Genetic causes are primarily responsible only for 8% of congenital heart disease, [1,2] and 2% are of environmental origin. The remaining 90% of cases are due to interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the framework of multifactorial etiology. [2–6] Teratogens, agents capable of inducing congenital anomalies, participate in at least two of these etiological groups: those which are primarily environmental and those of multifactorial origin.


Congenital Heart Disease Valproic Acid Congenital Malformation Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ventricular Septal Defect 
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© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1987

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  • Tomas Pexieder

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