Advertisement

Regulation of Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Brain by Micromolar Affinity Benzodiazepine Receptors

  • R. J. DeLorenzo
  • W. C. Taft
  • W. T. Andrews
Part of the Topics in the Neurosciences book series (TNSC, volume 1)

Abstract

Ca2+ is an important mediator of molecular events in the functioning nerve terminal (1, 2). An increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ has been shown to regulate a variety of neuronal cell functions, including neurotransmitter release, stimulation of protein phosphorylation, and synaptic morphological changes (3). It is well-established that these events are directly dependent on the entry of extracellular Ca2+ into the presynaptic nerve terminal through specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (4,6). The central role of Ca2+ channels in stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms has led to the extensive investigation of Ca2+ channel function in a wide variety of intact and broken cell preparations (7). Despite extensive electrophysiological characterization of Ca2+ channels in brain, the molecular nature and pharmacological characteristics of this major neuronal Ca2+ channel remain largely unclear.

Keywords

Neurotransmitter Release Presynaptic Nerve Terminal Neuronal Cell Function Intact Synaptosome Break Cell Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rubin RP: The role of calcium in the release of neurotransmitter substances and hormones. Pharmacology Review 22: 389–428, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rasmussen H, Goodman DBP: Relationships between calcium and cyclic nucleotides in cell activation. Physiology Reviews 57: 421–509, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    DeLorenzo RJ: Calmodulin in neurotransmitter release and synaptic function. Fed Proc 41: 2265–2272, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Katz B, Miledi R: Spontaneous and evoked activity of motor nerve endings in calcium Ringer. J Physiol 203: 689–706, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katz B, Miledi R: Further study of the role of calcium in synaptic transmission. J Physiol 207: 789–801, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miledi R: Transmitter release induced by injection of calcium ions into nerve terminals. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 183: 421–425, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tsien RW: Calcium channels in excitable cell membranes. Ann Rev Physiol 45: 341–358, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee KS, Tsien RW: Mechanisms of calcium channel blockade verapamil, D600, diltiazem and nitrendipine in single di-alysed heart cells. Nature 302: 790–794, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reuter H: Calcium channel modulation by neurotransmitters, enzymes, and drugs. Nature 301: 569–574, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fleckenstein A: Specific pharmacology of calcium in the myocardiam, cardiac pacemaker, and vascular smooth muscle. Ann Rev Pharmacol 17: 149–166, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Triggle D.J., Janis RA: Nitrendipine: Binding sites and mechanisms of action. In: A Scriabine, S Vanov, and K Deck (eds) Nitrendipine. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich, 1984, pp. 33–52.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reuter H: Divalent ions as charge carriers in excitable membranes. Prog Biophys Molec Biol,26: 1–43, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gould RJ, Murphy KMMM, Snyder SH: [ 3H] Nitrendipine-labeled calcium channels discriminate inorganic calcium agonists and antagonists. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 3656–3660, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nachshen DA, Blanstein MP: The effects of some organic calcium antagonists on calcium influx in presynaptic nerve terminals. Mol Pharm 16: 579–586, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Freedman SB, Miller RJ: Effects of nitrendipine on voltage sensitive calcium channels in brain and neuronal cultured cells. In: A Scriabine, S Vanov, and K Deck (eds) Nitrendipine. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich, 1984, pp 79–90.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van der Kloot, Kita H: The effects of “calcium-antagonist” verapamil on muscle action potentials in the frog and crayfish and on neuromuscular transmission in the crayfish. Comp Biochem Physiol 50C: 121–125, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tallman JF, Paul SM, Skolnick P, Gallagher DW: Receptors for the age of anxiety: Pharmacology of the benzodiaz-epines. Science 207: 274–281, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bowling AC, DeLorenzo RJ: Micromolar benzodiazepine receptors: identification and characterization in central nervous system. Science 216: 1247–1250, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    DeLorenzo RJ: The calmodulin hypothesis of neurotransmission. Cell Calcium 2: 365–385, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leslie SW, Friedman MB, Coleman RR: Effects of chlordiaz-epine on depolarization-induced calcium influx into synaptosomes. Biochem Pharmacol 29: 2439–2443, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taft WC, DeLorenzo RJ: Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors regulate voltage-sensitive calcium channels in nerve terminal preparations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 3118–3122, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferrendelli JA, Daniels-McQueen S: Comparative actions of phenytoin and other anticonvulsant drugs on potassium-and veratridine-stimulated calcium uptake in synaptosomes. J Pharma exp Ther 220: 29–34, 1982.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mohler H, Battersby MK, Richards JG: Benzodiazepine receptor protein identified and visualized in brain tissue by a photoaffinity label. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 1666–1670, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meyer EM, Cooper JR: Cobalt ions dissociate between calcium uptake through voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels in synaptosomes. Brain Res 265: 173–176, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. DeLorenzo
  • W. C. Taft
  • W. T. Andrews

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations