Regulation of Keratinization during the Development of the Avian Feather and Scutate Scale

  • Roger H. Sawyer
  • Anne Reeves Haake

Abstract

Unlike other vertebrates birds and reptiles produce beta keratins, in addition to the alpha keratins which appear in the epidermis of all vertebrates. The alpha and beta keratins can be distinguished by their X-ray diffraction patterns, for which they are named (Bell and Thathachari, 1963; Baden and Maderson, 1970), ultrastructural characteristics (Parakkal and Matoltsky, 1968; Sawyer et al., 1974a; b), molecular weights (Walker and Bridgen, 1976), immunological identities (O’Guin et al., 1982), and nucleotide sequences (Molloy et al., 1982). The alpha keratin polypeptides of mammals are products of a multigene family (Moll et al., 1982), which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner (Sun et al., 1983), O’Guin and Sawyer (1982) and O’Guin (1984) have shown that the alpha keratins of birds are also expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and are recognized, on Western Blots, by at least one of the monoclonal antibodies made against human alpha keratins (Sun et al., 1983).

Keywords

Migration Recombination Corticosteroid Hydrocortisone Electrophoresis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, U.K., and Asmundson, V.S., 1957, Scaleless, an inherited ectodermal defect in the domestic fowl, J. Hered., 18: 63.Google Scholar
  2. Baden, H.P., and Maderson, P.F.A., 1970, Morphological and biophysical identification of fibrous proteins in the amniote epidermis, J. Exp. Zool., 174: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, E., and Thathachari, Y.T., 1963, Development of feather keratin during embryogenesis of the chick, J. Cell. Biol., 16: 215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brotman, H.F., 1977, Epidermal-dermal tissue interactions between mutant foot skin and normal backskin: A comparison of the inductive capacities of scaleless low line and normal anterior foot dermis. J. Ex£. Zool., 200: 125.Google Scholar
  5. Brotman, H.F., 1977, Epidermal-dermal tissue interactions between mutant and normal embryonic back skin: site of mutant gene activity determining abnormal feathering in the epidermis, J. Exp. Zool., 200: 243.Google Scholar
  6. Demarchez, M., Mauger, A., Herbage, D., and Sengel, P., 1984, Effect of hydrocortisone on skin development in the chick embryo: ultrastructural, immunohistological and biochemical analysis, Dev. Biol., 106: 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dhouailly, D., Rogers, G.E., and Sengel, P., 1978, The specification of feather and scale protein synthesis in epidermal-dermal recombinations, Dev. Biol., 65: 58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dhouailly, D., and Sengel, P., 1983, Feather forming properties of the foot integument in avian embryos, in: “Epithelial- mesenchymal interactions in development”, R.H. Sawyer and J.F. Fallon, eds., Praeger Press, NY.Google Scholar
  9. Dhouailly, D., and Sawyer, R.H., 1984, Avian scale development: XI. Initial appearance of the dermal defect in scaleless skin, Dev. Biol., 105: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dwyer, N.K., 1971, Chick scale morphogenesis: Early events in the formation of overall shank and individual scale shape, Master’s Thesis, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.Google Scholar
  11. Fisher, C., and Sawyer, R.H., 1979, Response of the avian chorionic epithelium to presumptive scale-forming dermis, J. Exp., Zool., 207: 505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fisher, C.J., O’Guin, W.M., and Sawyer, R.H., 1984, Altered keratin biosynthesis follows inhibition of scale morphogenesis by hydrocortisone, Dev. Biol., 106: 45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haake, A.R., König, G., and Sawyer, R.H., 1984, Avian feather development: Relationships between morphogenesis and keratinization, Dev. Biol., 106: 406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kato, Y., and Hayashi, Y., 1963, The inductive transformation of the chorionic epithelium into skin derivatives, Exp. Cell Res., 31: 599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kato, Y., 1969, Epithelial metaplasia induced on embryonic membranes. I. Induction of epidermis from chick chorionic epithelium, J. Exp. Zool., 170: 229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kemp, D.J., and Rogers, G.E., 1972, Differentiation of avian keratinocytes: Characterization and relationship of the keratin proteins of adult and embryonic feathers and scales. Biochemistry, 11: 969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kodama, R., and Eguchi, G., 1983, Characterization of an antiserum against feather keratins of the chick: Its cross-reaction with lens protein, (delta)-crystallin, Dev., Growth and Differ., 25 (3): 26l.Google Scholar
  18. Kodama, R., and Eguchi, G., 1983, Characterization of an antiserum against feather keratins of the chick: Its cross-reaction with lens protein, (delta)-crystallin, Dev., Growth and Differ., 25 (3): 26l.Google Scholar
  19. Linsenmayer, T.F., 1972, Control of integumentary patterns of the chick, Dev. Biol., 27: 244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lockett, T.J., Kemp, D.J., and Rogers, G.E., 1979, Organization of the unique and repetitive sequences in feather keratin messenger ribonucleic acid, Biochemistry, 18: 5654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matulionis, D.H., 1970, Morphology of the developing down feather of chick embryos, Z. Anat. Entw.-Gesch, 132: 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McAleese, S.R. and Sawyer, R.H., 1981, Correcting the phenotype of the epidermis from chick embryos homozygous for the gene scaleless (sc/sc). Science 214: 1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McAleese, S.R., and Sawyer, R.H., 1982, Avian scale development, IX. Scale formation by scaleless (sc/sc) epidermis under the influence of normal scale dermis, Dev. Biol., 89: 493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moll, R., Franke, W.W., Schiller, D.L., Geiger, B., and Krepler, R., 1982, The catalog of human cytokeratins: Patterns of expression in normal epithelia, tumors and cultured cells, Cell, 31: 11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Molloy, P.L., Powell, B.C., Gregg, K., Barone, E.D., and Rogers, G.E 1982, Organization of feather keratin genes in the chick genome Nucleic Acids Res., 10: 6007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moscona, M.H. and Karnofsky, D.A., 1960, Cortisone-induced modifications in the development of the chick embryo, Endocrinology, 66: 533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Novel, G., 1973, Feather pattern stability and reorganization in cultured skin, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol., 30: 605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Obinata, A., Kawanda, M., and Endo, H., 1982, Heterogeneity of low molecular weight epidermal structural proteins of chick embryonic tarsometatarsal skin. Effect of hydrocortisone on its accumulation with reference to differentiation of epidermal cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 708: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Guin, W.M., and Sawyer, R.H., 1982, Avian scale development. VIII. Relationships between morphogenetic and biosynthetic differentiation, Dev. Biol., 89: 485.Google Scholar
  30. O’Guin, W.M., Knapp, L., and Sawyer, R.H., 1982, Biochemical and immunohistochemical localization of alpha and beta keratins in avian scutate scale, J. Exp. Zool., 220: 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Guin, W.M., 1984, Relationships between morphogenetic and biosynthetic differentiation in the development of the avian integument, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  32. Parakkal, P.F., and Matoltsy, A.G., 1968, An electron microscopic study of developing chick skin, J. Ultrastruct. Res., 23: 403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rawles, M.E., 1963, Tissue interactions in scale and feather development as studied in dermal-epidermal recombinations, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol., 2: 765.Google Scholar
  34. Rudall, K.M., 1947, X-ray studies of the distribution of protein chain types in the vertebrate epidermis, Biochim Biophy. Acta, 1: 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sawyer, R.H., 1970, An analysis of avian scale morphogenesis, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  36. Sawyer, R.H., 1972a, Avian scale development. I. Histogenesis and morphogenesis of the epidermis and dermis during formation of the scale ridge, J. Exp. Zool., 181: 365.Google Scholar
  37. Sawyer, R.H., 1972b, Avian scale development. II. A study of cell proliferation, J. Exp. Zool., 181: 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sawyer, R.H., and Abbott, U.K., 1972, Defective histogenesis and morphogenesis in the anterior shank skin of the scaleless mutant, J. Ex£. Zool., 181: 99.Google Scholar
  39. Sawyer, R.H., Abbott, U.K., and Fry, G.N., 1974a, Avian scale development. III. Ultrastructure of the keratinizing cells of the outer and inner epidermal surfaces of the scale ridge, J. Exp. Zool., 190: 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sawyer, R.H., Abbott, U.K., and Fry, G.N., 1974b, Avian scale development. IV. Ultrastructure of the anterior shank skin of the scaleless mutant, J. Exp. Zool., 190: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sawyer, R.H., 1975, Avian scale development. V. Ultrastructure of the chorionic epithelium induced by anterior shank dermis from the scaleless mutant, J. Exp. Zool., 191: 133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sawyer, R.H., 1979, Avian scale development: Effect of the scaleless gene on morphogenesis and histogenesis, Dev. Biol. Biol., 68: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sawyer, R.H., and Fallon, J.G.F., eds., Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development, Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Sawyer, R.H., 1983, The role of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in regulating gene expression during avian scale morphogenesis, in: “Epithelail-Mesenchymal Interactions in Development”, R.H. Sawyer and J.F. Fallon, eds., Praeger Press, NY.Google Scholar
  45. Sawyer, R.H., 1983, The role of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in regulating gene expression during avian scale morphogenesis, in: “Epithelail-Mesenchymal Interactions in Development”, R.H. Sawyer and J.F. Fallon, eds., Praeger Press, NY.Google Scholar
  46. Schroeder, W.A., and Kay, L.M., 1955, The amino acid composition of certain morphologically distinct parts of white turkey feathers and of goose fetaher barbs and goose down, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 7: 3901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sengel, P., 1958, Recherches experimentales sur la differenciation des germes plumaires et du pigment de la peau de l’embryon de poues en culture in vitro, Ann. Sci. Zool., 20: 421.Google Scholar
  48. Sengel, P., and Abbott, U.K., 1963, In vitro studies with the scaleless mutant: Interaction during feather and scale differentiation, J. Hered. 54: 254.Google Scholar
  49. Sengel, P., and Rusaouen, M., 1968, Aspects histologiques de la differenciation precoce des ebauches plumaires chez le Poulet. C r Acad. Sci., D266: 795.Google Scholar
  50. Sengel, P., 1976, Morphogenesis of skin, in: “Developmental and cell biology series”, Abercrombie, M., Newth, D.R., and Torrey, S.G. eds., University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  51. Smoak, K.D. and Sawyer, R.H., 1983, Avian spur development: abnormal morphogenesis and keratinization in the scaleless (sc/sc), Mutant Bioscience, 33 (8): 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stuart, E.S., Garber, B., and Moscona, A.A., 1972, An analysis of feather germ formation in the embryo and in vitro, in normal development and in skin treated with hydrocortisone, J. Exp. Zool., 179: 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sun, T-T., Eichner, R., Nelson, W.G., Tseng, S.C.G., Weiss, R.A., Jarvinen, M., and Woodcock-Mitchell, J., 1983, Keratin classes: Molecular markers for different types of epithelial differentiation, J. Invest. Dermatol., 81 (1): 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tanaka, S., and Kato, Y, 1983, Epigenesis in developing avian scales I. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of finite cell populations, J. Exp. Zool., 225: 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tanaka, S., and Kato, Y., 1983, Epigenesis in developing avian scales. II. Cell proliferation in relation to morphogenesis and differentiation in the epidermis, J. Exp. Zool., 225: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walker, I.D., and Bridgen, J., 1976, The keratin chains of avian scale keratin genes, Eur. J. Biochem., 67: 283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wessells, N.K., 1965, Morphology and proliferation during early feather development, Dev. Biol., 12: 131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilton, S.D., 1984, Molecular studies of keratin genes expressed in avian epidermal tissue, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger H. Sawyer
    • 1
  • Anne Reeves Haake
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations