Practical Aspects of ICE-free Cryopreservation

  • G. M. Fahy
  • T. Takahashi
  • H. T. Meryman
Part of the Developments in Hematology and Immunology book series (DIHI, volume 15)

Abstract

Low temperatures are used by biologists primarily because they slow or prevent unwanted physical and chemical events. Unfortunately, the utility of low temperatures is usually compromised by the inconvenient fact that cooling also leads to the crystallization of water and thereby creates new and unwanted physical and even chemical events which may injure the system the biologist wishes to preserve. Although the penalties imposed by freezing are in many cases acceptable, ice formation renders biological preservation generally imperfect and sometimes inconvenient.

Keywords

Crystallization Toxicity Glycerol Bromide Propylene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kauzmann W. The nature of the glassy state and the behavior of liquids at low temperatures. Chem Rev 1984; 38: 653–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fahy GM, MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Meryman HT. Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation. Cryobiology 1984; 21: 407–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rall WF, Fahy GM. Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at — 196°C by vitrification. Nature 1985; 313: 573–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takahashi T, Hirsh A, Erbe EF, Bross JB, Steere RL, Williams RJ. Vitrification of human monocytes. Cryobiology 1986;23.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boutron P. Stability of the amorphous state in the system water-1, 2-propanediol. Cryobiology 1979; 16: 557–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fahy GM. Cryoprotectant toxicity: biochemical or osmotic? Cryo-Letters 1984; 5: 79–90.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fahy GM. Prevention of toxicity from high concentrations of cryoprotective agents. In: Pegg DE, Jacobsen IA, Halasz NA (eds). Organ preservation, basic and applied aspects. Lancaster: MTP Press, 1982: 367–9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pegg DE, Jacobsen IA, Diaper MP, Foreman J, Hunt CJ. Some observations on rabbit kidneys exposed to solutions containing propane-1, 2-diol. Cryobio-logy 1985; 22: 608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baxter SJ, Lathe GH. Biochemical effects on kidney of exposure to high concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide. Biochem Pharmacol 1971; 30: 1079–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fahy GM. Cryoprotectant toxicity neutralizers reduce freezing damage. Cryo-Letters 1983; 4: 309–14.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fahy GM. Cryoprotectant toxicity reduction: specific or nonspecific? Cryo-Letters 1984; 5: 287–94.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clark P, Fahy GM, Karow AM Jr. Factors influencing renal cryopreservation. II. Toxic effects of three cryoprotectants in combination with three vehicle solutions in non-frozen rabbit cortical slices. Cryobiology 1984; 21: 260–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fahy GM, Hirsh A. Prospects for organ preservation by vitrification. In: Pegg DE, Jacobsen IA, Halasz NA (eds). Organ preservation, basic and applied aspects. Lancaster: MTP Press 1982: 399–403.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Fahy GM. Homogeneous nucleation and glass formation in cryoprotective system at high pressures. Cryo-Letters 1981; 2: 353–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    van Furth R (ed). Mononuclear phagocytes in immunity: infection and immunity. London: Blackwell Scientific Publ. 1975.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carr I, Deams WT (eds). The reticuloendothelial system: A comprehensive treatise. Vol. 1. Morphology. New York: Plenum Press 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    van der Meulen FW, Reiss M, Stricker EAM, Elven EV, von dem Borne AEGKr. Cryopreservation of human monocytes. Cryobiology 1981; 18: 337–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hunt SM, Lionetti FJ, Valeri CR, Callahan AB. Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and platelet pheresis cellular residues. Blood 1981; 57: 592–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Takahashi T, Hammett MF, Cho MS, Williams RJ, Meryman HT. Cryopreservation of monocytes. Cryobiology 1982; 19: 676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Takahashi T, Inada S, Pommer CG, O’shea JJ, Brown EJ. Osmotic stress and the freeze-thaw cycle cause shedding of Fc and C3b receptors by human poly-morphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 1985; 134: 4062–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takahashi T, Hammett MF, Cho MS. Multifaceted freezing injury in human polymorphonuclear cells at high subfreezing temperatures. Cryobiology 1985; 22: 215–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Takahashi T, Bross JB, Shaber RE, Williams RJ. Effect of cryoprotectants on the viability and function of unfrozen human polymorphonuclear cells. Cryobiology 1985; 22: 336–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rapatz G, Luyet B. Electron microscope study of erythrocytes in rapidly cooled suspensions containing various concentrations of glycerol. Biodynamica 1968; 10: 193–210.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rall WF, Wood MJ, Kirby C. In vivo developmentof mouse embryos cryopre-served by vitrification. Cryobiology 1985; 22: 603–4.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rajotte RV, DeGroot TJ, Ellis DK, Rall WF. Preliminary experiments on vitrification of isolated rat islets of Langerhans. Cryobiology 1985; 22: 602–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farrant J. Mechanism of cell damage during freezing and thawing and its prevention. Nature 1965; 205: 1284–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rapatz G, Keener R. Effect of concentration of ethylene glycol on the recovery of frog hearts after freezing to low temperatures. Cryobiology 1974; 11: 571–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Fahy
  • T. Takahashi
  • H. T. Meryman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations