Clinical Evaluation: Noninvasive Methods

  • Philip C. Hoffman
  • John E. Ultmann
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 46)

Abstract

Clinical evaluation by noninvasive methods is an important approach, if not the most critical initial step, toward the assessment of response to any therapy under study. The methods employed should be simple, reliable, reproducible, safe, and cost-effective; they should assure a reliable first assessment of the quality of response obtained prior to proceeding to more invasive, more accurate, but more uncomfortable and riskier tests.

Keywords

Fatigue Toxicity Osteoporosis Leukemia Adenocarcinoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and End-Results Reporting: Manual of Staging of Cancer, 1978._Chicago: American Joint Committee, 1978, p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glatstein E, Lichter AS, Fraass BA, et al. The imaging revolution and radiation oncology: Use of CT, ultrasound and NMR for localization, treatment planning and treatment delivery. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 11: 299–314, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rockoff SD, Lipsit ER, Nolan NG. Advances in the diagnostic imaging of cancer. Curr Prob Cancer 5: 1–46, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Muhm JR, Brown LR, Crowe JK. Use of computed tomography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Mayo Clin Proc 52: 345–348, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neifield JP, Michaelis LL, Doppman JL. Suspected pulmonary metastases. Correlation of chest x-ray, whole lung tomograms, and operative findings. Cancer 39: 383–387, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castellino RA, Filly R, Blank N. Routine full-lung tomography in the initial staging and treatment planning of patients with Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer 38: 1130–1136, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kollins SA. Computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma and chest wall. Radiol Clin North Am 15: 297–308, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heitzman ER, Goldwin RL, Proto AV. Radiologic analysis of the mediastinum utilizing computed tomography. Radiol Clin North Am 15: 309–329, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spiro SG, Edwards D, Harper PG, Geddes DM, Souhami RL. Computed tomography of the thorax in the diagnosis and management of malignant disease. Br J Dis Chest 76: 209–222, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacMahon H, Courtney JV, Little AG. Diagnostic methods in lung cancer. Semin Oncol 10: 20–33, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muhm JR, Brown LR, Crowe JK, Sheedy PF II, Hattery RR, Stephens DH. Comparison of whole lung tomography and computed tomography for detecting pulmonary nodules. Am J Roentgenol 131: 981–984, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schaner EG, Chang AE, Doppman JL, Conkle DM, Flye MW, Rosenberg SA. Comparison of computed and conventional whole lung tomography in detecting pulmonary nodules: A prospective radiologic-pathologic study. Am J Roentgenol 131: 51–54, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siegelman SS, Zerhouni EA, Leo FP, Khouri NF, Stitik FP. CT of the solitary pulmonary nodule. Am J Roentgenol 135: 1–13, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norlund JD, Byhardt RW, Foley WD, Unger WD, Cox JD. Computed tomography in the staging of small cell lung cancer: Implications for combined modality therapy. Int J Rad Biol Oncol Phys 11: 1081–1084, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoppe RT. The management of Stage II Hodgkin’s disease with a large mediastinal mass: A prospective program emphasizing radiation. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 11: 349–355, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koehler PR. Current status of lymphography in patients with cancer. Cancer 37: 503–516, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dunnick NR, Javadpour N. Value of CT and lymphography: Distinguishing retroperitoneal metastases from nonseminomatous testicular tumors. Am J Roentgenol 136: 1093–1099, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castellino RA, Marglin SI. Imaging of abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes. Lymphography or computed tomography? Invest Radiol 17: 433–443, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castellino RA, Marglin SI, Carroll BA, Young SW, Harell GS, Blank N. The radiographic evaluation of abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes in oncologic practice. Cancer Treat Rev 7: 153–160, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sweet DL Jr, Kinnealey A, Ultmann JE. Hodgkin’s disease: Problems of staging. Cancer 42: 957–970, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moran EM, Ultmann JE, Ferguson DJ, Hoffer PB, Ranniger K, Rappaport H. Staging laparotomy in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Br J Cancer 31,Suppl. II: 228–236, 1975.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee JKT, McClennan BL, Stanley RJ, Levitt RG, Sagel SS. Use of CT in evaluation of postcystectomy patients. Am J Roentgenol 136: 483–487, 1981.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kollins SA. Computed tomography of the liver, spleen, and pancreas. Semin Roentgenol 13: 227–234, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Snow JH Jr., Goldstein HM, Wallace S. Comparison of scintigraphy, sonography, and computed tomography in the evaluation of hepatic neoplasms. Am J Roentgenol 132: 915–918, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    MacCarty RL, Stephens DH, Hattery RR, Sheedy PF II. Hepatic imaging by computed tomography: A comparison with 99mTc-sulfur colloid, ultrasonography, and angiography. Radiol Clin North Am 17: 137–155, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knopf DR, Torres WE, Fajman WJ, Sones PJ Jr. Liver lesions: Comparative accuracy of scintigraphy and computed tomography. Am J Roentgenol 138: 623–627, 1982.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alderson PO, Adams DF, McNeil BJ, Sanders R, Siegelman SS, Finberg HJ, Hessel SJ, Abrams HL. Computed tomography, ultrasound, and scintigraphy of the liver in patients with colon or breast carcinoma: A prospective comparison. Radiology 149: 225–230, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rostock RA, Fishman ER, Order SE. CT scanning for radiation therapy treatment planning of hepatoma. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1413–1418, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weyman PJ, Stanley RJ, Levitt RG. Computed tomography in evaluation of the pancreas. Semin Roentgenol 16: 301–311, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williamson B Jr., Hattery RR, Stephens DH, Sheedy PF II. Computed tomography of the kidneys. Semin Roentgenol 13: 249–255, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gatenby RA. Diagnostic evaluation of a renal mass. Semin Oncol 10: 401–412, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hattery RR, Williamson B Jr., Hartman GW. Urinary tract tomography. Radiol Clin North Am 14: 23–49, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nielsen ME Jr., Heaston DK, Dunnick NR, Korobkin M. Preoperative CT evaluation of adrenal glands in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Am J Roentgenol 139: 317–320, 1982.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pagani JJ. Non-small cell lung carcinoma adrenal metastases. Computed tomography and percutaneous needle biopsy in their diagnosis. Cancer 53: 1058–1060, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prinz RA, Brooks MH, Churchill R, Graner JL, Lawrence AM, Paloyan E, Sparagana M. Incidental asymptomatic adrenal masses detected by computed tomographic scanning. Is operation required? JAMA 248: 701–704, 1982.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Copeland PM. The incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Ann Intern Med 98: 940–945, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laufer I. A simple method for routine double-contrast study of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Radiology 117: 513–518, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davis DO. CT in the diagnosis of supratentorial tumors. Semin Roentgenol 12: 97–108, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bitran JD, Bekerman C, Desser RK. The predictive value of serial bone scans in assessing response to chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. Cancer 45: 1562–1568, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sample WF. Adrenal ultrasonography. Radiology 127: 461–466, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hattery RR, Sheedy PF II, Stephens DH, Van Heerden JA. Computed tomography of the adrenal gland. Semin Roentgenol 16: 290–300, 1981.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cooperberg PL, Li DKB, Sauerbrei EE. Abdominal and peripheral applications of realtime ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 18: 59–77, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Doust BD. Ultrasonic examination of the pancreas. Radiol Clin North Am 13: 467–478, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gilby ED, Taylor KJW. Ultrasound monitoring of hepatic metastases during chemotherapy. Br Med J 1: 371–373, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rochester D, Bowie JD, Kunzmann A, Lester E. Ultrasound in the staging of lymphoma. Radiology 124: 483–487, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brascho DJ, Durant JR, Green LE. The accuracy of retroperitoneal ultrasonography in Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiology 125: 485–487, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cochrane WJ. Ultrasound in gynecology. Radiol Clin North Am 13: 457–466, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sanders RL, McNeil BJ, Finberg HJ, Hessel SJ, Siegelman SS, Adams DF, Alderson PO, Abrams HL. A prospective study of computed tomography and ultrasound in the detection and staging of pelvic masses. Radiology 146: 439–442, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pontes JE, Ohe H, Watanabe H, Murphy GP. Transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate. Cancer 53: 1369–1372, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goldenberg DM, DeLand F, Kim E, Bennett S, Primus FJ, van Nagell JR, Estes N, DeSimons P, Rayburn P. Use of radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen for the detection and localization of diverse cancers by external photoscanning. N Engl J Med 298: 1384–1388, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldenberg DM, Kim EE, Bennett SJ, Nelson MO, DeLand FH. Carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunodetection in the evaluation of colorectal cancer and in the detection of occult neoplasms. Gastroenterology 84: 525–532, 1983.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Caride VJ, Gottschalk A. Recent advances in cancer diagnosis with nuclear medicine techniques. Cancer 40: 495–499, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Corcoran RC, Thrall J, Kyle R, Johnson M. The solitary bone lesion: A clinical dilemma. J Nucl Med 16: 522, 1975.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Petasnick JP, Ram P, Turner DA, Fordham EW. The relationship of computed tomography, gray-scale ultrasonography and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of hepatic masses. Semin Nucl Med 9: 8–21, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fordham EW. The complementary role of computerized axial transmission tomography and radionuclide imaging of the brain. Semin Nucl Med 7: 137–159, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hoffer PB. Mechanisms of localization. In Gallium-67 Imaging, Hoffer PB, Bekerman C, Henkin RE, (eds.). New York: John Wiley, 1978, p. 6.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Karimeddini MR, Spencer RP. Use of radiogallium imaging in oncology. Prog Clin Cancer 8: 181–197, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Turner DA, Fordham EW, Slayton RE. Malignant lymphomas. In Gallium-67 Imaging, Hoffer PB, Bekerman C, Henkman RE(eds.). New York: John Wiley, 1978, pp. 95–112.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Anderson KC, Leonard RCF, Canellos GP, Skarin AT, Kaplan WT. High-dose gallium imaging in lymphoma. Am J Med 75: 327–331, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnston GS, Go MF, Benna RS, Larson SM, Andrews GA, Hubner KF. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in Hodgkin’s disease: Final report of cooperative group. J Nucl Med 18: 692–698, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bekerman C. Lung carcinoma. In Gallium-67 Imaging, Hoffer PB, Bekerman C, Henkman RE (eds.). New York: John Wiley, 1978, pp. 113–131.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    DeMeester TR, Golomb HM, Kirchner P, Rezai-Zadeh K, Bitran JD, Streeter DL, Hoffman PC, Cooper M. The role of gallium-67 scanning in the clinical staging and preoperative evaluation of patients with carcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg 28: 451–464, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pannier R, Verlinde I, Puspowidjono I, Willemot JP. Role of gallium-67 thoracic scintigraphy in the diagnosis and staging of patients suspected of bronchial carcinoma. Thorax 37: 264–269, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Little AG, DeMeester TR, MacMahon H. The staging of lung cancer. Semin Oncol 10: 56–70, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lunia SL, Ruckdeschel JC, McKneally MF, Killam D, Baxter D, Kellar S, Ray P, Mcllduff J, Lininger L, Chodos R, Horton J. Noninvasive evaluation of mediastinal metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma: A prospective comparison of chest radiography and gallium-67 scanning. Cancer 47: 672–679, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Johnson PM. Thyroid and whole-body scanning. In The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, Werner SC, Ingbar SH (eds.). Hagerstown: Harper & Row, 1978, 4th ed., pp. 297–317.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Alfidi RJ, Haaja JR, El Yousef SJ, Bryan PJ, Fletcher BD, LiPuma JP, Morrison SC, Kaufman B, Richey JB, Hinshaw WS, Kramer DM, Young HN, Cohen AM, Butler HE, Ament AE, Lieberman JM. Preliminary experimental results in humans and animals with a superconducting, whole-body, nuclear magnetic resonance scanner. Radiology 143: 175–182, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Levin DN. NMR imaging. In Comprehensive Textbook of Oncology, Moossa AR, Robson MC, Schimpff SC (eds.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1986 (in press).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bydder GM, Steiner RE, Young IR, Hall AS, Thomas DJ, Marshall J, Pallis CA, Legg NJ. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain: 140 cases. Am J Roentgenol 139: 215–236, 1982.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Modic MT, Weinstein MA, Pavlicek W, Starnes DL, Duchesneau PM, Boumphrey F, Hardy RJ Jr. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Radiology 148: 757–762, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gamsu G, Webb WR, Sheldon P, Kaufman L, Crooks LE, Birnberg FA, Goodman P, Hinchcliffe WA, Hedgecock M. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Radiology 147: 473–480, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hricak H, Crooks L, Sheldon P, Kaufman L. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney. Radiology 146: 425–432, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stark DD, Moss AA, Goldberg HI, Davis PL, Federle MP. Magnetic resonance and CT of the normal and diseased pancreas: A comparative study. Radiology 150: 153–162, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rosenoff SJ, DeVita VT Jr, Hubbard S, Young RD. Peritoneoscopy in the staging and follow-up of ovarian cancer. Semin Oncol 2: 223–228, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kurtz RC, Lightdale CJ, Winawer SJ, Sherlock P. Endoscopy and gastrointestinal neoplasia: Diagnosis and management. Curr Prob Cancer 5: 1–48, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Miller AB, Hoogstraten B, Staquet M, Winkler A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer 47: 207–214, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shimm DS. Evaluating cancer patients for metastases: An approach using Bayes’ theorem. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1563–1568, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Osborne DR, Korobkin M, Ravin CE, Putman CE, Wolfe WG, Sealy WC, Young WG, Breiman R, Heaston D, Ram P, Halber M. Comparison of plain radiography, conventional tomography, and computed tomography in detecting intrathoracic lymph node metastases from lung carcinoma. Radiology 142: 157–161, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Richey HM, Matthews JI, Helsel RA, Cable H. Thoracic CT scanning in the staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. Chest 85: 218–221, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Glazer HS, Aronberg DJ, Sagel SS, Emawi B. Utility of CT in detecting postpneumonectomy carcinoma recurrence. Am J Roentgenol 142: 487–494, 1984.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bitran JD, DeMeester TR, Rezai-Zadeh K, Toledo-Pereyra LH, Churg A, Golomb HM. Clinicopathologic correlations demonstrating the failure of 67gallium scanning in determining response to radiotherapy. Chest 73: 356–359, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    MacMahon H, Bekerman C. The diagnostic significance of gallium lung uptake in patients with normal chest radiographs. Radiology 127: 189–193, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Picus D, Balfe DM, Koehler RE, Roper CL, Owen JW. Computed tomography in the staging of esophageal carcinoma. Radiology 146: 433–438, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kondo M, Ando N, Kosuda S, Lian S-L, Kubo A, Masaki H, Hashimoto S, Tsutsui T, Kakegawa T. Ga-67 scan in patients with intrathoracic esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 49: 1031–1034, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Cass AW, Million RR, Pfaff WW. Patterns of recurrence following surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 37: 2861–2865, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Castellino RA, Billingham M, Dorfman RF. Lymphographic accuracy in Hodgkin’s disease and malignant lymphoma with a note on the “reactive” lymph node as a cause of most false-positive lymphograms. Invest Radiol 9: 155–165, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kademian MT, Wirtanen GW. Accuracy of bipedal lymphography in Hodgkin’s disease. Am J Roentgenol 129: 1041–1042, 1977.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Marglin S, Castellino RA. Lymphographic accuracy in 632 consecutive previously untreated cases of Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiology 140: 351–353, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Breiman RS, Castellino RA, Harell GS, Marshall WH, Glatstein E, Kaplan HS. CT-pathologic correlations in Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiol 126: 159–166, 1978.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cronin RE, Kaehny WD, Miller PD, Stables DP, Gabow PA, Ostroy RR, Schrier RW. Renal cell carcinoma: Unusual systemic manifestations. Medicine 55: 291–311, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chilholm GD, Roy RR. The systemic effects of malignant renal tumors. Br J Urol 43: 687–700, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Koeffler HP, Goldwasser E. Erythropoietin radioimmunoassay in evaluating patients with polycythemia. Ann Intern Med 94: 44–47, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johnson DE, Kaesler KE, Kaminsky S, Jing B, Wallace S. Lymphography as an aid in staging bladder carcinoma. South Med J 69: 28–30, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spellman MC, Castellino RA, Ray GR, Pstenna DA, Bagshaw MA. An evaluation of lymphography in localized carcinoma of the prostate. Radiology 125: 637–644, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wallace S, Jing B, Zornoza J. Lymphangiography in the determination of the extent of metastatic carcinoma. Cancer 39: 706–718, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Loening SA, Schmidt JD, Brown RC, Hawtrey CE, Fallon B, Culp DA. A comparison between lymphangiography and pelvic node dissection in the staging of prostatic cancer. J Urol 117: 752–756, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lee JKT, Stanley RJ, Sagel SS, McClennen BL: Accuracy of CT in detecting intraabdominal and pelvic lymph node metastases from pelvic cancers. Am J Roentgenol 131: 675–679, 1978.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Grayhack JT, Lee C, Kolbusz W, Oliver L. Detection of carcinoma of the prostate utilizing biochemical observations. Cancer 45: 1986–1901, 1980.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Piver MS, Wallace S, Castro JR. The accuracy of lymphangiography in carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Roentgenol 111: 278–283, 1971.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Solomon A, Brenner JH, Rubinstein Z, Chaitchik S, Morag B. Computerized tomography in ovarian cancer. Gynec Oncol 15: 48–55, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Griffiths CT, Parker LM, Fuller AF Jr. Role of cytoreductive surgical treatment in the management of advanced ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 235–240, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wallach RC, Kabakow B, Jerez E, Blinick G. The importance of second-look surgical procedures in the staging and treatment of ovarian carcinoma. Semin Oncol 2: 243–246, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kirkwood JM, Myers JE, Vlock DR, Neumann R, Ariyan S, Gottschalk A, Hoffer P. Tomographic gallium-67 citrate scanning. Useful new surveillance for metastatic melanoma. Ann Intern Med 97: 694–699, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bekerman C. Childhood malignancies. In Gallium-67 Imaging, Hoffer PB, Bekerman C, Henkin RE (eds.). New York: John Wiley, 1978, pp. 139–152.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Teates CD, Preston DF, Boyd CM. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in head and neck tumors: Report of cooperative group. J Nucl Med 21: 622–627, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip C. Hoffman
  • John E. Ultmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations