopolysaccharides with special reference to their lipid A component, in:Biochemistry of Lipids II (T. N. Goodwin, ed.), pp. 239–335, University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  84. Galbraith, R. M., Eddelston, A. L. W. F., Williams, R., Webster, A. D. B., Pattison, J., Doniach, D., Kennedy, L. A., and Batchelor, J. R., 1976, Enhanced antibody responses in active chronic hepatitis: Relation to HLA-B8 and HLA-B12 and porto-splenic shunting,Lancet 1:930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Geier, M. R., Trigg, M. E., and Merril, C. R., 1973, Fate of bacteriophage lambda in non-immune germ-free mice,Nature (London) 246:221.Google Scholar
  86. George, E. A., Henderschott, L. R., Klos, D. J., and Donati, R. M., 1980, Mechanism of hepatic extraction of gelatinized 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid,Eur. J. Nucl. Med.5:241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Germuth, F. G., 1953, A comparative histologic and immunologic study in rabbits of induced hypersensitivity of the serum sickness type,J. Exp. Med.97:257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gopal, V., and Bisno, A. L., 1977, Fulminant pneumococcal infections in “normal” asplenic hosts,Arch. Intern. Med.137:1526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gregoriadis, G., and Ryman, B. E., 1972, Fate of protein containing liposomes injected into rats: An approach to the treatment of storage disease,Eur. J. Biochem.24:485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gregoriadis, G., Swain, C. P., Willis, E. J., and Tavill, A. S., 1974, Drug-carrier potential of liposomes in cancer chemotherapy,Lancet 1:1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gut, J. P., Steffan, A. M., Anton, M., and Kirn, A., 1980, Kupffer cell functions and frog virus 3 hepatitis in mice and rats, in:The Reticuloendothelial System and the Pathogenesis of Liver Disease (H. Liehr and M. Grun, eds.), pp. 211–219, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  92. Haakenstad, A. O., and Mannik, M., 1974, Saturation of the reticuloendothelial system with soluble immune complexes,J. Immunol.112:1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Haibach, H., George, E. S., Hendershott, L. R., and Donati, R. M., 1975, Differing mechanisms of 99mTc-sulfur colloid (TSC) and Au-198 (AUC) uptake,J. Nucl. Med.16:532.Google Scholar
  94. Halpern, B. N. (ed.), 1957,Physiopathology of the Reticuloendothelial System: A Symposium, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  95. Hamburger, M. I., Moutsopoulos, H. M., Lawley, T. J., and Frank, M. M., 1979a, Sjogren’s syndrome: A defect in reticuloendothelial system Fc-receptor specific clearance,Ann. Intern. Med.91:534.Google Scholar
  96. Hamburger, M. I., Gorevic, P. D., Lawley, T. J., Franklin, E. C., and Frank, M. M., 1979b, Mixed cryoglobulinemia: Association of glomerulonephritis with defective reticuloendothelial system Fc receptor function,Trans. Am. Assoc. Physicians 92:104.Google Scholar
  97. Harris, I. M., McAlister, J. M., and Prankerd, T. A. J., 1957, The relationship of abnormal red cells to the normal spleen,Clin. Sci.16:223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hassner, A., Kletter, Y., Jedrab, M., Aronson, M., and Shibolet, S., 1979, Impaired monocyte function in liver cirrhosis,Lancet 1:329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Heath, T. D., Fraley, R. T., and Papahadjopoulos, D., 1980, Antibody targeting of liposomes: Cell specificity obtained by conjugation of F(ab’)2 to vesicle surface,Science 210:539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hemmings, W. A., 1978,Antigen Absorption by the Gut, MTP Press, Lancaster, England.Google Scholar
  101. Hickman, S., Kornfeld, R., Osterland, C. K., and Kornfeld, S., 1972, The structure of the glycopeptides of a human M immunoglobulin,J. Biol. Chem.247:2156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hildenbrandt, G. R., and Aronson, N. N., 1980, Uptake of asialoglycophorin-liposomes by the perfused rat liver,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 631:499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hinkle, G. H., Born, G. S., Kessler, W. V., and Shaw, S. M., 1978, Preferential localization of radiolabeled liposomes in liver,J. Pharm. Sci.67:795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hnatowich, D. J., and Clancy, B., 1980, Investigation of a new, highly negative liposome with improved biodistribution for imaging,J. Nucl. Med.21:662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hosea, S. W., Brown, E. J., Hamburger, M. I., and Frank, M. M., 1981, Opsonic requirements for intravascular coagulation clearance after splenectomy,N. Engl. J. Med.304:245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Howard, J. G., 1970, The origin and immunological significance of Kupffer cells, in:Mononuclear Phagocytes (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 178–199, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  107. Hubbard, A. L., Wilson, G., Ashwell, G., and Stukenbroke, H., 1979, An electron microscope autoradiographic study of the carbohydrate recognition systems in rat liver. I Distribution of 125I-ligands among the liver cell types,J. Cell Biol.83:47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Huet, P. M., Marleau, D., Lavoie, P., and Viallet, A., 1976, Extraction of 125I-albumin microaggregates from portal blood: An index of functional portal blood supply in cirrhotics,Gastroenterology 70:74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hughes-Jones, N. C., Mollison, P. L., and Veall, N., 1957, Removal of incompatile red cells by the spleen,Br. J. Haematol.3:125.Google Scholar
  110. Hulme, B., Dykes, P. W., Appleyard, I., and Arkell, D. W., 1968, Retention and storage sites of radioactive polyvinylpyrrolidone,J. Nucl. Med.9:389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Iio, M., and Wagner, H. N., Jr., 1963, Studies on the reticuloendothelial system (RES). I. Measurement of the phagocytic capacity of the RES in man and dog,J. Clin. Invest.42:417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Imawari, M., Hughes, R. D., Gove, C. D., and Williams, R., 1984, Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure,Liver 4:77.Google Scholar
  113. Jacob, A. I., Goldburg, P. K., Bloom, B., Degenshein, G. A., and Kozinn, P. J., 1977, Endotoxin and bacteria in portal blood,Gastroenterology 72:1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Jacob, H. S., and Jandl, J. H., 1962a, Effects of membrane sulfhydryl deficiency on red cells. I. Mechanisms of hemolysis,J. Clin. Invest.41:779.Google Scholar
  115. Jacob, H. S., and Jandl, J. H., 1962b, Effects of sulfhydryl inhibition on red blood cells. II. Studies in vivo,J. Clin. Invest.41:1514.Google Scholar
  116. Jaffe, C. J., Atkinson, J. P., and Frank, M. M., 1976, The role of complement in the clearance of cold agglutinin-sensitized erythrocytes in man,J. Clin. Invest.58:942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jaffe, C. J., Vierling, J. M., Jones, E. A., Lawley, T. J., and Frank, M. M., 1978, Receptor specific clearance by the reticuloendothelial system in chronic liver diseases: Demonstration of defective C3b specific clearance in primary biliary cirrhosis,J. Clin. Invest.62:1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jancik, J. M., Schauer, R., Andres, K. H., and von During, M., 1978, Sequestration of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes: Studies on its topographic, morphologic and immunologic aspects,Cell Tissue Res.186:209.Google Scholar
  119. Jandl, J. H., 1955, Sequestration by the spleen of red cells sensitised by incomplete antibody and with metallo-protein complexes,J. Clin. Invest.34:912.Google Scholar
  120. Jarstrand, C., Berghem, L., and Lahnborg, G., 1978, Human granulocyte and reticuloendothelial system function during Intralipid infusion,J. Parenteral Enteral Nutr.2:663.Google Scholar
  121. Juliano, R. L., and Stamp, D., 1975, The effect of particle size and charge on the clearance rates of liposomes and liposome encapsulated drugs,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.63:651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Juliano, R. L., and Stamp, D., 1976, Lectin mediated attachment of glycoprotein-bearing liposomes to cells,Nature (London) 261:235.Google Scholar
  123. Kay, M. M. B., 1978, Role of physiologic autoantibody in the removal of senescent human red cells,J. Supramol. Struct.9:555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Keraan, M., Meyers, O. L., Engelbrecht, G. H. C., Hickman, R., Saunders, S. J., and Terblanche, J., 1974, Increased serum immunoglobulin levels following portocaval shunt in the normal rat,Gut 15:468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kim, D. K., and Pfeifer, J., 1977, Measurement of phagocytic activity of reticuloendothelial system (RES) by Intralipid: Effect of C. parvum treatment,Surg. Forum 28:85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kimber, R. J., Lander, M., and Robson, H. N., 1965, The sequestration of NEM-treated red cells in normal and abnormal subjects: A test of splenic uptake function,J. Lab. Clin. Med.65:951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kirn, A., Steffan, A. M., Anton, M., Gendrault, J. L., and Bingen, A., 1978, Phagocytic properties displayed by mouse hepatocytes after virus induced damage of the sinusoidal lining,Biomedicine 29:25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kirn, A., Steffan, A. M., Bingen, A., Gendrault, J. L. and Cinqualbre, J., 1980, Uptake of viruses by Kupffer cells isolated from human liver,Lancet 2:585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kitani, K., and Taplin, G. V., 1972, Catabolic pathway differences between 131I and 119Tc labelled albumin colloids and microaggregates,J. Nucl. Med.13:313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kolb, H., Vogt, D., Herbertz, L., Corfield, A., Schauer, R., and Schlepper-Schafer, J., 1980, The galactose specific lectins on rat hepatocytes and Kupffer cells have identical binding characteristics,Z. Physiol. Chem.361:S1747.Google Scholar
  131. Kornfield, R., Keller, J., Baenziger, J., and Kornfeld, S., 1971, The structure of the glycopeptide of human 7-G myeloma proteins,J. Biol. Chem.246:3259.Google Scholar
  132. Krivit, W., 1977, Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection,Am. J. Hematol.2:193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lahnborg, G., Berghem, L., Ahlgren, T., Groth, C.-G., Lundgren, G., and Tillegard, A., 1979, Reticuloendothelial function in human renal allograft recipients,Transplantation 28:111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lancet Leader (editorial), 1983, Fibronection and infection,Lancet 2:106.Google Scholar
  135. Langvoort, H. L., Cohn, Z. A., Hirsch, J. G., Spector, W. G., and van Furth, R., 1970, The nomenclature of mononuclear phagocyte cells: Proposals for a new classification, in:Mononuclear Phagocytes (R. van Furth, ed.), Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  136. Lanser, M. E. and Saba, T. M., 1983, Correction of serum opsonic defects after burns and sepsis by opsonic fibronectin administration,Arch. Surg.118:338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Laurell, C-B., 1972, Electro-immunoassay,Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.29:(24)21.Google Scholar
  138. Lawley, T. J., Hall, R. P., Fauci, A. S., Katz, S. I., Hamburger, M. I., and Frank, M. M., 1981, Defective Fc-receptor functions associated with the HLA-B8/DRw3 haplotype,N. Engl. J. Med.304:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Leevy, C. M., 1966, Abnormalities of hepatic DNA synthesis in man,Medicine 45:423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lemperle, G., and Denk, S., 1970, Die Resistenzlage chirurgischer Patienten,Therapiewoche 20:1266.Google Scholar
  141. Lemperle, G., Reichelt, M., and Denk, S., 1971, The evaluation of phagocytic activity in man by means of a lipid clearance test, in: The Reticuloendothelial System and Immune Phenomena (N. R. Di Luzio, ed.), pp. 137–143, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  142. Leserman, L. D., Barbet, J., Kourilsky, F., and Weinstein, J. N., 1980, Targeting to cells of fluorescent liposomes covalently coupled with monoclonal antibody or protein A,Nature (London) 288:602.Google Scholar
  143. Levin, J., Tomasula, P. A., and Oser, R. S., 1970, Detection of endotoxin in human blood and demonstration of an inhibitor,J. Lab. Clin. Med.75:903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Liehr, H., and Grun, M., 1979, Endotoxins in liver disease, in:Progress in Liver Disease VI (H. Popper and E. Schaffner, eds.), pp. 313–326, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  145. Liehr, H., Grun, M., Brunswig, D., and Sautter, T., 1976, Endotoxinamie bei Leberzirrhose,Z. Gastroenterol.14:14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lockwood, C. M., Worlledge, S., Nicholas, A., Cotton, C., and Peters, K. D., 1979, Reversal of impaired splenic function in patients with nephritis or vasculitis (or both) by plasma exchange,N. Engl J. Med.300:524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Loegering, D. J., and Schneidkraut, M. J., 1979, Effect of endotoxin on a2 SB opsonic protein activity and reticuloendothelial system phagocytic function,J. Reticuloendothel Soc.26:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. McDougall, I. R., Dunnick, J. K., Goris, K. M., and Kriss, J. P., 1975, In vivo distribution of vesicles loaded with radiopharmaceuticals: A study of different routes of administration,J. Nucl Med.16:488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mannik, M., Arend, W. P., Hall, A. P., and Gilliland, B. C., 1971, Studies on antigen-antibody complexes. I. Elimination of soluble complexes from rabbit circulation,J. Exp. Med.133:713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Marsh, G. W., Lewin, S. M., and Szur, L., 1966, The use of 51Cr-labelled heat-damaged red cells to study splenic function. I. Evaluation of method,Br. J. Haematol 12:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Martinez, G. L. A., Quintiliani, R., and Tilton, R. C., 1973, Clinical experience on the detection of endotoxemia with the Limulus test,J. Infect. Dis.127:102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mathison, J. C., and Ulevitch, R. J., 1979, The clearance and tissue distribution and cellular localisation of intravenously injected lipopolysaccharide in rabbits,J. Immunol 123:2133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mims, C. A., 1964, Aspects of the pathogenesis of virus disease,Bacteriol. Rev.28:30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Mollison, P. L., 1965, The role of complement in hemolytic processes in vivo, in:Ciba Symposium on Complement (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 323–338, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  155. Molnar, J., Mclain, S., Allen, C., Laga, H., Gara, A., and Gelder, F., 1977, The role of an α2- macroglobulin of rat serum in the phagocytosis of colloidal particles,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 493:37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Morgan, A. G., and Soothill, J. F., 1975a, Measurement of the clearance function of macrophages with125I-labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone,Clin. Exp. Immunol 20:489.Google Scholar
  157. Morgan, A. G., and Soothill, J. F., 1975b, Relationship between macrophage clearance of PVP and affinity of anti-protein antibody response in inbred mouse strains,Nature (London) 254:711.Google Scholar
  158. Mundschenk, H., Hromec, H., and Fischer, J., 1971, Phagocytic activity of the liver as a measure of hepatic circulation—A comparative study using 198Au and 99mTc-sulfur colloid,J. Nucl Med.12:711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Munthe-Kaas, A. C., Kaplan, G., and Seljelid, R., 1976, On the mechanism of internalization of opsonized particles by rat Kupffer cells in vitro,Exp. Cell Res.103:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Murray, I. M., 1963, The mechanism of blockade of the reticuloendothelial system,J. Exp. Med.117:139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. North, R. J., 1969, The mitotic potential of fixed phagocytes in the liver as revealed during the development of cellular immunity,J. Exp. Med.130:315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Palmer, K. R., Deurden, B. I., and Holdsworth, C. D., 1980, Bacteriological and endotoxin studies in cases of ulcerative colitis submitted to surgery,Gut 21:851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Pardy, B. J., and Dudley, H. A. F., 1977, Post-traumatic pulmonary insufficiency,Surg. Gynecol Obstet.144:259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Passwell, J. H., Steward, M. W., and Soothill, J. F., 1974a, Inter-mouse strain differences in macrophage function and its relationship to antibody responses,Clin. Exp. Immunol.17:159.Google Scholar
  165. Passwell, J. H., Steward, M. W., and Soothill, J. F., 1974b, The effects of protein malnutrition on macrophage function and the amount and affinity of antibody response,Clin. Exp. Immunol 17:491.Google Scholar
  166. Paulson, J. C., Prieels, J. P., Glasgow, L. W., and Hill, R. L., 1978, Sialyl- and fucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of asparaginyl-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins: Mutually exclusive glycosylation by beta-galactoside α2→6 sialyltransferase and N-acetylglucosaminide α1→3 fucosyltransferase,J. Biol Chem.253:5617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Pettit, J. E., 1977, Radioisotopes in haematology; spleen function,Clin. Haematol 6:639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pomier-Layrargues, G., Huet, P.-M., Richer, G., Marleau, D., and Viallet, A., 1980, Hyperglobulinemia in alcoholic cirrhosis: Relationship with portal hypertension and intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting as assessed by Kupffer cell uptake,Dig. Dis. Sci.25:489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Porter, K. A., 1969, Pathology of the orthotopic homograft and heterograft, in:Experience in Hepatic Transplantation (T. E. Starzl, ed.), pp. 464–471, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  170. Portmann, B., Schindler, A. M., Murray-Lyon, I. M., and Williams, R., 1976, Histological sexing of a reticulum cell sarcoma arising after liver transplantation,Gastroenterology 70:82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Prieels, J. P., Pizzo, S. V., Glasgow, L. R., Paulson, J. C., and Hill, R. L., 1978, Hepatic receptor that specifically binds oligosaccharides containing fucosyl α-1-3-N-acetylglucosamine linkages (fucose/lactoferrin/glycoprotein/lectin),Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:2215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Prytz, H., Holtz-Christensen, J., Korner, B., and Liehr, H., 1976, Portal venous and systemic endotoxaemia in patients without liver disease and systemic endotoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis,Scand. J. Gastroenterol.11:857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Quinones, J. D., 1973, Localization of technetium-sulfur colloid after RES stimulation,J. Nucl. Med.14:443.Google Scholar
  174. Rai, G. S., Haggith, J., Fenwick, J., and James, O., 1977, Computer display and analysis of liver gamma camera scans,Gut 18:417.Google Scholar
  175. Ravin, H. A., Seligman, A. M., and Fine, J., 1952, Polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a plasma expander: Studies on its excretion, distribution and metabolism,N. Engl. J. Med.247:921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Raz, A., Bucana, C., Fogler, W. E., Poste, G., and Fidler, I. J., 1981, Biochemical, morphological and ultrastructural studies on the uptake of liposomes by murine macrophages,Cancer Res.41:487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Reemtsa, K., Hottinger, G. C., de Graff, A. C., and Creech, O., 1960, The estimation of hepatic blood flow using indocyanine green,Surg. Gynecol. Obstet.110:353.Google Scholar
  178. Regoeczi, E., 1976, Labelled polyvinyl pyrrolidone as an in vivo indicator of reticuloendothelial function, Br.J. Exp. Pathol.57:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Reinhold, R. B., and Fine, J., 1971, A technique for quantitative measurement of endotoxin in human plasma,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.137:334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Richardson, V. J., Jeyasingh, K., Jewkes, R. F., Ryman, B. E., and Tattersall, M. H. N., 1978, Possible tumour localization of Tc-99m labelled liposomes: Effect of lipid composition, charge and liposome size,J. Nucl. Med.19:1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Richardson, V. J., Ryman, B. E., Jewkes, R. F., Jeyasingh, K., Tattersall, M. H. N., Newlands, E. S., and Kaye, S. B., 1979, Tissue distribution and tumour localisation of 99mTc-labelled liposomes in cancer patients,Br. J. Cancer 40:35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Richman, L. K., Klingenstein, R. J., Richman, J. A., Strober, W., and Berzofsky, J. A., 1979, The murine Kupffer cell. I. Characterisation of the cell serving accessory function in antigen-specific T cell proliferation,J. Immunol.123:2602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Richman, L. K., Strober, W., and Berzofsky, J. A., 1980, Genetic control of the immune response to myoglobin. III. Determinant-specific, two Ir gene phenotype is regulated by the genotype of reconstituting Kupffer cells,J. Immunol.124:619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Rogers, D. E., 1960, Host mechanisms which act to remove bacteria from the bloodsteram,Bacteriol. Rev.24:50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Rogoff, T. M., and Lipsky, P. E., 1979, Characterisation of isolated guinea pig Kupffer cells: Accessory cell function in mitogen-induced T lymphocyte activation,J. Immunol.123:1920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Rogoff, T. M., and Lipsky, P. E., 1980, Antigen presentation by isolated guinea pig Kupffer cells,J. Immunol 124:1740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Rogoff, T. M., Vitetta, E. S., and Lipsky, P. E., 1979, Functional analysis of Kupffer cells bearing la antigens,Gastroenterology 77:A35.Google Scholar
  188. Ronai, P. M., 1977, Hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals: Defining their clinical role will be a galling experience,J. Nucl. Med.18:488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Rosenberg, S. A., and Rogentine, G. N., Jr., 1972, Natural human antibodies to ‘hidden’ membrane components,Nature New Biol.239:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rowley, D. A., 1950, The effect of splenectomy on the formation of circulating antibody in the adult male albino rat,J. Immunol.64:289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ruiter, D. J., van der Meulen, J., and Wisse, E., 1980, Some cell biological and pathological aspects of the endotoxin uptake by the liver, in:The Reticuloendothelial System and the Pathogenesis of Liver Disease (H. Liehr and M. Grun, eds.), pp. 267–277, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  192. Rutenberg, S., Skarnes, R., Palmerio, C., and Fine, J., 1967, Detoxification of endotoxin by perfusion of liver and spleen,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.125:455.Google Scholar
  193. Saba, T. M., 1970, Physiology and physiopathology of the reticuloendothelial system,Arch. Intern. Med.126:1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Saba, T. M., 1978, Humoral control of Kupffer cell function after injury,Bull. Kupffer Cell Found.1:12.Google Scholar
  195. Saba, T. M., and DiLuzio, N. R., 1969, Reticuloendothelial blockade and recovery as a function of opsonic activity,Am. J. Physiol.216:197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Saba, T. M., and Jaffe, E., 1980, Plasma fibronectin (opsonic glycoprotein): Its synthesis by vascular endothelial cells and role in cardiopulmonary integrity after trauma as related to reticuloendothelial function,Am. J. Med.60:577.Google Scholar
  197. Saba, T. M., Blumenstock, F. A., Scovill, W. A., and Bernard, H., 1978, Cryoprecipitate reversal of opsonic α2-surface binding glycoprotein deficiency in septic surgical and trauma patients,Science 201:622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sabesin, S. M., and Koff, R. S., 1974, Pathogenesis of experimental viral hepatitis,N. Engl. J. Med.290:944.Google Scholar
  199. Sachs, B. A., Bradfield, P. A., Bodian, J. E., Sugarman, L. A., and Hellman, L., 1974, Liver scan in hyperlipoproteinemia,J. Am. Med. Assoc.227:907.Google Scholar
  200. Salky, N. K., DiLuzio, N. R., P’Pool, D. B., and Sutherland, A. J., 1964, Evaluation of reticuloendothelial function in man,J. Am. Med. Assoc.187:744.Google Scholar
  201. Scheffel, U., Rhodes, B. A., Natarajan, T. K., and Wagner, H. N., Jr., 1972, Albumin microspheres for study of the reticuloendothelial system,J. Nucl. Med.13:498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Schneidkraut, M. J., and Loegering, D. J., 1978, Effect of hemolyzed blood on reticuloendothelial function and susceptibility to hemorrhagic shock,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.159:418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schreiber, A. D., and Frank, M. M., 1972a, Role of antibody and complement in the immune clearance and destruction of erythrocytes. I. In vivo effects of IgG and IgM complement-fixing sites,J. Clin. Invest.51:575.Google Scholar
  204. Schreiber, A. D., and Frank, M. M., 1972b, Role of antibody and complement in the immune clearance and destruction of erythrocytes. II. Molecular nature of IgG and IgM complement- fixing sites and effects of their interaction with serum,J. Clin. Invest.51:583.Google Scholar
  205. Scovill, W. A., Saba, T. M., Kaplan, J. E., Bernard, H., and Powers, S. R., 1976, Deficits in reticuloendothelial humoral control mechanisms in patients after trauma,J. Trauma 16:898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Scovill, W. A., Saba, T. M., Kaplan, J. E., Bernard, H., and Powers, S. R., 1977, Disturbances in circulating opsonic activity in man after operative and blunt trauma,J. Surg. Res.22:709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Segal, A. W., Wills, E. J., Richmond, J. E., Slavin, G., Black, C. D. V., and Gregoriadis, G., 1974, Morphological observations on the cellular and subcellular destination of intravenously administered liposomes,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.55:320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Seljelid, R., 1980, Properties in Kupffer cells, in:Mononuclear Phagocytes (R. van Furth, ed.), pp. 157– 202, Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  209. Selzer, G. B., 1970, Preparation of a purified lipopolysaccharide for pyrogen testing,Bull. Parenter. Drug Assoc.24:153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sherlock, S., 1964, Measurement of hepatic blood flow, in: Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes (R. M. Kniseley, W. N. Tauxe, and E. B. Anderson, eds.), pp. 359–378, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Symposium Series No. 3.Google Scholar
  211. Singer, K., Miller, E. B., and Dameshek, W., 1941, Hematological changes following splenectomy in man,Am. J. Med. Sci.202:171.Google Scholar
  212. Sljivic, V. S., and Souhami, R. L., 1980, Can Kupffer cells divide?,Lancet 1:591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Slijivic, V. S., and Warr, G. W., 1973, Activity of the reticuloendothelial system and the antibody response. II. Effect of stilboestrol on the immune response to sheep erythrocytes in the mouse,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.54:69.Google Scholar
  214. Soothill, J. F., 1976, Some intrinsic and extrinsic factors predisposing to allergy,Proc. R. Soc. Med.69:439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Souhami, R. L., 1972, The effect of colloidal carbon on the organ distribution of sheep red cells and the immune response,Immunology 22:685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Souhami, R. L., and Bradfield, J. W. B., 1974, The recovery of hepatic phagocytosis after blockade of Kupffer cells,J. Reticuloendothel. Soc.16:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Souhami, R. L., Bradfield, J. W. B., and Parker, N. E., 1977, The effect of cytotoxic drugs on the formation of mononuclear phagocytes, in:Future Trends in Inflammation III (D. A. Willoughby, J. P. Giroud, and J. P. Velo, eds.), MTP Press, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  218. Stathakis, N. E., Fountas, A. and Tsianos E., 1981, Plasma fibronectin in normal subjects and in various disease states.J. Clin. Path.34:504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Statz, A., and Heinisch, M. M., 1977, Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen der Lebermorphologie nach intravenöser zufuhr einer Fettemulsion,Infusionstherapie 5:50.Google Scholar
  220. Steer, C. J., 1980, Carbohydrate recognition systems of sinusoidal liver cells: An update,Bull Kupffer Cell Found.3:15.Google Scholar
  221. Steer, C. J., Richman, L. K., Haque, N. E., and Richman, J. A., 1979, Identification of receptors for immunoglobulin and complement on mouse Kupffer cells in vitro,Gastroenterology 75:988.Google Scholar
  222. Strumacher, R. J., Kovnat, M. J., and McCabe, W. R., 1973, Limitations of the usefulness of the Limulus assay for endotoxin,N. Engl. J. Med.288:1261.Google Scholar
  223. Stuart, A. E., Biozzi, G., Stiffel, C., Halpern, B. N., and Mouton, D., 1960, The stimulation and depression of reticuloendothelial phagocytic function by simple lipids,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.41:599.Google Scholar
  224. Tanaka, T., Taneda, K., Kobayashi, M., Okumura, S., Muranishi, G., and Sesaki, H., 1975, Application of liposomes to the pharmaceutical modification of the distribution characteristics of drugs in the rat,Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 23:3069.Google Scholar
  225. Taplin, G. V., Dore, E. K., and Johnson, D. E., 1964, Hepatic blood flow and reticuloendothelial system studies with radiocolloids, in:Dynamic Clinical Studies with Isotopes (R. M. Kniseley, W. N. Tauxe, and E. B. Anderson, eds.), pp. 285–317, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Symposium Series No. 3.Google Scholar
  226. Thomas, H. C., McSween, R. N. M., and White, R. G., 1973, Role of the liver in controlling the immunogenicity of commensal bacteria in the gut,Lancet 1:1288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Thornburg, R. W., Day, J. F., Baynes, J. W., and Thorpe, S. R., 1980, Carbohydrate-mediated clearance of immune complexes from the circulation: A role for galactose residues in the hepatic uptake of IgG-antigen complexes,J. Biol. Chem.255:6820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Tothill, P., 1965, The retention by the body of 131I-polyvinyl pyrrolidone and its effect on radiation dose,J. Nucl. Med.6:582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Triger, D. R., Alp, M. M., and Wright, R., 1972, Bacterial and dietary antibodies in liver disease,Lancet 1:60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. van Haelst, U. J., and Sengers, R. C. A., 1976, Effects of parenteral nutrition with lipids on human liver: An electron microscopic study,Virchows Arch. B 22:323.Google Scholar
  231. Volkman, A., 1977, The unsteady state of the Kupffer cell, in:Kupffer Cells and Other Liver Sinusoidal Cells (E. Wisse and D. L. Knook, eds.), pp. 459–469, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  232. Wagner, H. N., and Iio, M., 1964, Studies of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). III. Blockade of the RES in man,J. Clin. Invest.43:1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wagner, H. N., Iio, M., and Hornick, R. B., 1963, Studies on the reticuloendothelial system (RES). II. Changes in the phagocytic capacity of the RES in patients with certain infections,J. Clin. Invest.42:427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wagner, H. N., Jr., McAfee, J. G., and Winkelman, J. W., 1962a, Splenic disease diagnosis by radioisotope scanning,Arch. Intern. Med.109:673.Google Scholar
  235. Wagner, H. N., Jr., Razzak, M. A., Gaertner, R. A., Caine, W. P., and Feagin, O. T., 1962b, Removal of erythrocytes from the circulation,Arch. Intern. Med.110:90.Google Scholar
  236. Wardle, E. N., 1974, Reticuloendothelial clearance studies in the course of horse serum induced nephritis,Br. J. Exp. Pathol.55:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Wardle, E. N., Anderson, A., and James, O., 1980, Kupffer cell phagocytosis in liver and inflammatory bowel diseases,Dig. Dis. Sci.25:414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Weissmann, G., Bloomgarden, D., Kaplan, R., Cohen, C., Hoffstein, S., Collins, J., Gottlieb, A., and Nagle, D., 1975, A general method for the introduction of enzymes, by means of immunoglobulin-coated liposomes into lysosome deficient cells,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Westphal, O., 1975, Bacterial endotoxins,Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol.49:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Widman, K., Curman, B., Forsum, H., Klareskog, L., Malmnas-Tjernlund, U., Rask, L., Tragardh, L., and Peterson, P. A., 1978, Occurrence of la-antigens on tissues of non-lymphoid origin,Nature (London) 276:711.Google Scholar
  241. Wilkinson, S. P., Arroyo, V., Garrard, B. G., Moodie, H., and Williams, R., 1974, Relation of renal impairment and haemorrhagic diathesis to endotoxemia in fulminant hepatic failure,Lancet 1:521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Williams, B. D., Russell, B. A., Lockwood, C. M., and Cotton, C., 1979, Defective reticuloendothelial system function in rheumatoid arthritis,Lancet 1:1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Wilson, G. A., and Keyes, J. W., 1974, The significance of liver-spleen uptake ratio in liver scanning,J. Nucl. Med.15:593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Winchester, R. J., Fu, S. M., Winfeld, J. B., and Kunkel, H. G., 1975, Immunofluorescent studies on antibodies directed to a buried membrane structure present in lymphocytes and erythrocytes,J. Immunol.114:410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Winkelhake, J. L., Elcombe, B. M., and Chang, R. J., 1978, Protracted circulating lifetimes of man-nose-terminated glycoproteins and aggregated albumin in mice infected with LDH-elevating virus,Physiol. Chem. Phys.10:305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Wintrobe, M. M., 1975,Clinical Hematology, 7th ed., p. 358, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  247. Wisse, E., 1977, Ultrastructure and function of Kupffer cells and other sinusoidal cells in the liver, in:Kupffer Cells and Other Liver Sinusoidal Cells (E. Wisse and D. L. Knook, eds.), pp. 33–60, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  248. Wisse, E., Van Dierendonck, J. H., De Zanger, R. B., Fräser, R., and McCuskey, R. S., 1980, On the role of the liver endothelial filter in the transport of particulate fat (chylomicrons and their remnants) to parenchymal cells and the influence of certain hormones on the endothelial fenestrations, in:Communication of Liver Cells: Falk Symposium 21 (H. Popper, L. Bianchi, F. Gudad, and W. Reutter, eds.), pp. 195–200, MTP Press, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  249. Wiznitzer, T., Better, N., Rachlin, W., Atkins, N., Frank, E. D., and Fine, J., 1960, In vivo detoxification of endotoxin by the reticuloendothelial system,J. Exp. Med.112:1157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Wolff, S. M., 1973, Biological effects of bacterial endotoxins in man,J. Infect. Dis. Suppl.128:259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Wright, A. E., and Douglas, S. R., 1903, An experimental investigation of the role of the blood fluids in connection with phagocytosis,Proc. R. Soc.72:357.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. B. Bradfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of BristolBristolEngland

Personalised recommendations