Advertisement

Motor Patterns Dedicated to Sensory Functions

  • David Chiszar

Abstract

This paper started out to be a review of our recent work on snake chemoreception (Chiszar et al., 1983a, b, 1984, 1985; O’Connell et al., 1985, Radcliffe et al., 1983, 1984, 1985), but it has metamorphosed into a theoretical presentation which I hope will be of general interest to chemical ecologists and sensory physiologists. The main idea will be brought into focus by describing a survey of experiments reported in Muller-Schwarze and Silverstein (1980).

Keywords

Motor Pattern Orienting Reflex Garter Snake Appetitive Behavior Tongue Flick 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anokhin, P. K., 1965, The role of the orienting-exploratory reaction in the formation of the conditioned reflex, in: “Orienting Reflex and Exploratory Behavior,” L. G. Voronin, A. N., Leontiev, A. R. Luria, E. N. Sokolov, and O. S. Vinogradova, eds., Amer. Inst. Biol. Sci., Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  2. Beauchamp, G. K., Martin, I. G., Wellington, J. L., and Wysocki, C. J., 1983, The accessory olfactory system: Role in maintenance of chemo-investigating behavior, in: “Chemical Signals in Vertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Beauchamp, G. K., Wellington, J. L., Wysocki, C. J., Brand, J. C., Kubie, J. L., and Smith, A. B., 1980, Chemical communication in the guinea pig: Urinary components of low volatility and their access to the vomeronasal organ, in: “Chemical Signals: Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Berlyne, D. E., 1960, “Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity,” McGraw-Hill, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brock, O. G., 1980, Predatory Behavior of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus): Field Enclosure and Y-maze Laboratory Studies, Emphasizing Prey Trailing Behavior, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  6. Bronson, F. H., 1968, Pheromonal influences on mammalian reproduction, in: “Reproduction and Sexual Behavior,” M. Diamond, ed., Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  7. Burghardt, G. M., and Pruitt, G. H., 1975, The role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naive and experienced garter snakes, Physiol. Behav., 14: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burghardt, G. M., and Pruitt, G. H., 1975, The role of the tongue and senses in feeding of naive and experienced garter snakes, Physiol. Behav., 14: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiszar, D., Radcliffe, C. W., O’Connell, B., and Smith, H. M., 1982, Analysis of the behavioral sequence emitted by rattlesnakes during feeding episodes. II. Duration of strike-induced chemosensory searching in rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis, C. enyo), Behav. Neural. Biol., 34: 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiszar, D., Radcliffe, C. W., and Scudder, K. M., 1977, Analysis of the behavioral sequence emitted by rattlesnakes during feeding episodes. I. Striking and chemosensory searching, Behav. Biol., 21: 418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiszar, D., Radcliffe, C. W., Scudder, K. M., and Duvall, D., 1983a, Strike-induced chemosensory searching by rattlesnakes: The role of envenomation-related chemical cues in the post-strike environment, in: “Chemical Signals in Vertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Chiszar, D., Stimac, K., and Boyer, T., 1983b, Effect of mouse odors on visually-induced and strike-induced chemosensory searching in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), Chem. Senses, 7: 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiszar, D., Stimac, K., Poole, T., Miller, T., Radcliffe, C. W., and Smith, H. M., 1983c, Strike-induced chemosensory searching in cobras (Naja naja kaouthia, N. mossambica pallida), Zeitschr. Tierpsychol., 63: 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiszar, D., Walsh, T., Demeter, B., Davenport, M., Chiszar, J., and Smith, H. M., 1984, No social induction of chemosensory searching in rattlesnakes at National Zoo. Paper presented at meetings of the Animal Behavior Society, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA.Google Scholar
  15. Craig, W., 1918, Appetites and aversions as constituents of instincts, Biol. Bull., 34: 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dullemeijer, P., 1961, Some remarks on the feeding behavior of rattlesnakes, Kon. Nederland. Acad. Wetensch., Series C, 64: 383.Google Scholar
  17. Duvall, D., Scudder, K. M., and Chiszar, D., 1980, Rattlesnake predatory behaviour: Mediation of prey discrimination and release of swallowing by cues arising from envenomated mice, Anim. Behav., 28: 674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Estep, K., Poole, T., Radcliffe, C. W., O’Connell, B., and Chiszar, D., 1981, Distance traveled by mice (Mus musculus) after envenomation by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), Bull. Psychon. Sci., 18: 108.Google Scholar
  19. Fagan, J. F., 1984, The intelligent infant: Theoretical implications, Intelligence, 8: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fantz, R. L., 1961, The origin of form perception, Sci. Amer., 204: 66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gerd, M. A., 1965, The orienting and exploratory reflexes and their role in the process of animal training, in: “Orienting Reflex and Exploratory Behavior,” L. D. Voronin, A. N. Leontiev, A. R. Luria, E. N. Sokolov, and O. S. Vinogradova, eds., Amer. Inst. Biol. Sci., Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  22. Golan, L., Radcliffe, C. W., Miller, T., O’Connell, B., and Chiszar, D., 1982, Trailing behavior in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), J. Herpetol., 16: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halpern, M., and Kubie, J. L., 1983, Snake tongue flicking behavior: Clues to vomeronasal system functions, in: “Chemical Signals in Vertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Hayes, W. R., and Galusha, J. C., 1984, Effects of rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis oreganus) envenomation upon mobility of male wild and laboratory mice (Mus musculus), Bull. MP Herpetol. Soc., 20: 135.Google Scholar
  25. Kamil, A. C., and Sargent, T. D., Eds., 1981, “Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological, and Psychological Approaches,” Garland STPM Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Kardong, K. V., 1985, The strike behavior of the rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus, in preparation.Google Scholar
  27. Kubie, J. L., and Halpern, M., 1979, Chemical senses involved in garter snake prey trailing, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 93: 648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Landis, C., and Hunt, W. A., 1939, “The Startle Pattern,” Farrar and Rinehart, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Lorenz, K., 1937, Über die Bildung des Instinktbegriffs, Die Naturwissensch, 25:289, 307, 324.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lorenz, K. Z., 1981, “The Foundations of Ethology,” Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Muller-Schwarze, D., 1980, Chemical signals in alarm behavior of deer, in: “Chemical Signals: Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Muller-Schwarze, D., and Silverstein, R. M., eds., 1980, “Chemical Signals: Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates,” Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. O’Connell, B., Greenlee, R., Bacon, J., and Chiszar, D., 1982, Strike-induced chemosensory searching in old world vipers and new world pit vipers at San Diego Zoo, Zoo Biol., 1: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Connell, B., Greenlee, R., Bacon, J., and Chiszar, D., 1982, Strike-induced chemosensory searching in old world vipers and new world pit vipers at San Diego Zoo, Zoo Biol., 1: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Connell, B., Greenlee, R., Bacon, J., and Chiszar, D., 1982, Strike-induced chemosensory searching in old world vipers and new world pit vipers at San Diego Zoo, Zoo Biol., 1: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Radcliffe, C. W., Poole, T., Feiler, F., Warnock, N., Byers, T., Radcliffe, A., and Chiszar, D., 1983, Immobilization of mice following envenomation by cobras (Naja mossambica pallida), Bull. Psychon. Soc., 21: 243.Google Scholar
  37. Radcliffe, C. W., Stimac, K., Smith, H. M., and Chiszar, D., 1983, Effects of prey size on post-strike behavior of juvenile red spitting cobras (Naja mossambica pallida), Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 87: 59.Google Scholar
  38. Scudder, K. M., Chiszar, D., and Smith, H. M., 1983, The effect of environmental odors on strike-induced chemosensory searching by rattlesnakes, Copeia, 1983: 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Singer, A. G., Macrides, F., and Agosta, W. C., 1980, Chemical studies of hamster reproductive pheromones, in: “Chemical Signals: Vertebrates and Aquatic Invertebrates,” D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Sokolov, E. N., 1963, Higher nervous functions: The orienting reflex, Ann. Rev. Physiol., 25: 545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tinbergen, N., 1951, “The Study of Instinct,” Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Voronin, L. G., Leontiev, A. N., Luria, A. R., Sokolov, E. N., and Vinogradova, O. S., eds., 1965, “Orienting Reflex and Exploratory Behavior,” Amer. Inst. Biol. Sci., Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  43. Wells, K. E., Smith, H. M., and Spaur, R. C., 1971, Correlation of ophidian sensory modalities with gross brain proportion, J. Herpetol., 5: 200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zernstova, M. I., Novikova, L. A., Paramonova, N. P., and Sokolov, E. N., 1965, Investigation of the orienting reflex to sound stimuli in blind persons, in: “Orienting Reflex and Exploratory Behavior,” L. G. Voronin, A. N. Leontiev, A. R. Luria, E. N. Sokolov, and O. S. Vinogradova, eds., Amer. Inst. Biol. Sci., Washington, D. C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Chiszar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations