Manufacture of Zone Plates

  • Alan G. Michette


In the previous chapter the imaging properties of amplitude and phase zone plates were considered, on the assumption that the zone boundaries were correctly positioned. These properties will be modified for realizable zone plates, since the boundaries cannot be positioned with arbitrary accuracy. In particular, the intensity in each of the predicted foci will, in general, be decreased, the point spread functions will be changed, and further foci may be obtained. A normally less important modification may be to the positions of the foci. In addition, amplitude zone plates for soft X rays are normally made on a supporting substrate, causing the open zones to be partially absorbing, while the closed zones may not be thick enough to be totally absorbing. By placing limits on the effects of these changes, for example by stipulating that diffraction-limited imaging is required, manufacturing tolerances can be obtained. The types of manufacturing error, and the corresponding tolerances, depend on the method of making the zone plates. Some methods for manufacturing amplitude zone plates will be discussed later in this chapter, while in this section tolerances will be established. The manufacture of phase zone plates will be discussed in Chapter 11, since the optical properties of most materials in the soft X-ray region are not yet known with sufficient accuracy to enable them to be designed and made with any confidence.


Point Spread Function Zone Boundary Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Zone Plate Strehl Ratio 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan G. Michette
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s CollegeLondonEngland

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