Numerical Simulation of Self Pressurization in a Small Cryogenic Tank

  • Y. Rotenberg
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 31)


Recent interests in hydrogen energy systems have prompted research activities in the safe and effective storage and handling of liquid hydrogen. Small cryogenic tanks will be required for use in future on board vehicular and remote site hydrogen based systems. In order to facilitate design and safety analyses, the Institute for Hydrogen Systems has developed a numerical model which simulates the operations of a small size cryogenic tank. The simulation is based on a simplified physical model in which the mechanism of heat transfer is represented as a one dimensional process and the fluid mixture is approximated as a saturated homogeneous mixture. It is shown that the numerical results, when compared with experimental data, give rise to a prediction of pressure rise in a closed vessel which is 1.3 times lower then the actual pressure rise in a nearly empty tank. The calculated pressure rise is 1.6 times lower for a nearly full tank. This suggests that the difference between the predicted and experimental results is due mainly to the development of temperature gradients in the liquid.


Heat Transfer Heat Transfer Rate Effective Thermal Conductivity Pressure Rise Liquid Hydrogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. C Huntly, Temperature-Pressure-Time Relationships in a Closed Cryogenic Container, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 3, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. A. Clark, A Review of Pressurization, Stratification, and Interfacial Phenomena, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 10, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1964).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. O. Barnett, T.W. Winstead, and L.S.McReynolds, An Investigation of Liquid-Hydrogen Stratification in a Large Cylindrical Tank of the Saturn Configuration, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 10, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1964).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Beduz, R. Rebiai, and R.G. Scurlock, Thermal Overfill, and the Surface Vaporisation of Cryogenic Liquids Under Storage Conditions, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 29, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1983).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. E. Bailey and R.F. Fearn, Analytical and Experimental Determination of Liquid-Hydrogen Temperature Stratification, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 9, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1964).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Rotenberg, H.M. Edwards and F. Porretta, “Vacuum Loss Phenomena in a Liquid Hydrogen Dewar”, IHS Technical Report IHS-85-10 (1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Kreith, “Principles of Heat Transfer”, 3rd Ed., Intext Press, Inc., New York (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. G. Kaganer, “Thermal Insulation in Cryogenic Engineering”, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. J. Corruccini, Calculation of Gaseous Heat Conduction in Dewars, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 3, Plenum Press Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Barron, “Cryogenic Systems”, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    “Heat Transfer Data Book”, (Norris R.H., Buckland F.F., N.D. Fitzroy, R.H. Roecker and D.A. Kaminski eds.), General Electric Co., Schenectady, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. W Vance, “Applied Cryogenic Engineering”, John Willy (1962).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. B. Scott, “Cryogenic Engineering”, D. Van Nortrand, Toronto (1963).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. B. Jacobs, “Technology and Uses of Liquid Hydrogen”, R.B. Scott, W.H. Denton and C.M. Nicholls, eds., The Macmillan Company, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. A. Younglove, Interactive Fortran Program to Calculate Thermophysical Properties of Six Fluids, NBS Technical Note 1048 (1982).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. F. Stewart, “Experimental Investigation of Onboard Storage and Refueling Systems for Liquid-Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles”, D0E/CE- 0039, U.S. DOE (Sep. 1982).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Porretta et al, The Effects of Loss of Insulating Vacuum on the Storage of Liquid Hydrogen, Proceedings 2nd International Symposium on Hydrogen Produced from Renewable Energy, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Oct. 22–24 (1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Rotenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Hydrogen SystemsMississaugaCanada

Personalised recommendations