Advertisement

Myocardial Infarct Size Reduction

Chapter
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

In 1912, Herrick concluded his classic article by presenting a logical approach to the treatment of myocardial infarction: “the hope for the damaged myocardium lies in the direction of securing a supply of blood through friendly neighbouring vessels so as to restore as far as possible its functional integrity” [1]. Thus, this distinguished physician anticipated by more than half a century the concept of limiting infarct size.

Keywords

Acute Myocardial Infarction Creatine Kinase Infarct Size Thrombolytic Agent Coronary Artery Occlusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Herrick JB: Clinical features of sudden obstruction of the coronary arteries. JAMA 59: 2015–2020, 1912.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Page DL, Caulfield JB, Kastor JA, DeSanctis RW, Saunders CA: Myocardial changes associated with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 285:133, 1971.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso DR, Scheidt S, Post M, Killip T: Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock. Quantification of myocardial necrosis, clinical, pathologic and electrocardiographic correlations. Circulation 48:588, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maroko PR, Kjekshus JK, Sobel BE, Watanabe T, Covell JW, Ross J Jr, Braunwald E: Factors influencing infarct size following experimental coronary artery occlusions. Circulation 43: 67, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Redwood DR, Smith ER, Epstein SE: Coronary artery occlusion in the conscious dog: Effects of alterations in heart rate and arterial pressure on the degree of myocardial ischemia. Circulation 46: 323, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reimer KA, Rasmussen MM, Jennings RB: Reduction by propranolol of myocardial necrosis following temporary coronary artery occlusion in dogs. Circ Res 33:353, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kjekshus JK, Mjos OD: Effect of inhibition of lipolysis on infarct size after experimental coronary artery occlusion. J Clin Invest 52:1770, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kloner RA, Braunwald E, Maroko PR: Long term preservation of Ischemic myocardium in the dog by hyaluronidase. Circulation 58:220, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sobel BE, Markham J, Roberts R: Factors influencing enzymatic estimates of infarct size. Am J Cardiol 39:130, 1977.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberts R, Parker CW, Sobel BE: Detection of acute myocardial infarction by radioimmunoas-say for creatine kinase MB. Lancet 2:319, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grande P, Hansen BF, Christiansen C, Naestofi J: Estimation of acute myocardial infarct size in man by serum CK-MB measurements. Circulation 65: 765–764, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillis LD, Braunwald E: Myocardial ischemia. N Engl J Med 296: 971–978, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hillis LD, Askenazi J, Braunwald E et al: Use of changes in epicardial QRS complex to assess interventions which modify the extent of myocardial necrosis following coronary artery occlusion. Circulation 54: 591–598, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muller JE, Maroko PR, Braunwald E: Precordial electrocardiographic mapping: A technique to assess the efficacy of interventions designed to limit infarct size. Circulation 57:1, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zaret BL, DiCola VC, Donabedian RK, Puri S, Wolfson S, Freedman GS, Cohen LS: Dual radionuclide study of myocardial infarction: Relationships between myocardial uptake of potassium-43, technetium-99m stannous pyro-phosphate, regional myocardial blood flow and creatine phosphokinase depletion. Circulation 53:422, 1976.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Massie BM, Botvinik EH, Werner JA, Chatterjee K, Parmley WW: Myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99-m stannous pyrophosphate. An insensitive test for nontransmural myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 43:186, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Botvinick EH, Shames D, Lappin H, Tyberg JV, Townsend R, Parmley W: Noninvasive quantita-tion of myocardial infarction with technetium-99m pyrophosphate. Circulation 52:909, 1975.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis M, Buja LM, Saffer S, Mishelevich D, Stokely E, Lewis S, Parkey R, Bonte F, Willerson J: Experimental infarct sizing using computer processing and a three dimensional model. Science 197: 167, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wackers FJ, Sokole FB, Samson G, Van der School JB, Lie KI, Liem KL, Wellens HJ: Value and limitations of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 295:1, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wackers FJ, Becker AE, Samson G, Sokole FB, Van der School JB, Vet HJ, Lie KI, Durrer D, Wellens H: Location and size of acute transmural myocardial infarction estimated from thallium-201 scintiscans. A clinicopathological study. Circulation 56:72, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maroko PR, Libby P, Bloor CM, Sobel BE, Braunwald E: Reduction by hyaluronidase of myocardial necrosis following coronary artery occlusion. Circulation 46: 430–437, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MacLean D, Fishbein MC, Maroko PR, Braunwald E: Hyaluronidase-induced reduction in myocardial infarct size. Science 194: 199–200, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rovetto MJ: Effect of hyaluronidase and methyl-prednisolone on myocardial function, glucose metabolism, and coronary flow in isolated Ischemic rat heart. Circ Res 41: 373–379, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kloner RA, Braunwald E, Maroko PR: Long term preservation of Ischemic myocardium in the dog by hyaluronidase. Circulation 58: 220–226, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maroko PR, Hillis LD, Muller JE, Tavazzi L, Heyndrickx GR, Ray M, Chiarello M, Distante A, Askenazi J, Salerno J, Carpentier J, Reshetnayan I, Radvany P, Libby P, Raabe DS, Chazov EI, Bobba P, Braunwald E: Favorable effects of hyaluronidase on electrocardiographic evidence of necrosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 296: 898–903, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Szabo G, Magyar S: Effect of hyaluronidase on capillary permeability, lymph flow, and passage of dye-labeled protein from plasma to lymph. Nature (Lond) 182: 377–379, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bollet AJ, Bonner WM, Nance JL: The presence of hyaluronidase in various mammalian tissues. J Biol Chem 238: 3522–3527, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    DeSalegui M, Pigman W: The existence of an acid-active hyaluronidase in serum. Arch Biocbem Biophys 120: 60–67, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Orkin RW, Toole BP: Hyaluronidase activity and hyaluronate content of the developing chick embryo heart. Rev Biol 66: 308–320, 1978.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolf RA, Chaung LY, Muller JE, Kloner RA, Braunwald E: Intravenous bovine testicular hyaluronidase depolymerizes myocardial hyaluronic acid in dogs with coronary artery occlusion. Circ Res 48: 88–95, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cairns JA, Holder DA, Tanser P, Missirlis E: Intravenous hyaluronidase therapy for myocardial infarction in man: Double-blind trial to assess infarct size limitations. Circulation 65: 764–771, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jaffe AS: The administration of hyaluronidase to patients with acute myocardial infarction: Results of the MILIS study (abstr). J Am Coll Cardiol 5:447, 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roberts R: Apparent beneficial effect of hyaluronidase on mortality and ventricular function in a subset of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clin Res 33:522A, 1985.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Epstein SE, Braunwald E: Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Mechanisms of action and clinical applications. N Engl J Med 275: 1106, 1966.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wolfson S, Gorlin R: Cardiovascular pharmacology of propranolol in man. Circulation 401: 501, 1969.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Parker JO, West RO, DiGiorgi S: Hemo-dynamic effects of propranolol in coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 21:11, 1968.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Opie LH, Thomas M: Propranolol and experimental myocardial infarction: Substrate effects. Postgrad Med J 52: 124, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Antihypertensive drugs, plasma lipids, and coronary disease. Lancet 2: 19–20, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shatney CH, MacCarter DJ, Lillehei RC: Effects of allopurinol, propranolol and methyl-prednisolone on infarct size in experimental myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 37: 572–580, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vatner SF, Baig H, Manders WT, Ochs H, Pagani M: Effects of propranolol on regional myocardial function, electrograms and blood flow in conscious dogs with myocardial ischemia. J Clin Invest 60: 353–360, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hjalmarson A, et al: Effect on mortality of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 823–827, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilhelmsson C, et al: Reduction of sudden deaths after myocardial infarction by treatment with alprenolol. Lancet 2: 1157–1160, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ahlmark G, Saetre H, Korsgren M: Reduction of sudden deaths after myocardial infarction. Lancet 2:1563, 1974.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Multicentre International Study: Reduction in mortality after myocardial infarction with long term beta-adrenoreceptor blockade. Br Med J 2: 419–421, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Andersen MP, et al: Effect of alprenolol on mortality among patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 865–872, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Norwegian Multicentre Study Group: Timolol-mduced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 304: 801–807, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Beta Blocker Heart Attack Trial Research Group: A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction. I. Mortality results. JAMA 247: 1707–1714, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Roberts, R, et al: Effect of propranolol on myocardial infarct size in a randomized blinded multicenter trial. N Engl J Med 311: 218–225, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gold HK, Leinbach RC, Maroko PR: Propranolol-induced reduction of signs of Ischemic injury during acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 38:689, 1976.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yusuf S, Ramsdale D, Peto R, Furse L, Bennett D, Bray C, Sleight P: Early intravenous atenolol treatment in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 2:273, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Norris RM, Clarke ED, Sammel NL, Smith WM, Williams B: Protective effect of propranolol in threatened myocardial infarction. Lancet 2: 907–909, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peter T, Norris RM, Clarke ED, Heng MK, Singh BN, Williams B, Howell DR, Ambler PK: Reduction of enzyme levels by propranolol after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 57: 1091, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hjalmarson A, Ariniego R, Herlitz J, et al: Limitation of infarct size in man by the beta1 blocker metoprolol. Circulation 59 and 60 (Suppl II): 11–164, 1979.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Baber NS, Evans DW, Howitt G, et al: A multicenter propranolol post infarction trial in 49 hospitals in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Yugoslavia. Br Heart J 44: 96–100, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    The Miami Trial Research Group: Metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction (MIAMI). A rando-mized, placebo-controlled international trial. Eur Heart J 6: 199–226, 1985.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Awan NA, Amsterdam EA, Vera Z, DeMaria AN, Miller RR, Mason DT: Reduction of Ischemic injury by sublingual nitroglycerin in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 54: 761–765, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Borer JS, Redwood DR, Levitt B, Cagin N, Bianchi C, Vallin H, Epstein SE: Reduction in myocardial ischemia with nitroglycerin or nitroglycerin plus phenylephrine administered during acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 293: 1008–1012, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Come PC, Flaherty JT, Baird MG, Roleau JR, Weisfeldt ML, Greene HL, Becker L, Pitt B: Reversal by phenylephrine of the beneficial effects of intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 293: 1003–1007, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Perrida JP, Sal R, Chiche P: Nitroglycerin infusion in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 297:336, 1977.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Flaherty JT, Reid PR, Kelly DT, Taylor DR, Weisfeldt ML, Pitt B: Intravenous nitroglycerin in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 51: 132–139, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jaffe AS, Geltman EM, Tiefenbrunn AJ, Ambos HD, Snyder D, Fukyyama O, Bauwens D, Sobel BE, Roberts R: Reduction of the extent of inferior myocardial infarction with intravenous nitroglycerin: A randomized prospective study. Circ 11–64, IV-195, 1981.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bussman WD, Passek D, Seidel W, Kaltenbach M: Reduction of CK and CK-MB indexes of infarct size by intravenous nitroglycerin. Circulation 63: 615–622, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Oliva PB, Breckenridge JC: Arteriographic evidence of coronary spasm in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 56: 366–376, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Laffel Gl and Braunwald E: Thrombolytic therapy. A new strategy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 311:710-717,770–776, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ganz W, Buchbinder N, Marcus H, Mondkar A, Maddahi J, Charuzi Y, O’Connor L, Shell W, Fishbein MC, Kass R, Miyamoto A, Swan HJC: Intracoronary thrombolysis in evolving myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 101: 4–13, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rentrop P, Blanke H, Karsch KR, Kaiser H, Kostering H, Leitz K: Selective intracoronary thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris. Circulation 63: 307–317, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mathey DG, Kuck KH, Tilsner V, Krebber HJ, Bleifeld W: Nonsurgical coronary artery recana-lization after acute transmural myocardial infarction. Circulation 63: 489–497, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reduto LA, Smalling RW, Freund GC, Gould KL: Intracoronary infusion of streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Effects of reperfusion on left ventricular performance. Am J Cardiol 48: 403–309, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Markis JE, Malagold M, Parker JA, Silverman KJ, Barry WH, Als AV, Paulin S, Grossman W, Braunwald E: Myocardial salvage after intracoronary thrombolysis with streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 305: 777–782, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schuler G, Schwarz F, Hofmann M, Mehmel H, Manthey J, Maurer W, Rauch B, Herrmann HJ, Kubler W: Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction using intracoronary streptokinase: Assessment by thallium-201 scintigraphy. Circulation 66: 656–664, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Khaja F, Walton JA, Brymer JF, Lo E, Osterber-ger L, O’Neill WW, Colfer HT, Weiss R, Lee T, Kurian T, Goldberg AD, Pitt B, Goldstein S: Intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Report of a prospective randomized trial. N Engl J Med 308: 1305–1311, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ritchie JL, Davis KB, Williams DL, Caldwell J, Ward-Kennedy J: Global and regional left ventricular function and tomographic radionuclide perfusion: The Western Washington Intracoronary Streptokinase in Myocadial Infarction Trial. Circulation 70: 867–875, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anderson JL, Marshall HW, Bray BE, Lutz JR, Frederick PR, Yanowitz PG, Datz FL, Llausner SC, Hagan AD: A randomized trial of intracoronary streptokinase in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 308: 1312–1318, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Smalling RW, Fuentes F, Matthews MW, Freund GC, Hicks CH, Reduto LA, Walker WE, Sterling PR, Gould KL: Sustained improvement in left ventricular function and mortality by intracoronary streptokinase administration during evolving myocardial infarction. Circulation 68: 131–138, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Simoons ML, et al: Improved survival after early thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 11: 578–582, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ward-Kennedy J, Ritchie JL, Davis KB, Fritz JK: Western Washington Randomized Trial of Intracoronary Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med 309: 1477–1482, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ward-Kennedy J, Ritchie JL, Davis KB, Stadius ML, Maynard C, Fritz JK: The Western Washington Randomized Trial of Intracoronary Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction. A 12-month foliowup report. N Engl J Med 312: 1073–1078, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fletcher A, Sherry S, Alkjaersig N, Smyrniotis F, Jick S: Maintenance of a sustained thrombolytic state in man. II. Clinical observations on patients with myocardial infarction and other thromboembolic disorders. J Clin Invest 38:1111, 1959.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Simon TL, Ware JH, Stengle JM: Clinical trials of thrombolytic agents in myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 79: 712–719, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Saltups A, Boxall J, Ho B: Intracoronary vs intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 68(11):111-119, 1983.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rogers WJ, Mantle JA, Good WP, Baxley WA, Whitlow PL, Reeves RC, Soto B: Prospective randomized trial of intravenous and intracoronary streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 68: 1051–1061, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Spann JF, Sherry S, Carabello BA, Mann RH, McCann WD, Gault JA, Gentzier RD, Rosenberg KM, Maurer AH, Denenberg BS, Warner HF, Rubin RN, Malmud LS, Comerota A: High dose, brief intravenous streptokinase early in acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 104: 939–945, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Koren G, et al: Prevention of myocardial damage and acute myocardial ischemia by early treatment with intravenous streptokinase. N Engl J Med 313: 1384–1389, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schroder R, Biamino G, Leitner E-RV, Linderer T, Bruggemann T, Heitz J, Vohringer H-F, Wegscheider K: Intravenous short-term infusion of streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 67: 536–548, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Collen D, Rijken DC, Van Damme J, Billiau A: Purification of human tissue-type plasminogen activator in centigram quantities for human melanoma cell culture fluid and its conditioning for use in vivo. Throm Haemost 48: 294, 1982.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bergmann SR, Fox KAA, Ter-Pogossian MM, Sobel BE, Collen D: Clot-selective coronary thrombolysis. Science 220: 1181–1184, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Verstraete M, et al: Randomized trial of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator versus intravenous streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction: Report from the European Cooperative Study Group for Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator. Lancet 1: 842–847, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pennica D, Holmes WE, Kohr WJ, Harkins RN, Vehar GA, Ward CA, Bennett WF, Yelverton E, Seeburg PH, Heyneker HL, Goeddel DV, Collen D: Cloning and expression of human tissue-type plasminogen activator cDNA in E coli Nature 301: 214, 1983.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial: Phase I findings. N Engl J Med 312: 932–936, 1985.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lee G, Mason DT: Editorial. Percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization: A new approach to acute myocardial infarction therapy with the potential for widespread application. Am Heart J 101: 121–123, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Phillips SJ, Kongtahworn C, Zeff RH, Benson M, Iannone L, Brown T, Gordon DF: Emergency coronary artery revascularization. A possible therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 60: 241–250, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    DeWood MA, Spores J, Notske RN, Lang HT, Shields JP, Simpson CS, Lloud WR, Grunwald R: Medical and surgical management of myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 44: 1356–1364, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular DivisionBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.CardiologistGreen Lane HospitalAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations