Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction



Acute myocardial infarction is often accompanied by some degree of heart failure. In general, anterior infarction is associated with more severe pulmonary congestion than is inferior infarction. Inferoposterior infarction is occasionally associated with the syndrome of right ventricular infarction, i.e., hypotension with or without bradycardia, clear lung fields, and elevated right heart filling pressures. It is common for patients to have no symptoms of heart failure when an S4 gallop rhythm is present (usually reflecting elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) , and about half the patients with significant pulmonary congestion evident on chest x-ray have no abnormal physical findings.


Acute Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Cardiogenic Shock Cardiac Tamponade Acute Infarction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wolk MJ, Scheidt S, Killip T: Heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 45: 1125–1138, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marcus FI. Editorial: Use of digitalis in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 62: 17–19, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saunders RJ, Kern WH, Blount SG: Perforation of the interventricular septum complicating infarction. Am Heart J 51: 736–748, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Radford MJ, Johnson RA, Daggett WM, Fallon JT, Buckley MJ, Gold HK, Leinbach RC: Ventricular septal rupture: A review of clinical and physiologic features and an analysis of survival. Circulation 64: 545–553, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee WY, Cardon L, Slodki SJ: Perforation of infarcted interventricular septum. Report of a case with prolonged survival, diagnosed ante-mortem by cardiac catheterization, and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 109: 731–741, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wessler S, Zoll PM, Schlesinger MJ: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cardiac rupture. Circulation 6: 334–351, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Editorial: Perforation of the interventricular septum. Br Med J 281: 1305–1306, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Selzer A, Gerbode F, Kerth WJ: Clinical, hemodynamic and surgical considerations of rupture of the ventricular septum after myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 78: 598–607, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swithinbank JM: Perforation of the interventricular septum and myocardial infarction. Br Heart J 21:562, 1969.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meister SG, Heifant RH: Rapid bedside differentiation of rupture interventricular septum from acute mitral insufficiency. N Engl J Med 287: 1024–1025, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Daggett WM, Guyton RA, Mundth ED, Buckley MJ, McEnany MT, Gold HK, Leinbach RC, Austen WG: Surgery for post-myocardial infarct ventricular septal defect. Ann Surg 186: 260–271 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Montoya A, McKeever L, Scanion P, Sullivan HJ, Gunnar RM, Pifarre R: Early repair of ventricular septal rupture after infarction. Am J Cardiol 45: 345–348, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heikkila J: Mitral incompetence as a complication of acute myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 475, Suppl. 9–139, 1967.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wei JY, Hutchins GM, Buckley BH: Papillary muscle rupture in fatal acute myocardial infarctions. A potentially treatable form of cardiogenic shock. Ann Intern Med 90: 149–153, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gerbode FLA, Hetzer R, Krebber HJ: Surgical management of papillary muscle rupture due to myocardial infarction. World J Surg 2: 791–796, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rasmussen S, Leth A, Kjoller E, et al: Cardiac rupture in acute myocardial infarction: A review of 72 consecutive cases. Acta Med Scand 205:11, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schuster EH, Bulkley BH: Expansion of trans-mural myocardial infarction: A pathophysiologic factor in cardiac rupture. Circulation 60: 1532–1538, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    London RE, London SB: Rupture of the heart: The critical analysis of 47 autopsy cases. Circulation 31: 202–208, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bishop LH, Estes EH, Mclntosh HD: The electrocardiogram as a safeguard in pericardiocente-sis. JAMA 162:264, 1956.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bates RJ, Beutler S, Resnekov L, Anagnostopoulous CE: Cardiac rupture, challenge in diagnosis and management. (A review.) Am J Cardiol 40: 429–437, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fitzgibbon GM, Hooper GD, Heggtveit HA: Successful surgical treatment of post-infarction, external cardiac rupture. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 63: 622–630, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Rourke MF: Subacute heart rupture following myocardial infarction; clinical features of a correctable condition. Lancet 2: 124–126, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    O’Rourke MF, Sammel N, Chang VP: Arterial counterpulsation in severe refractory heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J 41: 308–316, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mclntosh HD, Buccino RA: Emergency coronary artery revascularization of patients with acute myocardial infarction: You can … but should you? Circulation 60: 247–250, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Windsor HM, O’Rourke MF, Feneley MP: Sub-acute heart rupture and hemopericardium following acute myocardial infarction: report of successful treatment in 10 year follow up. Austr NZ J Med 14: 47–49, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Antman E, Cargill V, Grossman W: Low pressure cardiac tamponade. Ann Intern Med 91:403, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shabetai R: Changing concepts of cardiac tamponade. Mod Conc Cardiovasc Dis 52: 19–23, 1983.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Settle HP, Adolf RJ, Fowler NO, Engle P, Agruss NS, Levenson NI: Echocardiographic study of cardiac tamponade. Circulation 56: 951–959, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schiller NB, Botvinick EH: Right ventricular compression as a sign of cardiac tamponade: An analysis of echocardiographic ventricular dimensions and their clinical implications. Circulation 56: 774–779, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toole JC, Silverman ME: Pericarditis of acute myocardial infarction. Chest 67:647, 1975.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mantle JA, Rogers WJ, Russell RO, Rackley CE: Emergency revascularization of acute myocardial infarction: an unproved experimental approach. Am J Cardiol 44: 1407–1409, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular DivisionBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.CardiologistGreen Lane HospitalAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations