Computer Calculations on Steady-State Operation and Different Modes of Cool Down and Warm Up of the HERA Superconducting Proton Ring
The HERA superconducting proton ring contains 422 dipoles, 224 quadrupoles and about 650 correction magnets which are also superconducting. The coils are cooled by single-phase helium in forced flow which is in thermal contact with two-phase helium in counterflow. The total mass to be cooled to liquid helium temperature amounts to about 3.9 × 106 kg. Calculations on steady-state operation and on two methods of cool down and warm up of the magnet system are presented.
KeywordsEnthalpy Helium Lamination Refrigeration
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