Neuropsychological Aspects of Cerebrovascular Disease and its Treatment

  • R. A. Bornstein
Part of the Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology book series (AICN, volume 3)


Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of death in developed countries (Wylie, 1972; Wolf et al., 1977). Furthermore, many patients who survive their strokes are left with significant physical or psychological deficits (Gresham et al., 1979) at considerable personal and economic cost (Hartunian, Smarth and Thompson, 1980). The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, and the high incidence of significant neurobehavioral deficit often results in these patients being referred for neuropsychological examination. In some settings they represent a major portion of the referral base, and patients with cerebrovascular disease have assumed a major role in the development of our understanding of basic brain-behavior relationships (e.g., aphasia). One expression of the importance of cerebrovascular disease in the development of the field of clinical neuropsychology is that one of the earliest thematic volumes was devoted to this group of diseases (Benton, 1970). In recent years there has been a continuing interest in a number of issues related to neuropsychological factors in cerebrovascular disease. Although early studies documented the type of neurobehavioral deficit in cerebrovascular disease (Reitan and Fitzhugh, 1972; Reitan, 1964, 1970; Meier, 1970), more recent studies have begun to pursue a variety of more precise and carefully defined questions related to specific types of behavioral deficit, or to determine deficits related to specific arterial distributions or specific subgroups of vascular disease patients.


Cerebral Blood Flow Cerebrovascular Disease Carotid Endarterectomy Moya Moya Disease Superficial Temporal Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, G.F. and Hurwitz, L.J. (1963). Mental barriers to recovery from strokes. Lancet, 2, 533–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, K.M. (1984). Neuropsychological outcome in microsurgical cerebral revascularization. invited address, Edmonton, Alberta, October.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, K.M., Brown, G.G., Shatz, M.W., Baird, A.D., Diaz, F. and Ausman, J.I. (1984). Neuropsychological outcome. In. R.R. Smith (Ed.) Stroke and the extracranial vessels. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, M.P. and Freedman, M. (1984). Amnesia after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. Neurology, 34, 752–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, M.P. and Schmitt, M.A. (1980). The aphasia syndrome of stroke in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. Archives of Neurology, 37, 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Asken, M.J. and Hobson, R.W. (1977). Intellectual change and carotid endarterectomy; subjective speculation or objective reality: a review. Journal of Surgical Research, 23, 367–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baird, A.D., Adams, K.M., Shatz, M.W., Brown, G.G., Diaz, F. and Ausman, J.I. (1984). Can neuropsychological tests detect the sites of cerebrovascular stenoses and occlusions? Neurosurgery, 14, 416–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baird, A.D., Bouloz, R., Mehta, B., Adams, K.M., Shatz, M.W., Ausman, J.I., Diaz, F., and Dujovny M. (1985). Cerebral angiography and neuropsychological measurement: The twain may meet. Surgical Neurology, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, G.B. and Dewhurst, W.G. (1985). Biochemical theories of Affective disorders. In. W.G. Dewhurst and G.B. Baker (Eds.) Pharmacotherapy of affective disorders: theory and practice. London; Croom Helm Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Baker, W.H., Dorner, D.B. and Barnes, R.W. (1977). Carotid endarterectomy: is an indwelling shunt necessary? Surgery, 82, 321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benson, D.F. (1973). Psychiatric aspects of aphasia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 123: 555–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benton, A.L. (Ed.) (1970). Behavioral change in cerebrovascular disease. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  13. Berger, P.A., Faull, K.F., Kilkowski, J., Anderson, P. J., Kraemer, H., Davis, K.L. and Barchas, J.D. (1980). CSF monoamine metabolites in depression and schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 174–180.Google Scholar
  14. Berlene, N. (1972). Confabulation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Binder, L.M. (1983). The effects of cerebrovascular surgery on behavior: what has been demonstrated? Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 31, 145–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Binder, L.M. (1984). Emotional problems after stroke. Stroke, 15, 174–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Binder, L.M., Tanabe, C.T., Waller, F.T. and Wooster, N.E. (1982). Behavioral effects of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass surgery: preliminary report. Neurology, 32, 422–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Black, F.W. (1975). Unilateral brain lesions and MMP1 performance: a preliminary study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bleuler, E.P. (1951). Textbook of psychiatry. New York: Dover Press, pp 230–242.Google Scholar
  20. Bornstein, R.A. (1984). Neuropsychological performance in Moya Moya disease: a case report. International Journal of Neuroscience, 25.Google Scholar
  21. Bornstein, R.A., Benoit, B.G. and Trites, R.A. (1981). Neuropsychological changes following carotid endarterectomy. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 8, 127–132, (A).Google Scholar
  22. Bornstein, R.A., Menon, D., York, E., Sproulel, B. and Zak, C. (1980). Effects of venesection on cerebral functionl in chronic lung disease. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 7, 293–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bornstein, R.A., Trites, R.L., and Benoit, B.G. (1981). Effects of medical risk factors on extent of improvement following carotid endarterectomy. presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Atlanta, ( B).Google Scholar
  24. Boysen, G., Hemmingsen, R., Mejsholm, B., Vorstrup, S., Lassen, N.A., Lester, J. and Engell, H.C. (1983). Cerebral blood flow and intellectual function before and after carotid endarterectomy. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 3, (suppl 1) 272–273.Google Scholar
  25. Brice, J., Dousett, D. and Lowe, R. (1964). Hemodynamic effects of carotid artery stenosis. British Medical Journal, 2, 1363–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brinkman, S.D., Braun, P., Ganji, S., Morell, R.M. and Jacobs, L.A. (1984). Neuropsychological performance one week after carotid endarterectomy reflects intra-operative ischemia. Stroke, 15, 497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bryden, M.P. and Ley, R.G. (1983). Right hemispheric involvement in the perception and expression of emotion in normal humans. In K.M. Heilman and P. Satz (Eds.) Neuropsychology of human emotion, New York: Guilford Press, pp 1–44.Google Scholar
  28. Casey, J.E., Kimura, D., Ferguson, G.G., and Hachinski, V.C. (1984). Neuropsychological changes in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy without a shunt. Presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Houston.Google Scholar
  29. Charatan, F.B. and Fisk, A. (1978). The mental and emotional reults of strokes. New York State Journal of Medicine, 78, 1403–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Crews, F.T. and Smith, C.B. (1976). Presynaptic alpha-receptor subsensitivity after long term antidepressant treatment. Science, 202, 322–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crowell, R.M. and Morawetz, R.B. (1977). The anterior communicating artery has significant branches. Stroke, 8, 272–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cushman, L., Brinkman, S.D., Ganji, S. and Jacobs, L.A. (1984). Neuropsychological impairment after carotid endarterectomy correlates with intraoperative ischemia. Cortex, 20, 403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Debakey, M.E. (1965). Discussion of Lyon’s paper. In. C.H. Millikan, R.G. Siekert, and J. P. Whisnant (Eds.) Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Fourth Conference, New York: Grune and Stratton, pp 235–237.Google Scholar
  34. Delaney, R.C., Wallace, J.D. and Egelko, S. (1980). Transient cerebral ischemic attacks and neuropsychological deficit. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Diener, H.C., Hamster, W. and Seboldt, H. (1984). Neuropsychological functions after carotid endarterectomy. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 234, 74–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dikmen, S. and Reitan, R.M. (1974). Minnesota Multiphasic personality Inventory correlates of dysphasic language disturbances. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 675–679. (a)Google Scholar
  37. Dikmen, S. and Reitan, R.M. (1974). MMPI correlates of localized cerebral lesions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39, 831–840. (b)Google Scholar
  38. Dikmen, S. and Reitan, R.M. (1977). MMPI correlates of adaptive ability deficits in patients with brain lesions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165, 247–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doehring, D.G. and Reitan, R.M. (1960). MMPI performance of aphasic and nonaphasic brain damaged patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 307–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Drake, W.E., Baker, M., Blumenkrantz and Dahlgren, H. (1968). The quality and duration of survival in bilateral carotid occlusive disease: a preliminary survey of the effects of thromboendarterectomy. In. J. Toole, R. Siechert and J. Whisnat (Eds.) Cerebral Vascualar Disease. New York: Grune and Straton, pp 242–259.Google Scholar
  41. Duke, R.B., Bloo. r, B.M., Nugent, G.R. and Majzoub, H.S. (1968). Changes in performance on WAIS, trail making test and finger tapping test associated with carotid artery surgery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 26, 399–404.Google Scholar
  42. Dull, R.A., Brown, G.G., Adams, K.M., Shatz, M.W., Diaz, F.G. and Ausman, J.I. (1982). Preoperative neurobehavioral impairment in cerebral revascularization candidates. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 151–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunker, R.O. and Harris, B. (1976). Surgical anatomy of the proximal anterior cerebral artery. Journal of Neurosurgery, 44, 359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eastcott, H.H.G., Pickering, G.W.J, and Rob, G.C. (1954). Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of hemiplegia. Lancet, 2, 994–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Engell, H.C., Boysen, G., Ladegaard-Pedersen, H.J. and Henriksen, H. (1972). Cerebral blood flow before and after carotid endarterectomy. Vascular Surgery, 6, 14–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Feibel, J.H., Berk, S. and Joynt, R.J. (1979). The unmet needs of stroke survivors. Neurology, 29, 592.Google Scholar
  47. Finklestein, S., Benowitz, L.I., Baldessarini, R.J., Hrana, G.W., Levine, D., Woo, E., Bear, D., Moya, K. and Stoll, A.L. (1982), Mood, vegetative disturbance and dexamethasone suppression test after stroke. Annals of Neurology, 12, 463–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fischer, M. (1951). Senile dementia - a new explanation of its causation. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 65, 1–7.Google Scholar
  49. Folstein, M.F., Maiberger, R. and McHugh, P.R. (1977). Mood disorder as a specific complication of stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 40, 1018–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fraser, P., Lane, B., Knight, D.K. and Walker, M.G. (1983). Cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy. British Journal of Surgery, 70, 388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gade, A. (1982). Amnesia after operations on aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Surgical Neurology, 18, 46–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gainotti, G. (1972). Emotional behavior and hemispheric side of the lesion. Cortex, 8, 41–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gamache, M.P., Parker, J.C., Seidenberg, M., Snell, D., and Smarr, K. (1984). Arteriographic, neurological and medical predictors of neuropsychological performance in carotid disease patients, presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Houston.Google Scholar
  54. Gasparrini, W.G., Satz, P., Heilman, K.M., and Coolidge, F.L. (1978). Hemispheric asymmetries of affective processing as determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 41, 470–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Glick, S.D., Ross, D.A. and Hough, L.B. (1982). Lateral asymmetry of neurotransmitters in human brain. Brain Research, 234, 53–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldstein, K. (1939). The organism: a holistic approach to biology derived from pathological data in man. New York: American Book.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Goldstein, K. (1948). Language and language disturbances. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  58. Goldstein S.G., Kleinknecht, R.A. and Gallo, A.E. (1970). Neuropsychological changes associated with carotid endarterectomy. Cortex, 6, 308–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gottfries, C.G., Perris, C. and Roos, B.E. (1974). Visual averaged evoked responses (AER) and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, suppl. 255, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gresham, G.E., Phillips, T.F., Wolf, P.A., McNamara, P.M., Kannel, W.B. and Dawber, T.R. (1979). Epidemiologic profile of long-term stroke disability: the Framingham study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 60, 487–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gur, R.E., Gur, R.C., Skolnick, B.E., Gordon, J., Burke, A., Hurtig, H., Pistone, L. and Reivich, M. (1984). Neuropsychological findings before and after bypass surgery in patients with transient ischemia attacks ( TIA), presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Houston.Google Scholar
  62. Hamster, W. and Diener, H.C. (1984). Neuropsychological changes associated with stenoses or occlusions of the cartoid arteries. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 234, 69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hartunian, N.S., Smart, C.N., and Thompson, M.S. (1980). Incidence and economic costs of cancer, motor vehicle injuries, coronary heart disease, and stroke: a comparative analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 70, 1249–1260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Haynes, C.D., Gideon, D.A., King, G.D. and Dempsey, R.L. (1976). The improvement of cognition and personality after carotid endarterectomy. Surgery, 80, 699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hays, R.J., Levinson, S.A. and Wylie, E.J. (1972). Intraoperative measurement of carotid back pressure as a guide to operative management for carotid endarterectomy. Surgery, 72, 953–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Heilman, K.M. (1974). Neuropsychologic changes in the stroke patient. Geriatrics, 29, 153–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Heilman, K.M., Watson, R.T. and Bowers, D. (1983). Affective disorders associated with hemispheric disease. In K.M. Herlman and P. Satz (Eds.) Neuropsychology of human emotion. New York: Guilford Press, pp 45–64.Google Scholar
  68. Hemmingsen, R., Mejsholm, B., Boysen, G. and Engell, H.C. (1982). Intellectual function in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) or minor stroke, long-term improvement after carotid endarterectomy. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66Google Scholar
  69. Herrschaft, H., Duus, P., Gleim, F. and Ungeheuer, E. (1975). Preoperative and postoperative cerebral blood flow in patients with carotid artery stenoses. In T.W. Langfitt, L.C. McHenry, M. Reivich & H. Wallman (Eds) Cerebral circulation and metabolism. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp 276–282.Google Scholar
  70. Holbach, K.H., Wassman, H., Bodosi, M. and Bonatelli, A.P. (1977). Superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery anastamosis for internal carotid occlusion. Acta Neurochi urgica, 37, 201–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hori, S. and Suzuki, J., (1979). Early and late results of intracranial direct surgery of anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Journal of Neurosurgery, 50, 433–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Home, D.J. and Royle, J.P. (1974). Cognitive changes after carotid endarterectomy. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 316–318.Google Scholar
  73. Jacques, A. and Garner, J. (1976). Reversal of aphasia with superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastamosis. Surgical Neurology, 5, 143–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacobs, L.A., Ganji, S., Shirley, J.G., Morell, R.M. and Brinkman, S.D. (1983). Cognitive improvement after extracranial reconstruction for the low flow-endangered brain. Surgery, 93, 683–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kapur, N. and Coughlan, A.K. (1980). Confabulation and frontal lobe dysfunction. (1980). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 43, 461–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kelly, M.P. (1983). Carotid artery disease, carotid endarterectomy and behavior: a critical appraisal. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 31, 137–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kelly, M.P., Garron, D.C. and Javid, H. (1980). Carotid artery disease, carotid endarterectomy, and behavior. Archives of Neurology, 37, 743–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kincannon, J.C. (1968). Prediction of the standard MMPI scale scores from 71 items: the mini-mult. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kraepelin, E. (1915). Psychiatrie, ein lehrbuch fur strdierende und artzte. Leipzig 1904. Translated by A.R. Diefendorf as Clinical psychiatry. New York: MacMillan, pp 335–344.Google Scholar
  80. Lindqvist, G. and Norlen, G. (1966). Korsakoff’s syndrome after operation on ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 42, 24–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lipsey, J.R., Robinson, R.G., Pearlson, G.D., Rao, K., and Price, T.R. (1983). Mood change following bilateral hemisphere brain injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 266–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Locksley, H.B. (1966). Report on the cooperative study of intra-cranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorhage. Section V, Part 2: natural history of subarachnoid hemorhage, intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations based on 6368 cases in the cooperative study. Journal of Neurosurgery, 25, 321–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Logue, V., Durward, M., Pratt, R.T.C., Piercy, M. and Nixon, W.L.B. (1968). The quality of survival after rupture of an anterior cerebral aneurysm. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 137–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Maas, J.W. (1979). Neurotransmitters in depression: too much, too little or too unstable. Trends in Neuroscience, 2, 306–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mack, J.L. (1979). The MMP1 and neurological dysfunction. In C.S. Newmark (Ed.), MMPI: current clinical and research trends. New York: Praeger, pp 53–79.Google Scholar
  86. Maeda, S., Okawa, M. and Aiba, T. (1974). Psychiatric symptoms in intracranial arterial aneurysms - before and after surgery and their prognosis at follow-up. Clinical Neurology, 14, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Matarazzo, R.G., Matarazzo, J.D., Gallo, A.E. and Wiens, A.N. (1979). IQ and neuropsychological changes following carotid endarterectomy. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mathew, R.J., Meyer, J.S., Francis, D.J., Semchuk, K.M., Mortel, K. and Claghorn, J.L. (1980). Cerebral blood flow in depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1449–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mayeux, R. (1983). Emotional changes associated with basal ganglia disorders. In K.M. Heilman and P. Satz (Eds.), Neuropsychology of human emotion. New York: Guilford Press, pp 141–164.Google Scholar
  90. Meier, M.J. (1970). Presentation 14. In A.L. Benton (Ed.) Behavioral change in cerebrovascular disease. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  91. Norlen, G. (1968). Aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Progress in Brain Research, 30, 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Norlen, G. and Olivecrona, H. (1953). The treatment of aneurysms of the circle of Willis. Journal of Neurosurgery, 10, 404–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nystrom, S.H.M. (1973). Psychodynamics in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study based on 1183 patients. Helsinki: TA Sahalan Kirjapaino OY.Google Scholar
  94. Okawa, K., Maeda, S., Nukui, H. and Kawafuchi, J. (1980). Psychiatric symptoms in ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms: social prognosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 306–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oke, A., Keller, R., Mefford, I. and Adams, R.V. (1978). Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus. Science, 200, 1411–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Owens, M., Pressman, M., Edwards, A.E., Tourtellotte, W., Rose, J.G., Stern, D., Peters, G., Stabile, B.E., and Wilson, S.E. (1980). The effect of small infarcts and carotid endarterectomy on postoperative psychologic test performance. Journal of Surgical Research, 28, 209–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Parker, J.C., Granberg, B.W., Nichols, W.K., James, J.G. and Hewlett, J.E. (1983). Mental status outcomes following carotid endarterectomy: a six month analysis. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 345–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Parker, J.C., Seidenberg, M., Granberg, B.W., Nichols, W.K., Crum, B.S., and Hewlett, J.E. (1984). The interactive effects of carotid stenosis and heart disease on neuropsychological performance. Presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Houston.Google Scholar
  99. Parker, J.C., Smarr, K.L., Gamache, M., Snell, D., Hewlett, J.E. and Seidenberg, M. (1984). Neuropsychological outcomes following carotid endarterectomy: a two year analysis. Presented at International Neuropsychological Society, Houston.Google Scholar
  100. Peerless, S.J., Chater, N.L. and Ferguson, G.F. (1977). Multiple vessel occlusion in cerebrovascular disease - a further follow-up of the effects of bypass surgery on the quality of life and the incidence of stroke. In P. Schmiedek (Ed.) Microsurgery for stroke. New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 251–259.Google Scholar
  101. Perlmutter, D. and Rhoton, A.L. (1976). Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral-anterior communicating-recurrent artery complex. Journal of Neurosurgery. 45, 259–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Perrone, P., Candelise, L., Scotti, G., De Grandi, C. and Scialfa, G. (1979). CT evaluation in patients with transient ischemic attack. European Neurology, 18, 217–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Perry, P.M., Drinkwater, J.E. and Taylor, G.W. (1975). Cerebral function before and after carotid endarterectomy. British Medical Journal, 4, 215–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Phelps, M.E., Mazziotta, J.C., Baxter, L. and Gerner, R. (1984). Positron emission tomographic study of affective disorders: problems and strategies. Annals of Neurology, 15 (suppl), 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ponsford, J.L., Donnan, G.A. and Walsh, K.W. (1980). Disorders of memory in vertebrobasilar disease. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2, 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reitan, R.M. (1964). Psychological deficits resulting from cerebral lesions in man. In. J.M. Warren and K.A. Akert (Eds.) The frontal granular cortex and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  107. Reitan, R.M. (1970). Presentation 15. In. A.L. Benton (Ed.) Behavioral change in cerebrovascular disease. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  108. Reitan, R.M. and Fitzhugh, K.B. (1971). Behavioral deficits in groups with cerebral vascular lesions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Robinson, R.G. (1979). Differential behavioral and biochemical effects of right and left hemispheric cerebral infarction in the rat. Science, 205, 707–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Robinson, R.G. and Benson, D.F. (1981). Depression in aphasic patients: frequency, severity and clinical-pathological correlations. Brain and Language, 14, 282–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Robinson, R.G., Kubos, K.L., Starr, L.B., Rao, K. and Price, T.R. (1984). Mood disorders in stroke patients importance of location of lesion. Brain, 107, 81–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Robinson, R.G. and Price, T.R. (1982). Post-stroke depressive disorders: a follow-up study of 103 patients. Stroke, 13, 635–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Robinson, R.G., Starr, L.B., Kubos, K.L. and Price, T.R. (1983). A two year longitudinal study of post-stroke mood disorders: findings during the initial evaluation. Stroke, 14, 736–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Robinson, R.G., Starr, L.B., Lipsey, J.R., Rao, K. and Price, T.R. (1984). A two year longitudinal study of post-stroke mood disorders: dynamic changes in associated variables over the first six months of follow-up. Stroke, 15, 510–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Robinson, R.G., Starr, L.B. and Price, T.R. (1984). A two year longitudinal study of mood disorders following stroke: prevalence and duration at six months follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 256–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Robinson, R.G. and Szetela, B. (1981). Mood change following left hemispheric brain injury. Annals of Neurology, 9, 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ross, E.D. and Rush, A.J. (1981). Diagnosis and neuroanatomical correlates of depression in brain damaged patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1344–1354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schildkraut, J.J. (1965). The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of supporting evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 509–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Seidenberg, M., Parker, J.C., Nichols, W. K., Davenport, J. and Hewett, J.E. (in press). Carotid stenosis and atherosclerotic heart disease: interactive effects on cognitive status. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology.Google Scholar
  120. Sengupta, R.P., Chiu, J.S.P., Brierley, H. (1975). Quality of survival following direct surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Journal of Neurosurgery, 43, 58–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shatz, M.W. (1983). Methodological issues in studying treatment effects in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 31, 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Shatz, M.W., Schwartz, M., Robbins, R., Whitman, D. and Lenaghan, R. (1979). Carotid endarterectomy: changes in higher cortical functions at one and a half year postoperative follow-up. Presented at International Neuropsychological Society, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Spitzer, R.J., Endicott, J. and Robins, E. (1975). Research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for a group of functional disorders. New York: Biometrics Research Division, New York Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  124. Stuss, D.T., Alexander, M.P., Lieberman, A., and Levine, H. (1978). An extraordinary form of confabulation. Neurology, 28, 1166–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sundt, T.M., Sharbrough, F.W., Anderson, R.E., and Michenfelder, J.D. (1974). Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalograms during carotid endarterectomy. Journal of Neurosurgery, 41, 310–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Takaku, A., Tanaka, S., Mori, T. and Suzuki, J. (1979). Postoperative complications in 1,000 cases of intracranial aneurysms. Surgical Neurology, 12, 137–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Talland, G.A., Sweet, W.H. and Ballantine, H.T. (1967). Amnesic syndrome with anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 145, 179–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thompson, J.E. (1978). Carotid endarterectomy. In J.S. Najarian and J.P. Delaney (Eds.) Vascular surgery. New York: Stratton.Google Scholar
  129. van Pragg, H.M., Korf, J. and Schut, T. (1973). Cerebral monoamines and depression, an investigation with the probenecid technique. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 827–831.Google Scholar
  130. Volpe, B.T., Herscovitch, P. and Raichle, M.E. (1984). Position emission tomography defines metabolic abnormality in mesial temporal lobes of two patients with amnesia after rupture and repair of anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Neurology, 34 (suppl.), 188.Google Scholar
  131. Vorstrup, S., Hemmingsen, R., Henriksen, L., Lindewald, H., Boysen, G., Paulson, O.B. and Lassen, N.A. (1983). Cerebral blood flow in patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA) studied with Xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography before and after reconstructive vascular surgery. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 3 (suppl), 592–593.Google Scholar
  132. Whitten, R.H., Gee, W., Kaupp, H.A. and McDonald, K.M. (1981). Extracranial surgery for low flow endangered brain. Archives of Surgery, 116, 1165–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Williams, M. and McGee, T.F. (1964). Psychological study of carotid occlusion and endarterectomy. Archives of Neurology, 10, 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wilner, P. (1983). Dopamine and depression: a review of recent evidence. I. empirical studies. Brain Research Reviews, 6, 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wilner, P. (1983). Dopamine and depression: a review of recent evidence. II. theoretical approaches. Brain Research Reviews, 6, 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wilner, P. (1983). Dopamine and depression: a review of recent evidence. III. the effects of antidepressant treatments. Brain Research Reviews, 6, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wolf P., Dawber, T., Thomas, H., Colton, T. and Kannel, W. (1977). Epidemiology of stroke. Advances in Neurology, 16, 5–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wylie, C. (1972). Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease. In. P. Vinken and G. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology, volume 11. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  139. Yasargil, M.G., Fox, J.L. and Ray M.W. (1975). The operative approach to aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. In H. Krayenbuhl (Ed.) Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery. New York: Springer Verlag, vol. 2, pp. 115–128.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Bornstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryOhio State University College of MedicineColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations