Cognitive, Personality, and Psychosocial Factors in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Brain-Injured Patients

  • George P. Prigatano
  • Mary Pepping
  • Pamela Klonoff

Abstract

The clinical neuropsychologist faced with the assessment of traumatic brain- injured adults (and other brain-dysfunctional patients) must eventually confront three interrelated diagnostic questions:
  1. 1.

    What is the nature and severity of higher cerebral dysfunction?

     
  2. 2.

    What is the patient’s personal reaction to these deficits?

     
  3. 3.

    What is the cumulative effect of these two dimensions on interpersonal or psychosocial adjustment?

     

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Expense Neurol Sorting 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Halstead, W.C. 1947. Brain and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reitan, R.M. & Davison, L.A. 1974. Clinical neuropsychology: current status and applications. New York: John Wiley and sons.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christensen, A.-L. 1979. Luria’s neuropsychological investigation, text ( 2nd ed. ). Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prigatano, G.P. (1986). Neuropsychological rehabilitation after brain injury. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldstein, K.H. 1942. Aftereffects of brain injury in war. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lishman, W.A. 1978. Organic psychiatry: the psychological consequences of cerebral disorder. New York: Blackwell Scientific Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Luriai, A.R. 1966. Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parsons, O.A. & Prigatano, G.P. 1978. Methodological considerations in clinical neuropsychological research. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 46, 608–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levin, H.S., Benton, A.L. & Grossman, R.G. 1982. Neurobehavioral consequences of closed head injury. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lezak, M.D. 1983. Neuropsychological assessment. ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prigatano, G.P., Fordyce, D.J., Zeiner, H.K., Roueche, J.R., Pepping, M. & Wood, B. 1984. Neuropsychological rehabilitation after closed head injury in young adults. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 47, 505–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luria, A.R. & Tsvetkova, L.S. 1964. The programming of constructive activity in local brain injuries. Neuropsychologia 2, 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grant, A.D. & Berg, E.A. 1948. A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type card sorting. J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 404–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nelson, H.E. 1976. A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex 12, 313–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Zomeren, AH. 1981. Reaction time and attention after closed head injury. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger B.V.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gronwall, D.M.A. & Wrightson, P. 1974. Delayed recovery of intellectual function after minor closed head injury. Lancet 2, 605–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schacter, DL. & Crovitz, HF. 1977. Memory function after closed head injury: a review of the quantitative research. Cortex 150–176Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brooks, D.N. 1975. Long and short-term memory in head-injured patients. Cortex 11, 329–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, E. 1974. Influence of site of impact on cognitive impairment persisting long after severe closed head injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 31, 719–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thomsen, I.V. 1977. Verbal learning and aphasic and non-aphasic patients with severe head injuries. Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. 9, 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Violon, A., Demol, J. & Brihaye, J. 1978. Memory sequelae after severe head injuries. In R.A. Frowein, O. Wilcke, A. Karimi-Nejad, M. Brock & M. Klinger (Eds.), Head injuries. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 105–107.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brooks, D.N. 1972. Memory and head injury. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 155, 350–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lezak, M.D. 1979. Recovery of memory and learning functions following traumatic brain injury. Cortex 15, 63–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newcombe, F. 1982. The psychological consequences of closed head injury: assessment and rehabilitation. Injury 14, 111–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wechsler, D. & Stone, C.P. 1945. Manual for the Wechsler Memory Scale. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prigatano, GP . 1978. The Wechsler Memory Scale: a selective review of the literature. J. Clin. Psychol. 34(4), 816–832, and as Archives of the Behavioral Sciences, Monograph #54, October, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fuld, PA . 1977. Fuld object-memory evaluation. New York: Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. May 1982. Chicago: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Buschke, H. & Fuld, P.A. 1974. Evaluating storage, retention, and retrieval in disordered memory and learning. Neurology 11, 1019–1025.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Groher, M. 1977. Language and memory disorders following closed head trauma. J. Speech Hear. Loss 20, 212–223.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levin, H.S., Grossman, R.G. & Kelly, P.J. 1976. Aphasic disorder in patients with closed head injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 39, 1062–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thomsen, I.V. 1975. Evaluation and outcome of aphasia in patients with severe closed head trauma. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 38, 713–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Levin, H.S., Grossman, R.G., Sarwar, M. & Meyers, C.A. 1981. Linguistic recovery after closed head. Brain Lang. 12, 360–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prigatano, G.P., Roueche, J.R. & Fordyce, D.J. (1985). Nonaphasic language disturbances in chronic head trauma patients. In F.C.C. Peng (Ed.), Language sciences monograph.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Courville, C.B. 1942. Coup-contrecoup mechanism of cranio-cerebral injuries: some observations. Arch. Surg. 55, 19–43.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Courville, C.B. 1945. Pathology of the nervous system. (2nd ed.) Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holbourn, A.H.S. 1943. Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet 2, 438–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ommaya, A.K. & Gennarelli, T.A. 1974. Cerebral concussion and unconsciousness: correlation of experimental and clinical observations on blunt head injuries. Brain 91, 633–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Strich, SJ . Cerebral trauma, 1976. In W. Blackwood & JAN Corsellis (Eds.), Greenfield’s neuropathology (3rd ed.). Longon: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rey, A. 1941. L’examen psychologique dans les cas d’encephalopathie traumatique. Arch. Psychol. 28, 286–340.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Porteus, S.D. 1959. The maze test and clinical psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hecaen, H. 1964. Mental symptoms associated with tumors of the frontal lobe. In J.M. Warren & K. Akert (Eds.), The frontal granular cortex and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lishman, W.A. 1968. Brain damage in relation to psychiatric disability after head injury. Brit. Psychiat. 114, 373–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Luria, A.R. 1973. The working brain. New York: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Milner, B. 1965. Visually-guided maze learning in man: effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal, and unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia 3, 317–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rylander, G. 1939. Personality changes after operations on the frontal lobes: a clinical study of 32 cases. Acta Psychiat. Neurol. Scand. (Supplement No. 20 ), 1–327.Google Scholar
  46. Rylander, G. 1943. Mental changes after excision of cerebral tissue. Acta Psychiat. (Supplement No. 25).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stuss, D.T. & Benson, D.F. 1984. Neuropsychological studies of the frontal lobes. Psychol. Bull 95, 3–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Benton, A.R. 1968. Differential behavioral effects in frontal lobe disease. Neuropsychologia 6, 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goldstein, K.H. 1939. The organism. New York: American Book Co.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Odcly, M., Humphrey, M. & Uttley, D. 1978. Stresses upon the relatives of head-injured patients. Brit. J. Psychiat. 133, 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Adams, J.H. 1975. The neuropathology of head injuries. In P.J. Vinken & G.W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, Vol. 23. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brandt, J., Seidman, L.J. & Kohl, D. 1985. Personality characteristics of epileptic patients: a controlled study of generalized and temporal lobe cases. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 7 (1), 25–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Roueche, J.R. & Fordyce, D.J. 1983. Perceptions of deficits following brain injury and their impact on psychosocial adjustment. Cog. Rehabil. 1, 4–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • George P. Prigatano
  • Mary Pepping
  • Pamela Klonoff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations