Fabrication Processes

  • Marco Annaratone
Part of the The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 16)

Abstract

CMOS processes are generally more complex and expensive than nMOS processes because extra steps and extra masks are required in the fabrication process. Although many different processes are available, all the CMOS processes fall into either one of the two following classes:
  • Bulk processes: the substrate is doped silicon. Examples of bulk processes are p-well, n-well, and twin-tub. Newer bulk processes [18,32] can also have bipolar transistors on the same wafer, which has positive effects on driving capability — which is not as high in MOS as in bipolar technology — and when digital/analog applications — such as sense amplifiers in memory design [17] — are considered.

  • Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) processes: the substrate is an insulator, such as sapphire (“silicon-on-sapphire,” SOS) or silicon dioxide (SiO2).

Keywords

SiO2 Dioxide Boron Marketing Nitride 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Annaratone
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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