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Adenovirus DNA pp 367-408 | Cite as

Oncogenic Transformation by Human Adenoviruses and Their DNA

  • Stanley Mak
  • Irene Mak
Part of the Developments in Molecular Virology book series (DMVI, volume 8)

Summary

Some adenoviruses such as Ad12 can induce tumors in newborn animals while others such as Ad2 and Ad5 cannot. However, all of them can cause morphological transformation of rodent cells in vitro. Hamster and rat cells transformed by the highly oncogenic viruses, for example Ad12, are tumorigenic in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts. Although hamster cells transformed by the non-oncogenic group (Ad2 and Ad5) are tumorigenic, rat cells transformed by this group of viruses are not. This difference in their biological properties affords an opportunity to dissect the viral genes responsible for cellular transformation and for tumorigenesis in vivo. The left 11% of the adenovirus genome (the E1 region) is sufficient to transform cells and for tumor induction. This region is further subdivided into E1A (0–4.5%) and E1B (4.5–11%). E1A encodes several polypeptides some of which have the capacity to regulate the activity of other viral and cellular genes during lytic infection, and is responsible for immortalization of primary cells. E1B, which encodes three to five polypeptides, confers other properties to the transformed cells, such as anchorage independent growth and cell morphology in some cases. It appears that both E1A and E1B are required for tumorigenicity of Ad12-transformed cells in immunocompetent animals. The E1B 58K polypeptide or its N-terminal portion is responsible for the “fully” transformed or tumorigenic phenotype. Available experimental data indicate that the E1B 19K polypeptide plays an important role in the efficiency of transformation of primary cells, but is not required for tumor induction by the transformed cells. Much of what is known about the biological functions of various viral genes has come from studies using cloned viral DNA fragments or virus containing mutations in the El region. It is anticipated that the increasing use of recombinant DNA technology to construct viral genomes containing specific mutations (site-directed mutagenesis) will further our understanding of the functions of transforming proteins.

Keywords

Cold Spring Harbor Wild Type Virus Human Adenovirus Host Range Mutant Newborn Hamster 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Mak
    • 1
  • Irene Mak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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